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Affirmative Action Essay

… In terms of the education institutions, t least, worthy students are at risk of being turned away due to these universities and colleges have to meet the quota of accepting certain minority students. These however may be problematic to the university (in terms of behavior or skills) or may not qualify. Accepting them will mean turning away better qualified (and possibly equally needy) White students. This also is unconstitutional since each individual should be judged on the basis of merit alone. In this way, affirmative action should be hedged with conditions and should probably apply more in some circumstances than others. Certainly, academic institutions should accept individuals of minority race, but they should not do so at the detriment of other more worthy students nor…. [read more]

Race Critical Theories Modernity, Race and Morality Term Paper

… Race Critical Theories

Modernity, Race and Morality by David Theo Goldberg

Goldberg looks at how racial exclusion has been justified by a society's prevailing moral standards. Goldberg looks historically at race, and determines that in classical Greece and in medieval times, there was no conception of race. While both societies did exclude people, those exclusions were not race-based. As a matter of fact, "the concept of race enters European social consciousness more or less explicitly in the fifteenth century...It is only from this point on that social differentiation begins increasingly to take on a specifically racial sense." (Goldberg p. 284). Goldberg proves this assertion by examining historical texts for the use of race, and indicates that earlier societies demonstrated a feeling of cultural superiority, but…. [read more]

Race and Ethnicity Assimilation Essay

… Race and Ethnicity


Race and Ethnicity: Changes through the Century

Media Poll: Race Relations Improving

Results of the 2009 CBS/New York Times survey showed that the majority of Blacks and a high percentage of whites described race relations as good and efforts at eradicating racial discrimination as progressing (CBS, 2009). Both percentages were higher than those in the previous year. Blacks who saw race relations as bad decreased from 59% to 30% during this survey. Of the total Black population surveyed, 61% saw real progress in eliminating racial discrimination and 87% among whites since the 60s (CBS).

While both sides admitted to improved relations, most Blacks at 51% still felt that racial discrimination remained in that whites stood a better chance of getting…. [read more]

Affirmative Action and Race Relations Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action and Race Relations

Affirmative action, in higher education and elsewhere has been a hotly debated issue, since its inception, among a group of minority faculty and faculty organization from U.S. law schools conceived of the need for forcing social change through guided plans and procedures that would make up for missing opportunities for racial minorities, a year prior to Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination. (Sander, 2004, p. 367) Since then there have been many legal challenges to affirmative action, the moniker given to the general guide of the plan, which was tailored significantly by nearly every university and many other institutions independently. The specific and individual affirmative action plans, of many institutions have been challenged, supported, challenged and struck down in several supreme…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Is an Initiative Essay

… 3. Arguments based on social value

Affirmative action is said to encourage diversity and enables the disadvantaged population to have an easier access to services that are professional as well as correct bias criteria of merit and allow those who have talents yet are marginalized still get the recognized and get equal opportunities.

Rosenfield Michael argues that affirmative action is constitutionally and morally justified as it ensures equal opportunities for all.

Arguments against affirmative action

Arguments that seem not to agree with the policies of affirmative action can be divided into two categories:

1. Those that oppose based on certain moral principles

2. Those that oppose with regards to negative outcomes that could either mean they cause harm or inefficiency.

Arguments based on moral principles…. [read more]

Affirmative Action: Why We Need Essay

… 18-9). Since then affirmative action has been intensely debated in other Court decisions, by government officials, media commentators, and ordinary people, each group insisting on the righteousness of their positions.

