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Affirmative Action Essay

… In terms of the education institutions, t least, worthy students are at risk of being turned away due to these universities and colleges have to meet the quota of accepting certain minority students. These however may be problematic to the university (in terms of behavior or skills) or may not qualify. Accepting them will mean turning away better qualified (and possibly equally needy) White students. This also is unconstitutional since each individual should be judged on the basis of merit alone. In this way, affirmative action should be hedged with conditions and should probably apply more in some circumstances than others. Certainly, academic institutions should accept individuals of minority race, but they should not do so at the detriment of other more worthy students nor…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Has a Long Term Paper

… Business necessity can be justified if it can be shown that safety and operational efficiency will suffer without the selection process in question, and if no viable alternatives are available. Professions that have traditionally justified a selection process, which results in an adverse impact, include law enforcement and military personnel. These professions tend to select for young candidates able to demonstrate physical fitness.

The Impact of Affirmative Action

Although the American workforce still has a long ways to go before it equals the diversity of the populace (Schultz and Schultz 69-75), substantial strides have been made in a few areas. For example, the percentage of women in the workforce has reached 47% (Bureau of Labor Statistics), which is almost equal to the percent of adult…. [read more]


Affirmative Action/Equal Opportunity the Policies Term Paper

… The affirmative action is considered to be socially disruptive as it supports the social divisions. "The affirmative action strives to divide citizens into different groups rather than emphasizing on equal treatments and granting the deserving respect on the basis of merit" (Ezorsky, 1991) This has a gloomy consequence of predicting an intimidating atmosphere with each of the groups accusing others and throwing abuses. (Ezorsky, 1991)

Again simply identifying a group as a beneficiary for special privileges does not entail a particular member of that group the necessary right to have special treatment. The process also involves a cyclical process whereby the positions evacuated by moving up of a specially benefited member of the group through affirmative action, is again to be filled in by another…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action

The impact of Affirmative Action on the Professional Success of African-American MBA Graduates

BASE THEORY:

Affirmative action as it stands in the professional and business sphere has generated a wide spectrum of controversy. Antipathetic views have flourished over the years arguing that African-American MBA graduates should receive similar treatment and meet the standard criteria for admission into business organizations. The inimical perspective is that affirmative action in a sense gradually introduces reverse discrimination against the majority. "Those who believe Affirmative Action's time is limited are of three minds. Some believe that discontinuing affirmative action would be a mistake-whenever that might be. Others see discontinuation is long overdue. Still others see affirmative action as a current necessity whose life expectancy is limited." (Roosevelt, 2004,…. [read more]


Affirmative Action and Race Relations Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action and Race Relations

Affirmative action, in higher education and elsewhere has been a hotly debated issue, since its inception, among a group of minority faculty and faculty organization from U.S. law schools conceived of the need for forcing social change through guided plans and procedures that would make up for missing opportunities for racial minorities, a year prior to Martin Luther King Jr.'s assassination. (Sander, 2004, p. 367) Since then there have been many legal challenges to affirmative action, the moniker given to the general guide of the plan, which was tailored significantly by nearly every university and many other institutions independently. The specific and individual affirmative action plans, of many institutions have been challenged, supported, challenged and struck down in several supreme…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Defined Affirmative Action (AA) Thesis

… Affirmative Action Defined

Affirmative action (AA) has had many different and intricate definitions developed over the years. In comparison to the principle definition of equal employment opportunity (EEO) where inactive and indirect efforts to remove biases are give importance, AA gives higher significance to the direct, decisive and insistent participation to make sure that the discrimination towards minorities or women in the workplace or in academic structures, whether its formalized or not, are removed so that equality exists in all spheres. One thing that is important to note here is the phenomenon of affirmative action does not actually equalizes the allocations for minorities or women, instead its suggests how equality can be brought into a structure if it hasn't been recognized legally (Chambers et al.,…. [read more]


Impact of Affirmative Action in the US Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

The Impact of Affirmative Action in the U.S.

United States is a multicultural nation with divided socio economic status among its various races, ethnic groups and gender. Though ours is a democratic nation, deprivation and discrimination has led to a gap between various groups in the society. Civil rights and freedom of all individuals have not been exercised equally. The term of 'Affirmative Action' first was used by John. F. Kennedy in 1961 was aimed to bring an end to the discrimination against particular sections of society which has been undergoing discrimination throughout history and were deprived of basic rights like education. Affirmative action is a positive reservation, wherein the once underprivileged sections of the society get preference in terms of education, job…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Essay

… Affirmative action is reverse discrimination, because preferential treatment is given to women and non-whites. Affirmative action enables those who are less qualified to receive admissions or promotions than those who are truly deserving of the positions. Affirmative action creates resentment, and affirmative action prevents non-whites and women from the satisfaction of overcoming adversity.

