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Adrenal Gland Term Paper

… Adrenal Gland


The Body Organization

The human body is an organized system, which consists of cells, tissues, organs and organ systems (Degen 2008). A cell is the basic unit of structure and function in every living thing or organism. It performs the basic functions to keep the organism alive. Most cells are microscopic. Each cell is covered by a cell membrane. Inside it is the nucleus, which controls and directs the cell's activities. It also contains all the information on the cell's characteristics. Cells form a tissue to perform the same function. The four basic types of tissue are muscle, nervous, connective and epithelial. Tissues, in turn, form an organ. Every organ performs a specific function, which is often…. [read more]

Major Organ Systems: Pituitary Gland Essay

… Oxytocin

Uterus and breasts

Stimulates contraction of the uterus to assist in childbirth, and increases prostaglandin production, which heighten contractions further; stimulates breasts to produce milk during nursing, and regulates the flow of the produced milk.

Referred to as the 'love hormone' because of its chemical messenger role in promoting human behaviors, including mother-infant bonding, anxiety, trust, recognition, and sexual arousal.

(Source: Turley, 2011; Davies 2007)


Davies, J. (2007). Essentials of Medical Terminology (3rd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.

Turley, S. (2011). Medical Language: Immerse Yourself (2nd ed.).……. [read more]

Biology of the Mind: The Endocrine System Term Paper

… ¶ … Biology of the Mind: The Endocrine System

The biology of the mind is complex, with several different systems impacting how the mind functions. One of those systems is the endocrine system. The endocrine system is made up of hormone-producing and secreting glands. Hormones are "chemical substances produced in the body that regulate the activity of cells or organs (Reiser and Kemp, p.1). Hormones are responsible for controlling a number of the body's activities, including growth, sexual development, sexual function, and reproduction. The glands release hormones into the bloodstream, where the hormones then interact with one or more organs to impact body functioning.

I chose the endocrine system because I believe it is one of the more overlooked systems in the body. Given that…. [read more]

Hyponatremia in a 38-Year-Old Male Case Study

… A possible absence of hyperpigmentation and a normal abdominal CT scan suggests the disease process is still at a relatively early stage in this patient (Betterle, Pra, Mantero, and Zanchetta, 2002). The finding of normal sized adrenal glands by this imaging method is not uncommon, but as the disease becomes chronic, hyperpigmentation and adrenal atrophy would becomes more apparent in the absence of medical intervention.


Al-Aridi, Ribal, Abdelmannan, Dima, and Arafah, Baha M., 2011. Biochemical diagnosis of adrenal insufficiency: The added value of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) measurements. Endocrine Practice, Published online ahead of print December 6, 2010. Retrieved March 25, 2011 from

Andrews, Marcia, Johnson, Peter H., Kothare, Vijay S., and Weinstock, Doris, eds., 1999. Handbook of Diagnostic Tests, 2nd Edition. Springhouse, PA:…. [read more]

Osmoregulation Endocrines Essay

… Corpus cells of stannous works in hand with the pituitary gland to maintain standard levels of calcium required by the fish. The gills also aid in excretion of excess water and salt of the fish. In salty water, the fish adapts in a way that the gills and membrane consist of several chloride cells rich in mitochondrion on the gills surface and membrane, that aid in the constant diffusion of salt into the fish's blood stream to maintain the salt balance. Pituitary glands produce prolactin that aids in the control of ions present on gills of the fish. Arginine vasotocin triggers the production of hormone that regulates ion diffusion onto the fish body via the gills and restricts its circulation.

Bull sharks do not easily…. [read more]

Nervous System Essay


Northern Virginia Community College (n.d.), Chapter 49 -- Sensory Receptors, Northern

Virginia Community College, viewed 27 May 2012,

Oracle ThinkQuest (n.d.), Sensory Receptors, ThinkQuest Education Foundation, viewed 27

May 2012,

Oracle ThinkQuest (n.d.), The Endocrine System, ThinkQuest Education Foundation, viewed 27

May 2012,

Paul, I (n.d.), Blood Sugar Regulation, Biology Reference, viewed 27 May 2012,

E…. [read more]

Endocrine System "A Significant Proportion of Hypothyroid Thesis

… Endocrine System

"A significant proportion of hypothyroid individuals do not have symptoms and this is where screening with a blood test is important.

