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Addison's Disease Etiology Research Paper

… The clinical manifestations are subtle (weakness, fatigue, anorexia, orthostasis, nausea, myalgias, and salt craving), and a high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose adrenal insufficiency before an adrenal crisis. Screening patients with type 1A diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, and polyendocrine autoimmunity for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies is recommended. If present, yearly monitoring with an ACTH stimulation test is performed to allow early diagnosis and prevent an adrenal crisis. Forty percent to 50% of patients with Addison disease will have another autoimmune disease, necessitating lifelong monitoring for associated autoimmune conditions.

Treatment/Medications

Patients with Addison's disease require mineralocorticoid replacement, i.e., fludrocortisone 0.05-0.20 mg once daily. Starting doses of glucocorticoids should be 15-20 mg for hydrocortisone or 20-30 mg for cortisone acetate, divided into two or three doses, and preferentially weight-adjusted.…. [read more]


Addison's Disease Research Paper

… Addison's disease is basically an endocrine disorder in which the normal functioning of the adrenalin gland is seriously affected. This disorder affects 1 in 100,000 people and occurs equally among men and women and across different age groups. [NIDDK] Among the important functions of the adrenal gland is the secretion of Cortisol and Aldosterone, two important hormones that are essential to regulate blood pressure, cardiovascular function, inflammatory response, as well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism of the body. Aldosterone belongs to a class of hormones known as mineralocorticoids and plays a big role in maintaining the potassium sodium balance in the body. This salt balance is critical to maintain healthy blood pressure. Since the kidneys require aldosterone for sodium absorption and potassium excretion aldosterone insufficiency…. [read more]


Diseases West Nile Virus, Malaria Term Paper

… During these outbreaks, hungry infected fleas that have lost their normal hosts seek other sources of blood..." ("Plague," 2004). The first sign of plague is a hot, swollen, and painful lymph node called a "bubo." The swollen node is often accompanied by fever, headache, and exhaustion. These symptoms usually begin about two to six days after the person is exposed ("Plague," 2004). The impact on the health of the individual can be fatal if the disease is not treated in time. In addition, the patient must be isolated because the disease is so contagious, and this adds to the impact on the patient and the family. Luckily, the plague is not nearly as common as it was in earlier centuries. However, plague still exists in…. [read more]


Alzheimer's Disease According to the American Term Paper

… ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE

According to the American Alzheimer's Association, Alzheimer's is a progressive and fatal brain disease which currently affects more than five million Americans and as a disease "destroys brain cells, causing problems with memory, thinking and behavior" and can negatively affect a person's overall lifestyle and social life. Alzheimer's is also the most common form of dementia, known in the past as senile dementia or common senility, and currently, no cure is known, yet researchers have managed to come up with treatments for the symptoms of Alzheimer's which can extend a person's life by many years if treatment is done early ("What Is Alzheimer's?" 2008, Internet).

DESCRIPTION of the DISEASE:

As to the disease of Alzheimer's as it relates to physiology and biology, the…. [read more]


Autoimmunity the Immune System Research Paper

… Fortunately, now the cause is known and this information has been verified by several researchers, moreover, the rate of healing of RA this scheme is between 78 and 95%. There are several kinds of joint diseases; the three most prominent are the Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and Gouty Arthritis. At least 13,000,000 people suffer from RA in the United States (Munz, Lunemann, Getts, Miller, 2009).The name of the disorder refers to a large group of diseases associated with damage to connective tissue rich in collagen. So far RA has had no solution but peculiarly since 1964 a researcher in England has clarified this issue and has implemented a treatment and in 80% of cases the patient has been cured. Their findings have been widely documented and…. [read more]


Celiac Disease Term Paper

… Nutrition

Celiac Disease

What can you find out about the digestive system and nutrition?

The precise cause of celiac disease has still yet to be determined. The intestines contain projections which are known as villi. The function of villi is to take up nutrients. When celiac disease is not diagnosed or left untouched, these villi become compressed. This has an effect on the capability to absorb nutrients correctly. Taking away all harmful grains from one's diet is the greatest significant measure that one can do in order to get healthy and stay that way (Celiac disease -- sprue, 2010).

What can you learn about Celiac Disease?