Many who might benefit from affirmative action, such as non-whites and women, oppose affirmative action policies and therefore support the rebuttal. Froomkin (1998) points out, "while many minorities and women support affirmative action, a growing number say its benefits are no longer worth its side effect: the perception that their success is unearned." Another reason why the rebuttal is a strong one was epitomized by the Bakke case of 1978, in which…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Is an Issue Thesis

… Affirmative action is an issue that has garnered a great deal of discussion in recent years. Ever since the inception of affirmative action in America, affiliated policies have been embroiled in controversy. In recent years one of the primary complaints about affirmative action policies is that they are no longer needed because segregation and other factors that made such policies necessary no longer exist. As such in some states and at some institutions affirmative action policies have been abandoned.

The purpose of this discussion is to explore the issue of affirmative action. The research will focus on the various opinions associated with affirmative action policies. The research will expose the advantages and disadvantages associated with affirmative action. The investigation will also focus on the ways…. [read more]


Affirmative Action - Historical Review Research Proposal

… Affirmative Action - Historical Review

Affirmative Action is defined as the "set of public policies and initiative designed to help eliminate past and present discrimination based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin." (National Organization for Women, 1995) the Civil Rights programs were enacted originally to enable African-Americans to become full citizens of the United States. The phrase 'affirmative action' was first used by President John F. Kennedy in his 1961 executive Order 10925 which made it a requirement that federal contractors "take affirmative action to ensure that applicants are employed, and that employees are treated during employment, without regard to their race, creed, color or national origin. Institutions and organizations with affirmative action policies "set goals and timetables for increased diversity - and…. [read more]


Affirmative Action in the Public and Private Term Paper

… Affirmative Action in the Public and Private Sector

Affirmative action has taken on many meanings for different people over the course of time. It can be defined as a proactive approach to removing barriers that prevent any person from having an equal opportunity based on discriminatory practices (Soni, 1999). This approach is aimed at overcoming lingering barriers and disadvantages that exist due to past discrimination (Lee, 1999). Discrimination has been defined as treating persons differently based on classifications that are outside of their individual qualifications and merit (Soni, 1999). In contrast to equal employment opportunity (EE0), which takes a reactive nondiscrimination approach, affirmative action is aimed at finding ways to increase the presence of a diverse workforce (Soni, 1999).

The goal of affirmative action programs…. [read more]


Affirmative Action - Should Race Term Paper

… Conclusions/Recommendations

Whether or not affirmative action programs should remain a factor in college admissions remains unclear. Those in favor of affirmative action point out that minorities are terribly underrepresented in many of the nation's top level universities, and that action must be taken to correct this under presentations. Supporters also point out that favoritism is showed many different types of students including cherished athletes, thus the same favor should be afforded minority students.

In addition supporters note that a diverse campus is one that is most conducive to higher learning and exchange. All of these points are valid. However on the opposing side the points are equally valid. In some sense affirmative action programs do promote an atmosphere or at the very minimum tolerance for…. [read more]


Affirmative Action in Law School Thesis

… Affirmative Action in Law School

One of the most controversial recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions regarding affirmative action was Grutter v. Bollinger (2003), which ruled that the affirmative action policy of the University of Michigan Law School was constitutional, given that it was not a quota system, but merely took race into consideration when making decisions about student admission. Yet according to Amir Efrati, in a provocatively-titled 2007 editorial for the online Wall Street Journal, "Is affirmative action at law school actually hurting minorities:" "minority students who gain special admission to better-regarded law schools based on their race end up in academic settings for which they aren't qualified, leading to lower grades and bar passage rates than if they had been admitted to a school…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Term Paper

… e. access to resources for everyone regardless of his color, race or creed. The author explains why despite the apparent similarities, he feels there exist some deep differences between the two and proves with the help of sound arguments that affirmative action is a better law than equal employment opportunity initiative. I personally believe that while other laws that seek to reward merit regardless of color and race are passive in nature and require more or less no active measures from those adopt them, affirmative action is an active initiative. The fact that it is active and requires concrete actions from all concerned parties is what makes affirmative action a more powerful and effective policy. When people are forced to participate in the creation of…. [read more]


Affirmative Action at Disney Company the Walt Thesis

… Affirmative Action at Disney Company

The Walt Disney Company has struggled with and often been involved with litigation over a lack of diversity in hiring practices, both in its theme parks and throughout its many entertainment businesses. Claims that the company ignores Affirmative Action (AA) initiatives at its theme parks (Van Maanen, 1991) has led to the company being required to perform Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) audits periodically to ensure compliance to AA initiatives. The intent of this paper is to evaluate how The Disney Company has managed the litigation surrounding their AA violations and the steps they have taken to ensure EEOC audit compliance.

Disney Diversity Initiatives Defined As A Result of EEOC Audits

In addition to the reported violations throughout their theme…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

In my opinion, it is ridiculous to judge affirmative action programs under the same standard (strict scrutiny) as other forms of racial discrimination. The reality is that, due to a lengthy history of intentional race-based discrimination, certain minorities (especially African-Americans) have not had the same educational and employment opportunities as non-minorities. Therefore, minority students, even those whose inherent capabilities are equivalent to high-achieving non-minority students, do not generally have the same home-based resources to help them attain high academic achievement. For example, minority parents are frequently less-educated and less able to provide assistance with home and school work, which can be essential for a child's educational success. In addition, minority students do not generally have the same access to advantages based on finances,…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Minority Friend or Foe Term Paper

… ¶ … affirmative action help or hinder minorities. Why?