According to Rosenfeld (1991), the intensity of the debate stems from the fact that all participants believe that "they are engaged in an important moral debate concerning fundamental notions of justice and equality" and both foes and advocates of affirmative action "loudly proclaim their allegiance to the ideal of equality" (p. 2). Foes of affirmative action argue that all members of the society, including white males, should be treated equally. They argue that preferential treatment of minorities and women is as unjust as the preferential treatment of white males. Advocates of affirmative action counter this…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Lit Review Annotated Bibliography

… This can be explained in part according to Riccucci & Moon (2007) by the contention that those making decisions regarding AA and Equal Opportunity (EO) hiring and promotions are still doing so with the application of their own moral judgments rather than again evaluating equally qualified candidates and then choosing the minority to fill the position. The implications of this are also significant t in that the federal government should set the benchmark for how effective AA policy is, as it was the first entity to adopt policy standards associated with civil rights legislation, AA and EO. In an academic example of the same type of investigation, i.e. The effectiveness and/or ineffectiveness of AA policy standards Owens (2010) looks at how minority students are represented…. [read more]

Affirmative Action in the Public and Private Term Paper

… Affirmative Action in the Public and Private Sector

Affirmative action has taken on many meanings for different people over the course of time. It can be defined as a proactive approach to removing barriers that prevent any person from having an equal opportunity based on discriminatory practices (Soni, 1999). This approach is aimed at overcoming lingering barriers and disadvantages that exist due to past discrimination (Lee, 1999). Discrimination has been defined as treating persons differently based on classifications that are outside of their individual qualifications and merit (Soni, 1999). In contrast to equal employment opportunity (EE0), which takes a reactive nondiscrimination approach, affirmative action is aimed at finding ways to increase the presence of a diverse workforce (Soni, 1999).

The goal of affirmative action programs…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Oxford and Cambridge Universities Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

Oxford and Cambridge Universities, inarguably among the most prestigious universities in the world, outmoded legacy admissions even though doing so meant accepting revenue losses. Legacy admissions remain a cherished part of the Ivy League university system in America, though, revealing an ironic scenario. Suddenly the United States appears the more class-oriented, elitist society vs. Great Britain. American independence was fought partially over the pull toward increased egalitarianism in society. In spite of the ideals that still characterize American culture: individual opportunity and the American Dream, our culture clings to outmoded practices that perpetuate income disparity and class conflict Affirmative action has offered promise to reverse centuries of racial, ethnic and gender-based discrimination. Ostensibly crafted to create a more perfect union that offers truly…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Cornel West Essay

… However, when one considers the institution of chattel slavery that the U.S. was founded upon -- and which was instrumental in the actual building of this country -- one realizes that the slaves of African descent were never compensated for their labor or the wrongful murdering and raping that took place while they in servitude. Slave traders, however, did compensate the rulers in Africa from whom they procured slaves. Yet aside from a brief period of Reconstruction when only cursory attempts were made to assist freedmen, affirmative action was one of the only attempts made in the U.S. To actually restitute the descendants of the slaves who America benefitted from, and who were never compensated in any other way.

In conclusion then, no one, not…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Research Paper

… Affirmative Action

Over the last 30 years, Affirmative Action has appeared to be one of the most controversial concepts of Civil Rights law. In spite of numerous decisions handed down by the Supreme Court, several Executive Orders, and many laws passed by legislators at the state and federal levels, it continues to be an unsettled area of the law. Even though the expression affirmative action can apply to a number of circumstances, the arena in which it is most often seen is in that of civil rights. Affirmative action has been seen to offer a unique enhancement to eligible minorities, women, and people who are disabled in order to atone for past prejudice or for their under representation in a particular environment. Affirmative action agendas…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Minority Friend or Foe Term Paper

… ¶ … affirmative action help or hinder minorities. Why?

Affirmative action is regarded as the set of preferences and quotas, which are offered within prescribed limits of time and scope, with the purpose to 'benefit the least advantaged or to achieve a certain proportionality of benefits between the more advantaged and the less advantaged in society'. Affirmative Action is also considered to be 'a policy of favoring qualified women and minority candidates over qualified men or non-minority candidates with the immediate goals of outreach, remedying discrimination, or achieving diversity, and the ultimate goals of attaining a color-blind and a gender-free i.e. no sexual discrimination society' (Johnson, 2004) the color-blind society is termed as the society in which the 'race has no more significance than eye…. [read more]

Is Affirmative Action Necessary in the 21st Century? Term Paper

… Affirmative Action in the 21st Century:

Affirmative action is one of the most divisive and controversial issue in the United States as it has continued to raise numerous debates between proponents and opponents. The proponents of affirmative action assert that it's necessary for equality while the opponents argue that its programs are completely opposed to the American ideals of individual rights based on its definition. However, much of the controversy surrounding affirmative action is attributed to the failure to differentiate between fair share and fair play. Consequently, the United States is caught up with justice since fairness contributes to many questions in the minds of several people who are not familiar with the original aims and objectives of affirmative action that focused mainly on justice…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Essay

… When the management notices that the minority group is not pure in that it does include other people who are not members of the minority group, it ends up stalling reconciliation on this basis. This increases tension between the workers and the management and this tension further hinders reconciliation. This was also well stated by Dr. Thomas Sowell (2004)

who did an empirical study on affirmative action and found that it encourages people who are not members of the minority group to designate themselves as members of the group in order to take advantage of the policies of the group and to benefit from the advantages that will be granted to the minority group. This in turn reduces the incentives given to both the majority…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Is an Issue Thesis

… Affirmative action is an issue that has garnered a great deal of discussion in recent years. Ever since the inception of affirmative action in America, affiliated policies have been embroiled in controversy. In recent years one of the primary complaints about affirmative action policies is that they are no longer needed because segregation and other factors that made such policies necessary no longer exist. As such in some states and at some institutions affirmative action policies have been abandoned.

The purpose of this discussion is to explore the issue of affirmative action. The research will focus on the various opinions associated with affirmative action policies. The research will expose the advantages and disadvantages associated with affirmative action. The investigation will also focus on the ways…. [read more]

Affirmative Action - Historical Review Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action - Historical Review

Affirmative Action is defined as the "set of public policies and initiative designed to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." (National Organization for Women, 1995) the Civil Rights programs were enacted originally to enable African-Americans to become full citizens of the United States. The phrase 'affirmative action' was first used by President John F. Kennedy in his 1961 executive Order 10925 which made it a requirement that federal contractors "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color or national origin. Institutions and organizations with affirmative action policies "set goals and timetables for increased diversity - and…. [read more]

Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity the Policies Term Paper

… The affirmative action is considered to be socially disruptive as it supports the social divisions. "The affirmative action strives to divide citizens into different groups rather than emphasizing on equal treatments and granting the deserving respect on the basis of merit" (Ezorsky, 1991) This has a gloomy consequence of predicting an intimidating atmosphere with each of the groups accusing others and throwing abuses. (Ezorsky, 1991)

Again simply identifying a group as a beneficiary for special privileges does not entail a particular member of that group the necessary right to have special treatment. The process also involves a cyclical process whereby the positions evacuated by moving up of a specially benefited member of the group through affirmative action, is again to be filled in by another…. [read more]

Alamo of Affirmative Action Term Paper

… 3% to 1.4% from 1996 to 2000. Berkeley, despite scrutinizing each application for evidence of "talents that were not identified by test scores or other standardized measures," suffered a similar decline, from 9% to 3.2% (Staff Editorial, 2003).

After affirmative action was outlawed in Texas, the University of Texas system adopted a plan to admit the top 10% of students from each high school. This policy has almost brought enrollment at UT-Austin back to previous levels, but it has not had nearly the same success at Texas A&M or at UT-Dallas, and at UT-Austin minority enrollment still is not proportionate to minorities' overall representation in the student population.

It is politically smart for President Bush to avoid declaring that he is unequivocally opposed to affirmative…. [read more]

Affirmative Action: Elements, Features, and Controversies Essay

… All the same, states usually have rules governing these small organizations, and it is therefore favorable for one to simply avoid employment discrimination, or any perception of the same (Bennett-Alexander & Hartman, 2012).