Celiac disease is an ailment of the digestive system that harms the small intestine and hinders the uptake of…. [read more]


Atherosclerosis and Gender Essay

… There is statistical evidence of this prejudice: more likely to be prescribed statins than women, despite the fact that the drugs are considered equally effective for both genders (Ricciotti 2003).

The risks which make one more prone to atherosclerosis are similar for women as they are for men: a poor diet, lack of exercise, and genetic susceptibility. But heart attacks are more deadly in women than men: a woman is 50% more likely to die during heart surgery than a man. This may be due to the greater 'subtlety' of signs that cause them to be missed, despite the fact that women are more likely to go to the doctor than men for regular check-ups. But it could also be due to "fundamental difference" in…. [read more]


Endocrine System to Include Dwarfism Gigantism and Addison's Disease Book Report

… Diseases

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system comprises eight chief glands all through the body. These glands produce hormones. Hormones are chemical couriers. They move through the bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work gradually and influence body processes from head to toe. These include:

Growth and advance

Metabolism including digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and sustaining body temperature

Sexual function

Reproduction

Mood

If ones hormone levels are too high or too low, they may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also take place if the body does not react to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and alterations in ones blood's fluid and electrolyte equilibrium can also influence hormone levels (Endocrine Diseases, 2011).

The glands of the endocrine system and the…. [read more]


Healthy Individual Is Infected Essay

… The mechanism of the antimuscarinic drug is that it decreases the urgency to increase bladder capacity. The role of the nurse educator is to assist the health specialists in carrying out the treatments. Moreover, the nurse educator roles are to educate patients on the appropriate method to take medication.

9.

Pellati Mylonakis, Bertoloni, et al., (2008) reveal that infertility is a disease that affects reproductive system, which impairs ability to perform essential function of reproduction. Typically, obstruction of male or female genital tract can cause infertility. The alteration of genital tract occurs when there is a partial or total blocking of free flow of seminal fluid. Some of the abnormalities may be present at birth or due to unrogenital tract. Other factor leading the defective…. [read more]


Patient Is a 35-Year-Old (Male?) Term Paper

… Around 3-4 glucose tablets should regulate his blood sugar level. The disease had caused him kidney failure and the loss of an eye as well as surgery on the other eye. He lost his left eye during the time when he was receiving chemotherapy for leukemia which he was diagnosed with at the age of 24. He states that it was because of his diabetes that the had developed leukemia, however did not go into much detail after that.

The patient receives dialysis for his failed kidneys. They performed surgery on his forearm and hooked up his artery to a vein. This permits arterial blood flow on the top near his skin. This allows for his skin to be cleansed through a machine. He has…. [read more]


Hyponatremia in a 38-Year-Old Male Case Study

… A possible absence of hyperpigmentation and a normal abdominal CT scan suggests the disease process is still at a relatively early stage in this patient (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002). The finding of normal sized adrenal glands by this imaging method is not uncommon, but as the disease becomes chronic, hyperpigmentation and adrenal atrophy would becomes more apparent in the absence of medical intervention.

References

Al-Aridi, Ribal, Abdelmannan, Dima, and Arafah, Baha M., 2011. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: The added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) measurements. Endocrine Practice, Published online ahead of print December 6, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from http://aace.metapress.com/content/u645qx2217t34124/fulltext.pdf

Andrews, Marcia, Johnson, Peter H., Kothare, Vijay S., and Weinstock, Doris, eds., 1999. Handbook of Diagnostic Tests, 2nd Edition. Springhouse, PA:…. [read more]


Factors That Influence Disease Discussion Chapter

… Atherosclerosis

Factors that influence disease

Factors that influence disease: Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is often defined as the 'hardening' of the arteries. The 'hardening' occurs as plaque creates a coating on the inside arterial war. "Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygen-rich blood to your heart and other parts of your body. Plaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. Over time, plaque hardens and narrows your arteries. This limits the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs and other parts of your body" ("What is atherosclerosis," 2013, NIH). A number of serious conditions are associated with atherosclerosis, including heart attack and strokes.