…Tthe doctor will measure is the blood level of TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone),

which will be high in this situation"

(Hyperthyroidism, N.d., ¶ 5).

Case History

A 30-year-old male demonstrated a subtle onset of the fallowing symptoms:

Dull facial expression;

droopy eyelids;

puffiness of the face and periorbital swelling;


dry hair;

dry scaly skin;

evidence of intellectual impairment;


a change of personality;

bradycardia (60 b/min);

a blood pressure of 90/70;

anemia (hematocrit 27);

enlarged heart (upon radiological exam); constipation, and hypothermia.

Plasma concentrations of total and free T4 and T3 follow:

Free, Radioimmunoassay (RIA) of peripheral blood indicates elevated THS…. [read more]

Functional Relationship of the Pns Term Paper

… The size of the receptive field dictates how detailed the received information will be; the smaller a receptive field is, the more detailed the information.

6. Use a specific example to briefly explain how our bodies might use sensory adaptation in response to an environmental stimulus.

The first thing that comes to mind is having a fan or space heater on at night. One turns the thing on and can hear it spinning, or making heat, but after a few minutes we cannot hear it anymore and fall asleep.

7. Compare and contrast the terms ganglia and nuclei as they relate to the nervous system.

Ganglia are clusters of neurons in the spinal cord and peripheral nervous system. Nuclei are complex structures of neurons in…. [read more]

Endocrine System to Include Dwarfism Gigantism and Addison's Disease Book Report

… Diseases

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system comprises eight chief glands all through the body. These glands produce hormones. Hormones are chemical couriers. They move through the bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work gradually and influence body processes from head to toe. These include:

Growth and advance

Metabolism including digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and sustaining body temperature

Sexual function



If ones hormone levels are too high or too low, they may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also take place if the body does not react to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and alterations in ones blood's fluid and electrolyte equilibrium can also influence hormone levels (Endocrine Diseases, 2011).

The glands of the endocrine system and the…. [read more]

Addison's Disease Research Paper

… Addison's disease is basically an endocrine disorder in which the normal functioning of the adrenalin gland is seriously affected. This disorder affects 1 in 100,000 people and occurs equally among men and women and across different age groups. [NIDDK] Among the important functions of the adrenal gland is the secretion of Cortisol and Aldosterone, two important hormones that are essential to regulate blood pressure, cardiovascular function, inflammatory response, as well as protein and carbohydrate metabolism of the body. Aldosterone belongs to a class of hormones known as mineralocorticoids and plays a big role in maintaining the potassium sodium balance in the body. This salt balance is critical to maintain healthy blood pressure. Since the kidneys require aldosterone for sodium absorption and potassium excretion aldosterone insufficiency…. [read more]

Addison's Disease Etiology Research Paper

… The clinical manifestations are subtle (weakness, fatigue, anorexia, orthostasis, nausea, myalgias, and salt craving), and a high index of suspicion is necessary to diagnose adrenal insufficiency before an adrenal crisis. Screening patients with type 1A diabetes, hypoparathyroidism, and polyendocrine autoimmunity for 21-hydroxylase autoantibodies is recommended. If present, yearly monitoring with an ACTH stimulation test is performed to allow early diagnosis and prevent an adrenal crisis. Forty percent to 50% of patients with Addison disease will have another autoimmune disease, necessitating lifelong monitoring for associated autoimmune conditions.


Patients with Addison's disease require mineralocorticoid replacement, i.e., fludrocortisone 0.05-0.20 mg once daily. Starting doses of glucocorticoids should be 15-20 mg for hydrocortisone or 20-30 mg for cortisone acetate, divided into two or three doses, and preferentially weight-adjusted.…. [read more]

Cushing's Disease Term Paper

… Radiation treatments may occur after surgery (or if surgery cannot be performed), as well as the prescription of medicines that are "cortisone-like" for several months following the tumor removal (Kirk, 1134).