The Elements of Affirmative Action

Affirmative action, whether voluntary or mandatory, comprises of four main elements; commitment, record-keeping, analysis, and outreach (Nebraska Advisory Committee, 1979). Any organization that meets the threshold for engaging in affirmative action, be it in the private or the public sector, has to develop a written affirmative action plan, also referred to as AAP, and present the same to the relevant enforcement agency (Nebraska Advisory Committee, 1979). Moreover, organizations should review their AAPs whenever questions or complaints arise regarding the same. This is referred to as mandatory affirmative…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action

The impact of Affirmative Action on the Professional Success of African-American MBA Graduates


Affirmative action as it stands in the professional and business sphere has generated a wide spectrum of controversy. Antipathetic views have flourished over the years arguing that African-American MBA graduates should receive similar treatment and meet the standard criteria for admission into business organizations. The inimical perspective is that affirmative action in a sense gradually introduces reverse discrimination against the majority. "Those who believe Affirmative Action's time is limited are of three minds. Some believe that discontinuing affirmative action would be a mistake-whenever that might be. Others see discontinuation is long overdue. Still others see affirmative action as a current necessity whose life expectancy is limited." (Roosevelt, 2004,…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Term Paper

… "Affirmative Action Can't Be Mended." The Cato Journal. Vo. 17.

No. 1. Cato Institute. 21 Apr. 2003.>.

Brunner, Borgna. "Bakke and Beyond." Infoplease 21 Apr. 2003.

Kirkland, Michael. "DOJ Files In Affirmative-Action Cases." The Washington Times 17 Jan. 2003. 21 Apr. 2003.

Savage, David G. "Missing on Top Campuses: the Poor." Los Angeles Times 07 Apr. 2003. Seattle University School of Education. 21 Apr. 2003.

Chavez, Linda. "Rein in Affirmative Action." Center for Equal Opportunity. 21 Apr. 2003.

Arguments Against Affirmative Action." San Juan Unified School District." 21 Apr. 2003.

Williams, Walter E. "Affirmative Action Can't Be Mended." The Cato Journal. Vo. 17. No. 1. Cato Institute. 21 Apr. 2003.

Bush Weighs In On Affirmative Action." 17…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Essay

… Affirmative action is reverse discrimination, because preferential treatment is given to women and non-whites. Affirmative action enables those who are less qualified to receive admissions or promotions than those who are truly deserving of the positions. Affirmative action creates resentment, and affirmative action prevents non-whites and women from the satisfaction of overcoming adversity.

Many who might benefit from affirmative action, such as non-whites and women, oppose affirmative action policies and therefore support the rebuttal. Froomkin (1998) points out, "while many minorities and women support affirmative action, a growing number say its benefits are no longer worth its side effect: the perception that their success is unearned." Another reason why the rebuttal is a strong one was epitomized by the Bakke case of 1978, in which…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Has Been a Contentious Issue Term Paper

… Affirmative Action has been a contentious issue in the United States ever since its inception. Although the main aim of the institution has always been to redress the inequalities and unfairness towards African-Americans and other groups in the past, its opponents have increasingly begun to claim that affirmative action is no less than reverse racism. The basis of this claim is that affirmative action programs are seen to provide advantages to certain groups of people, primarily based upon race. As the constitution expressly forbids such discrimination, affirmative action has been said to be unconstitutional. Specifically, affirmative action programs in educational institutions have been under the spotlight in this regard. Authors such as Richard Bernstein and Ronald Dworkin advocate the widely divergent viewpoints currently prevailing on…. [read more]

Affirmative Action - Should Race Term Paper

… Conclusions/Recommendations

Whether or not affirmative action programs should remain a factor in college admissions remains unclear. Those in favor of affirmative action point out that minorities are terribly underrepresented in many of the nation's top level universities, and that action must be taken to correct this under presentations. Supporters also point out that favoritism is showed many different types of students including cherished athletes, thus the same favor should be afforded minority students.