The causes of atherosclerosis remain a controversial topic of debate in the medical community, although the consensus…. [read more]


History of Polio Term Paper

… Because most cases of polio are asymptomatic, the virus can circulate among a population for some time before it is known that there is polio in the community. While those who exhibit no symptoms may not be aware they are infected, they can still carry and transmit the virus to others, who may then develop symptoms themselves. If a person does develop some sort of symptoms, whether paralytic or not, then at least the period of contagion can be estimated; polio is generally most contagious in the ten days before and after symptoms occur. One in ever 200 polio infections results in a case of paralysis, so polio may circulate in the community for some time before it becomes apparent, for in abortive and non-paralytic…. [read more]


Pigmentation the Problems Relating Term Paper

… The ultraviolet light is absorbed in the affected areas and with fluorescent colors they stand out in the darkened room. To counteract the hyper-pigmentation disorders, there exist skin-lightening gels. (Skin pigmentation disorders)

The hyper-pigmented skin patches tend to be more pronounced when the skin is exposed to the sunlight. The melanin, a pigment of the skin, soaks up the injurious ultraviolet rays of sun with a view to protecting the skin from over exposure. The occurrence of the skin tanning is evident as a consequence of this process, resulting in hyper-pigmented areas to become even darker. The minimization of the exposure to the sunlight assists in helping preventing further deepening of the existing hyper-pigmented patches, as well as the formulation of the new ones. This…. [read more]


Breast Cancer the Amount of Cancer Related Research Proposal

… ¶ … Breast Cancer

The amount of cancer related research is enormous, and for that reason it becomes a matter urgency that literature reviews are conducted to evaluate the thoroughness, and the extent to which research studies are tangential to furthering the learning and study of cancer for physicians, nurses, and other medical personnel. This means that ongoing literature reviews must be conducted to critique and rate the content and usefulness of the research when medical disciplines are looking to further their knowledge and understanding in the diagnosis, treatment, and the search for the cure for cancer.

Using the online library search engine, Questia, and using the keyword: cancer, the search engine yielded 18,188 books; 7,651 journal articles; 7,607 magazine articles; 51,233 newspaper articles; and…. [read more]


Autism: Characteristics, Causes, and Treatments Term Paper

… The presentation of any of these behaviors means that the child in question needs further evaluation by an appropriate team of healthcare professionals with knowledge and background in autism.

Causes of autism

Autism appears to be due to a neurological disorder that impacts normal brain functioning (Autism Society of America, 2003). Earlier, it was speculated that inadequate parenting was a key factor, but this was later proved to be inaccurate (Volkmar & Pauls, 2003). Psychological, biological, environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the presence of autism.

Psychologically, three neurocognitive theories have been posited as part of the cause of autism (Volkmar & Pauls, 2003). One psychological model claims the involvement of deficits in executive functioning skills, which promote the ability to plan, problem-solve,…. [read more]


Pernicious Anemia Essay

… As one gets older their body needs more nutrients, but as their bodily functions reduce there is a likelihood of them not absorbing enough vitamin B12, which can result in the disease.

Strict vegetarians are also prone to pernicious anemia. This is because the primary sources of vitamin B12 are dairy products and meat. A strict vegetarian would therefore, be required to take vitamin B12 supplements to ensure that they have enough vitamin B12 in their body.

Prevention of pernicious anemia

Pernicious anemia that is caused by the lack of intrinsic factor cannot be prevented, but the lack of enough vitamin B12 in the diet can be prevented. The main method of preventing pernicious anemia is regular intake of foods with high vitamin B12 sources…. [read more]


Colonial Period in America Essay

… Colonial Period in America

What factors during the Colonial period hindered or promoted national identity? A what point did nationalism become a major influence -- why?

The national identity of the young nation was formed as time went on and it became clear that the mother country, England, was just not relevant to the needs of the colonists, and in fact the king had become an impediment to the sense of nation for America. In the book Performing Patriotism: National identity in the Colonial and Revolutionary American Theatre, the author, Jason Shaffer, discusses the theatre -- college plays, the occasional street theatre-based protests by the Sons of Liberty, and the "closet dramas" -- during the colonial and Revolutionary periods. Reviewing the book in the peer-reviewed…. [read more]


Risk Management and Analysis Process and Policy Before Technology Research Proposal