Cushing's syndrome is not so easily remedied, if the illness for which the steroids are being used is severe enough to cause than the Cushing's syndrome itself. If the medicines are stopped, the body will return to its normal condition. In these extreme cases, the syndrome is managed through diet and medications (for high blood sugar), replacement of potassium, treatment of the high blood pressure, increased calcium intake, as well as adjusting the steroid intake during severe illnesses, any surgical procedures, or injuries (Margulies).

The life of someone with either Cushing's disease or Cushing's…. [read more]

Healthy Individual Is Infected Essay

… The mechanism of the antimuscarinic drug is that it decreases the urgency to increase bladder capacity. The role of the nurse educator is to assist the health specialists in carrying out the treatments. Moreover, the nurse educator roles are to educate patients on the appropriate method to take medication.


Pellati Mylonakis, Bertoloni, et al., (2008) reveal that infertility is a disease that affects reproductive system, which impairs ability to perform essential function of reproduction. Typically, obstruction of male or female genital tract can cause infertility. The alteration of genital tract occurs when there is a partial or total blocking of free flow of seminal fluid. Some of the abnormalities may be present at birth or due to unrogenital tract. Other factor leading the defective…. [read more]

Effects of Antidepressants on Biochemistry in the Brain Term Paper

… Anti-Depressants -- Brain Chemistry

The Effects Of Anti-depressants

in the human brain


Before commencing on the examination as to how anti-depressants affect brain chemistry, it would be best to first explore the biology of depression itself. As Prentiss Price relates, the "biological causes of clinical depression continue to be studied extensively. Great progress has been made in the understanding of brain function, the influence of neurotransmitters and hormones, and other biological processes, as well as how they may relate to the development of depression" (2004, Internet). With this in mind, it appears that hormones play a crucial role in the creation of depression and how anti-depressants affect the biochemistry of the human brain.

In recent times, numerous studies have shown that…. [read more]

Patient Scenario Components Essay

… He was also given a blood glucose test, a urinary aldosterone and potassium test; a Synachtehn (ACTH) test, and a cortisol test. This was done via drawing blood and collecting a urine sample (Blood and Urine Tests, 2012).

a. Urinary K+ is a spot or 24-hour test to check the levels of potassium in the urine. Potassium is an electrolyte and mineral, helping to keep the amount of water inside and outside cells balanced. Potassium levels often change with sodium levels -- when sodium is up, potassium is down, etc. Potassium levels also indicate how well the kidneys are working, and abnormal potassium may cause cramps, weakness, confusion, nausea, and changes in heart rhythm. For Mr. Smith, it is likely the test was ordered to…. [read more]

Stress on Kidneys and Resistance Essay

… The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)

The GAS is a universal three staged response to stress introduced by Dr. Hans Selye; a very well-known Canadian endocrinologist. It has a colossal impact on the kidneys and the renal system. However, before fully understanding its impact, one must familiarize themselves with the renal system itself.

The Renal System

The renal system, sometimes also referred to as the urinary or the excretory system includes a group of organs that work together to produce, store and release urine. The kidneys located at the back of the abdominal cavity are vital to the proper functioning of the renal system. Some of the main functions carried out by the renal system in a body includes controlling the body's water balance, regulation of…. [read more]

Lifestyle Is Dangerous Term Paper

… In 1990, 1,531 of the 42,557 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, cases reported to CDC occurred among sex partners of IDUs, an increase of roughly 32% from the previous year (Drug pp). According to one study, 25% of the female participants, and 21% of males, reported trading sex for drugs and/or money during the six months prior to the interview (Drug pp). Among the females, 14% reported trading sex for drugs and 24% for money, while 13% of males reported trading sex for drugs and 15% for money (Drug pp). In 1990, approximately two thirds of the females, and half of the males who had contracted AIDS through heterosexual activity had had a sex partner who was an injecting-drug user (Drug pp). Among those individuals interviewed…. [read more]

Rachel Carson, She Asserts Essay

… Her essay reads as if that is her intended audience.