In addition supporters note that a diverse campus is one that is most conducive to higher learning and exchange. All of these points are valid. However on the opposing side the points are equally valid. In some sense affirmative action programs do promote an atmosphere or at the very minimum tolerance for…. [read more]

Saving Affirmative Action Laws Thesis

… These two groups account for two thirds of the population thus creating the issue of reverse discrimination. A number of cases have highlighted this. These include San Francisco Police Officers Association v. San Francisco, where gender and racial preferences were highlighted in testing of employees, Hayes v. North State Law Enforcement Officers association where higher ranking officers were not promoted and these positions were instead given to black officers, Detroit Police Officers v. Young where preferential treatment was given to minorities that had not experienced any actual discrimination and non-minorities experienced excessive hardship. These cases are among many that have highlighted situations where non-minorities were passed up for promotion or opportunities which were given to less deserving minorities.

Third problem: devaluing accomplishments

Many opponents to…. [read more]

Affirmative Action the American Civil Term Paper

… (5) It is this disparity and inequitable application of Affirmative Action resources based purely on racial criteria that inspires resentment and also devalues the impressive accomplishments of black Americans who genuinely manage to overcome bona-fide hardships on the road to (deserved) academic scholarships and professional opportunities in corporate business.

4. Facts from the Census Bureau for Black History Month; United States Department of Commerce News (1996)

5. Carter, L.H. Reason In Law (p 206)

In principle, considering the backgrounds and challenges facing black

Americans in order to reward compensation and assistance based on the merits of achievement in the face of genuine adversity makes perfect sense. Certainly, in particular cases comparing the qualifications of two very closely matched candidates for consideration, both educational and professional…. [read more]

Affirmative Action in Law School Thesis

… Affirmative Action in Law School

One of the most controversial recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions regarding affirmative action was Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), which ruled that the affirmative action policy of the University of Michigan Law School was constitutional, given that it was not a quota system, but merely took race into consideration when making decisions about student admission. Yet according to Amir Efrati, in a provocatively-titled 2007 editorial for the online Wall Street Journal, "Is affirmative action at law school actually hurting minorities:" "minority students who gain special admission to better-regarded law schools based on their race end up in academic settings for which they aren't qualified, leading to lower grades and bar passage rates than if they had been admitted to a school…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Recommendation Term Paper

… Affirmative Action Recommendation for Affirmative Action

Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 prohibits employment discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin, and further legislative acts have also prohibited discrimination based upon gender, age, and disability status. To remain in strict compliance with these laws, it would behoove this organization to instate a policy of affirmative action, to create both the appearance and the reality of a diverse organization. It is also worth remembering that the Civil Rights Act of 1991 provides monetary damages to wronged defendants in cases of intentional employment discrimination ("Federal Equal Opportunity Laws," 2007, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity). An organization even perceived to be discriminatory can be the subject of damaging lawsuits, and the organization…. [read more]

Affirmative Action According to Shirley J. Wilcher Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

According to Shirley J. Wilcher, the phrase "affirmative action" was used for the first time by President John F. Kennedy during 1961. It was use in his call for action towards greater equality in terms of federal contracting. The President instructed contractors to take "affirmative action" to ensure that applicants be treated equally regardless of race, creed or sex. During the 1960s and the 1970s this is a paradigm widely acclaimed for its attempt to redress injustice of the past. Indeed, at first glance affirmative action does appear to be a good way to achieve greater equality in a society known for its diversity. Nevertheless, as time progressed towards the end of the century, certain shortcomings became evident in attempts to implement affirmative…. [read more]

Affirmative Action Programs Have Helped Term Paper

… Affirmative action has made my schools and workplaces more egalitarian

In spite of its being controversial, I feel that affirmative action is still necessary in hiring, promotions, and layoff procedures. Workplaces need to be diverse in the United States. The persons in power must represent a wide range of backgrounds and both genders; otherwise, only a select few end up running the show. Affirmative action ensures that more attention be paid to people who were once overlooked in the hiring or promotions procedures. Furthermore, layoffs should not affect the level of diversity that affirmative action hiring procedures created.

In general I firmly favor affirmative action because it improves the quality of our society. As more and more women and people of color enjoy positions of…. [read more]

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