… ¶ … released by the FBI and the Computer Security Institute (CSI), over 70% of all attacks on sensitive data and resources reported by organizations occurred from within the organization itself. Implementing an internal security policy appears to be just as important as an external strategy. The objective of this report is to highlight the necessity of internal processes and policy alongside technology when managing and mitigating risk. The author narrates the problems of security from the unseen forces in an individual that influence thought, behavior and personality. Once organizations truly understand the psychology behind the motivations of software engineers and developers, risk analysis and risk management strategies will become more efficient. The research contained in this report establishes that there is some connection between…. [read more]


Jane Austen and Mary Wollstonecraft Term Paper

… Critics have seen Fanny as passive, uninteresting, ugly and morally debasing-everything in fact that undermined the concept of women at the time. This objection to Fanny's physical beauty then coincides with the belief that women of the time were objectified as sex symbols and their beauty became the core of their status in society.

Wollstonecraft's "A Vindication Of the Rights of Women," too suggested disgust toward the female body and her use of the disembodied woman as the emblem for the diseased body politic. Mary Wollstonecraft's concept of motherhood as public service in the interest of the republic suggested in her work presented the influence of women to be stronger than that acknowledged by men. As she wrote, "How grossly do they insult us who…. [read more]


Smoking Is a Factor Term Paper

… Teenagers who breathe tobacco smoke generated by family and friends are far more likely to take up smoking themselves. (SWAT, Pg 3)

Certainly there have been many studies linking disease and death to second hand smoke, but what about those who do not make the choice to smoke but are still breathing in nicotine and tobacco smoke. The use of cigarettes by pregnant women can have dire effects on their unborn children.

Carbon monoxide - the same chemical which comes out of an automobile exhaust pipe - and extremely high doses of nicotine interfere with the oxygen supply of the fetus. Studies indicate that nicotine easily penetrates the placenta and becomes concentrated in the fetal blood, amniotic fluid and breast milk. These factors may contribute…. [read more]


Growth Aided by Data Warehousing Term Paper

… This is intended to form one rational conclusion and to also gain benefits from important information regarding the current operation of the organization. (Hackathorn,1995;Wallace,1994a). These current operations can also be contrasted and evaluated in terms of the old existing data, and alongside, predictions as to future operations and about new business procedures can be developed and also new systems can be planned out to sustain these processes. (FairHead, 1995; Hackathorn, 1995; Ricciuti, 1994a; Smith, 1995d; Wallace, 1994a; Weinberg, 1995a).

These date warehouses can also store huge amounts of past data and corporate data that most companies use as potential data for important businesses. (Bull, 1995b; Brown, 1995; Cafasso, 1994d; Eckerson, 1993b; Hackathorn, 1995; Lisker, 1994; Nash, 1995c; Smith, 1995f; Wallace, 1994a). Another advantage of these…. [read more]


Nursing Theory and Leininger Essay

… Regardless of the geographical location of the nurse, Leininger also emphasizes that one needs to think globally, but continue to act locally. Use the care model to provide an effective blend of theory and practice, especially in the new approaches to pain control, child-rearing, and mental health practices (Leininger, 2002). Leininger also wishes to remind us that a larger number of modern medications are directly a result of herbal remedies, many collected through contact with indigenous peoples (Lundberg in Pieroni and Vanderbroek, 2007).

Leininger Cultural Theory into Case Analysis

Clinical Case -- Our clinical setting is the ER of a medium-sized suburban hospital. The patient is a female, 62 years of age, indicating she has pain in her left breast area, which had been present…. [read more]


Nursing Administration Term Paper

… INTEGRATION of PARTICIPATORY DEVELOPMENT and OREM'S SELF-CARE MODEL for ORGANIZATION- and COMMUNITY-WIDE IMPLEMENTATIONS in the AREA SERVED by an OBSTETRICS/GYNECOLOGY CLINIC (a PATIENT-CENTRIC MODEL)

The objective of this work is to examine Orem's Self-Care Model and identify the administrative and issues and problems in this model. This work will design an appropriate nursing management model to include a strategic plan in addressing nursing administrative issues or problems in this model. This strategy will be justified with appropriate concepts, principles and theories of nursing management and the implications of the newly designed model considered.