As an example of the rhetoric used by Carson to support her claim she states "Probably the bulk of such contaminants are the waterborne residues of the millions of pounds of agricultural chemicals that have been applied to farmlands for insect or rodent control and have been leached out of the ground by rains to become part of the universal seaward movement of water." Unless Rachel's essay is one of entire opinion (with no facts) the use of words such as 'probably' really should be frowned upon. Other statements presented by Rachel as facts are equally as ludicrous. Another example of such tomfoolery was Rachel's statement 'the pesticides are there, and as might be expected…. [read more]

Pathological Hormonal Imbalance Effects Term Paper

… This results in dysfunctional gonads that are mainly comprised of fibrous tissue.

5. Swyer syndrome (otherwise known as XY gonadal dysgenesis) where the person is externally female with streak gonads and, if not treated, will not expereince puberty. Therpay inlcudes hormone replacement therpay with female hormones.

6. Testicular failure

7. Certain types of Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) where girls are masculinized due to their adrenal glands secreting large amounts of androgen as embryo. Hormone replacement theory or surgery can be performed. CAH sometimes results in Addison's disease

Most of the categories above are connected with infertility or subfertility

Low FSH level, on the other hand, may result in hypogonadism, in simple language known as failure of the gonadal function. This is a condition that exists…. [read more]

Stress Refers to a State of Tension Thesis

… Stress refers to a state of tension that the mind and the body are subjected to in response to real or perceived threats. The term stress was originally coined by the Canadian endocrinologist Hans Selye in 1936, who defined stress as "the non-specific response of the body to any demand for change" [AIS] There is no one single definition for the term and a generally accepted definition of stress is "a condition or feeling experienced when a person perceives that demands exceed the personal and social resources the individual is able to mobilize." [AIS] During his experimental studies on animal subjects, Selye noted that exposing animals to irritant and dangerous physical or chemical stimulus (such as heavy noise, glaring light, etc.) resulted in a common…. [read more]

Structure of the Nervous System Research Paper

… Physiology

Structure of the Nervous System

The Nervous System is the most complex and extremely ordered of the various systems which make up the human body. It is the system concerned with the association and incorporation of a variety of bodily process and the responses and alterations of the organism to its surroundings. The nervous system as a whole comprises the Central Nervous System, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord, and the Peripheral Nervous System, whose nerve fibers bond all parts of the body with the central nervous system. The Peripheral Nervous System is further subdivided into two branches, the Somatic Nervous system and the Autonomic Nervous System. All these nerves are exterior to the Central Nervous System. The Somatic Nervous…. [read more]

Relationship Between Stress and the Human Body Essay

… Stress & the Human Body

I caught common cold after a close friend's death that caused psychological stress to me.

You are more prone to sickness when under stress - at least that is how it appears. Research too is showing this to be true. The body's immune system and the stress system are linked and immune system is vastly affected by stress response. The stress response involves activating many neuroendocrine systems plus the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axes and HPA as well as the sympathetic nervous system. Discussions on the topic of immune system and the neuroendocrine have found that the two utilize certain similar receptors and ligands to support an inter-system and intra-system communication network. It is understood that the communication happening between the systems…. [read more]

Leopold and Loeb Term Paper

… Leopold and Loeb

The murder of fourteen-year-old Bobby Franks and the subsequent arrest and trial of Nathan Leopold and Richard Loeb were heavy on the minds of the public in 1924, as the sensationalism of this extreme case were evident even to those who were closest to it. The rest of the public, in Chicago and elsewhere could rely heavily on exhaustive journalism to give them the information they sought about the events. The manner in which the case was defended was especially important to the world, as this was one of the first such cases where information about the perpetrators was clearly displayed on headlines that always created a desire to read the story. The newspapers and magazines, in fact played out a game…. [read more]

Tumor Protein Indicates Chances Cancer Will Spread Article

… ¶ … Tumor Protein Indicates Chances Cancer Will Spread

In a recent study published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, scientists from the NIH and University of Hong Kong established a definite link between the levels of a particular protein in cancer tumors, and the chances that tumor would spread or metastasize.

The researchers measured the amount of RNA from the protein CPE-delta N, which is normally involved in "processing insulin and other hormones," in tumors removed from cancer surgery patients. They also tested "surrounding tissues" for the protein's RNA. The scientists found that when the CPE-delta N. In a tumor was more than double the amount in surrounding tissues, there was a 90% or more chance the cancer would spread within two years. Conversely,…. [read more]

Cancer Leukemia Term Paper

… ¶ … Cancer

Leukemia is a type of cancer that attacks a person when one's own body in effect turns against him. The body as a normal chain of events produces cells called "lymphocytes" (Cotterill, (,that are supposed to protect the body from infection. But, sometimes these lymphocytes do not mature in a proper manner, and they become too numerous in the body's blood supply and in the bone marrow. When this happens, it is called acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Another kind of leukemia, according to, is acute myeloid leukemia, when the body's stem cells produce white blood cells that are called "myeloid blasts." Whereas normal white blood cells fight infection and disease in the body, myeloid blasts do not mature into fully functional white…. [read more]

Psychoneuroimmunology: Psychological, Behavioral, Endocrine, and Immunology Interaction Term Paper

… Psychoneuroimmunology is relative recent addition to the field of medicine and uses an interdisciplinary approach to study the relationship between a wide range of interlocking and interrelated systems within the body, including, but not limited to one's psychology, the functioning of one's mind according to what is known in the discipline of neuroscience, and the effects of these systems that can be wrecked upon the immune system or else interact with the immune system in sort of a feedback loop. There are man possible definitions of psychoneuroimmunology, which underlies the fact that it is an interdisciplinary field that is evolving across a wide variety of concepts in a fashion that makes its essence difficult to pin down in a short and pith definition:

Various Definitions…. [read more]

How Does the Immune System and Nervous System Interact and Its Relationship to Biopsychology? Research Paper

… Immune Biopsychology

Interactions of the Human Immune System and Nervous System and their Implications on Biopsychology

This paper presents information obtained through a review of current knowledge and literature in the areas of immune system response and general nervous system functioning in the human body, and the interactions and influences that exist between these two systems. A general understanding of the immune system and some of its constituent arts its provided as necessary background information, as is a brief explanation of the nervous system and its functions in the body. A broad understanding of these systems and the mechanisms by which they function provides initial knowledge and a framework for examining the interactions that occur between these two systems and their effects on each other.…. [read more]

Synthroid, Drug Profile Synthroid&reg (Levothyroxine Term Paper

… If a patient switches brands of Synthroid, they must be re-tested and re-evaluated. [Banahan, 1998]

Some vitamins and other medications may either increase the absorption rate or prevent the absorption of Synthroid. The SYNTHROID PI contains the following statement: "The following agents may bind and increase absorption of levothyroxine sodium from the gastrointestinal tract: aluminum hydroxide, cholestyramine resin, colestipol hydrochloride, ferrous sulfate, sodium polystyrene sulfonate, soybean flour (e. g., infant formula), sucralfate" [BASF, 2000]

Many doctors recommend that for best absorption of your thyroid hormone, take it first thing the morning, on an empty stomach, and wait one hour before eating, and at least two hours before taking any vitamin with iron. [BASF, 2000]

Synthroid should not be used for the treatment of obesity, and…. [read more]

How Stress Effects Memory in Adults Research Proposal

… ¶ … Stress effects Memory in Adults

How Stress affects Memory in Adults

Great consensus is formed on effect of stress on memory of adults. Stress is greatly associated to memory functions especially so among adults Nelson & Carver, 2008.

The brain behavior among the adult according to Nelson and Carver (2008)

is related to daily work load undertaken. Sauro, Jorgensen, and Pedlow (2003)

claim that remembering with a degree of accuracy the some events in our personal life come as a difficulty while under stress compared to remembering world events.

Definition of Stress

The best way to appreciate what stress is it to consider the original use of the word stress. In this context we look at the use of the term stress by…. [read more]

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