The work of Donna L. Hartweg entitled: "Dorothea Orem: Self-Care Deficit Theory" states that Orem's self-care model is increasingly used as a framework of practice in specific institutions. This has significant implications…. [read more]


Social Services for Mental Ill and Disease-Stricken Essay

… This is not dissimilar to what can happen with social work professionals who end up experiencing "compassion fatigue" (Bride, Radey & Figley, 2007). That being said, there are some societal or cultural constructs and trends that can influence the path the therapies do or do not take. Examples of this would include race or the patient/client having a partner that is abusive or is himself/herself being abused (Addison,1977; Aymer, 2008; Mattei, 1999; Salvendy, 1999). Any sort of inflated (or deflated) ego or any artificial influence that is not based on reality and/or is coming from an external source can heavily sway the patient's mindset and, by extension, the results of the therapy (Gitterman & Germain, 2008; Goldstein, 1995) However, all it takes to change that…. [read more]


World Poor Thesis

… ¶ … aloud or in writing, making the reflective report exercise a valuable addition to the learning process. This reflective report recounts the events that took place during the research process for the study, "Identifying Marketing Opportunities to Combat Global Poverty," including a recollection of individual experiences, the personal feeling and learning that were experienced, as well as the group dynamics and learning that were derived from the experience. A review of lessons learned that can be used in future projects is followed by a summary of the reflective report entries in the conclusion.

Recollection of Experiences

Perhaps the overriding perception that emerged during the earliest phases of the research process concerned the extent of the problem of global poverty and how it affected the…. [read more]


Bisexuality and Marriage Prejudice Term Paper

… Homosexuality itself may be easy to understand, because it is like heterosexuality in that it is sexual selection based on gender. Homosexuals may be envisioned as by hets as similar to heterosexuals of the other sex. Likewise, homosexuals can understand heterosexuality by empathizing with the opposite gender's feelings. But understanding a mindset where gender is not a major deciding factor may be incomprehensible. Thus bisexuals are seen as confused or in denial, merely because the observers themselves are confused by the bisexual state of mind. Moreover, this confusion leads to very negative stereotypes: "Images of the bisexual as promiscuous, needing multiple relationships in order to feel satisfied, untrustworthy in relationships, or as 'fence-sitters, traitors, cop-outs, closet cases,' reinforce the legitimacy of the heterosexual/homosexual binary and…. [read more]


Nursing and Education Theory Thesis

… NURSING & EDUCATION THEORY

This work intends to examine the 'Transformation Theory' of Jack Mezirow, Margaret Newman's 'Health as Expanded Consciousness' and Patricia Benner's 'Novice to Expert' Theory all of which are applied to senior nursing students & new graduate nurses as they make the transformation to registered nurses. Specifically, this work will:

Describe the main ideas of each theory;

Critique each theory using a specific evaluation rubric;

Answer as to what extent the theory's assumptions are congruent with the values of the vulnerable population (new graduates nurses in their first year of practice) and to what extent has support for the theory been generated with culturally diverse and vulnerable populations in general;

Identify concepts to be included when studying senior nursing student and new…. [read more]


Africa and UN System Term Paper

… Africa and UN system

The United Nations is the result of the universal aspiration for peace and cooperation at the global level. From its inception, it was meant to be a world forum for discussing and resolving the problems facing humanity. Despite this lofty goal, in many occasions throughout its history, the world body failed to deliver on this promise. Many analysts have tried to conclude on a series of general reasons for such a failure. Aside from the universally acknowledged undemocratic decision making system in the Security Council, many have argued that the failure to assist the states in need is the outcome of the continuous lack of attention for the states that are truly in need of assistance and political support. Thus, third…. [read more]


Renaissance the Trend in Medicine Term Paper

… ¶ … Renaissance

The trend in medicine varies accordingly on the each era. Its development was in leaps and bounds as the ruling way of thinking in a specific time period dictates the approach of healers and physicians to diseases and illnesses. The approach in healing a certain disease or condition varies from one epoch to another and mirrors the tradition, culture, mores and belief of a certain point in time. Science played an important role in the evolution of medicine. As advancements occur in the filed of science, so did they in the field of medicine. Medicine and science did not remain stagnant. They evolved, grew, and made great changes to the society and to our history.

The advancements in science and medicine did…. [read more]

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