Affirmative action is regarded as the set of preferences and quotas, which are offered within prescribed limits of time and scope, with the purpose to 'benefit the least advantaged or to achieve a certain proportionality of benefits between the more advantaged and the less advantaged in society'. Affirmative Action is also considered to be 'a policy of favoring qualified women and minority candidates over qualified men or non-minority candidates with the immediate goals of outreach, remedying discrimination, or achieving diversity, and the ultimate goals of attaining a color-blind and a gender-free i.e. no sexual discrimination society' (Johnson, 2004) the color-blind society is termed as the society in which the 'race has no more significance than eye…. [read more]


White Privilege and Affirmative Action Thesis

… This reparation was both an apology and a repayment for injustice and services that were given. Affirmative Action is not a form of apology; it is not reparation for the injustices of slavery. It is not a national form of apology wherein the government who had once allowed and in many states supported slavery makes up for the past by providing financial and social opportunities to members of the minority population which they have not earned through their own individual hard work and diligence. It is designed to level the playing field, not promote minorities above highly qualified people who happen to be Caucasian. This is another case of Steele being shortsighted in her understand of Affirmative Action. Her arguments are only inclusive of Affirmative…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Essay

… ¶ … affirmative action and how affirmative action may be affected by growing workforce diversity.

Affirmative action is generically understood as an integrated effort through which more opportunities of employment, education and business presence are created for women and other minority categories (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, 2009). The reasons as to why I agree with these efforts are numerous, including the belief in the morality of such an effort, as opposed to the immorality of women and minorities being subjected to more restrictive and discriminative conditions. Aside from this however, the primary reason is a socio-economic one, which makes women and minorities more prone to poverty, as they earn less, are less educated and presented with fewer opportunities for employment and development.

The growth of…. [read more]


Full Spectrum Diversity and Affirmative Action Term Paper

… Affirmative Action and Full Spectrum Diversity

Affirmative Action is a government program designed to correct past discrimination against minority groups. It requires employers and educational institutions legally to provide equal opportunities, so that everyone, regardless of their race or ethnic origins, has a chance to develop their abilities. Businesses cannot discriminate in their hiring practices, wages and pay, promotion, training, or firing of employees. The law also allows government agencies to favor women and minorities when they award contracts and not award contracts to businesses that do not make genuine efforts to hire minority owned businesses for subcontracting work. Although Affirmative Action has helped women and other minorities (we see women in police work and the military now, for example), opposition to the program has…. [read more]


Affirmative Action the End of Legally Sanctioned Term Paper

… Affirmative Action

The end of legally sanctioned racial segregation in the 1950s and 1960s was a major step in the direction of racial equality. However, as had been the case with the end of slavery, the removal of formal oppression did not eliminate customary and private discrimination. As a result, the federal government had to take certain steps to ensure that African-Americans were no longer being discriminated against. Moreover, because some effects of past discrimination, such as inferior early education, made African-Americans less desirable candidates according to some objective criteria, the government instituted a system of preferences. At the time, there was simply no other way to end the vestiges of injustice. However, many people argue that the time for affirmative action has past, and…. [read more]


Affirmative Action and Elitist Theory Term Paper

… This is a clear example of the power Dye was referring to. The organization has funding and uses this funding to pursue research that furthers their own goals. This does not mean that their goals are necessarily more right than the opposing side, only that their goals may have more research done to support them.

Universities

One of the strongest examples of the view of universities on affirmative action is that of the University of California. This view was so strong that a coalition was formed to fight for the issue. This coalition is known as BAMN, an acronym that stands for 'by any means necessary.' The full details of the organization and their formation are provided on the BAMN web site:

The Coalition to…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Programs Have Been in Existence Term Paper

… Affirmative action programs have been in existence since the term equal employment opportunity came about. The purpose of such programs is to ensure equal employment practices that are non-discriminatory, and to ensure that organizations do everything possible to ensure equal representation among minority and female candidates within an organization. The manner in which an affirmative action program is structured may influence the public's perception of an organization's effectiveness and culture as well, thus it is vital that top level managers work directly with employees to encourage a program that is fair and well understood.

There are numerous factors which might impact consumer behavior. Awareness of those factors is essential for a business to remain competitive. Affirmative action programs are one aspect of business organization that…. [read more]


Alamo of Affirmative Action Term Paper

… 3% to 1.4% from 1996 to 2000. Berkeley, despite scrutinizing each application for evidence of "talents that were not identified by test scores or other standardized measures," suffered a similar decline, from 9% to 3.2% (Staff Editorial, 2003).

After affirmative action was outlawed in Texas, the University of Texas system adopted a plan to admit the top 10% of students from each high school. This policy has almost brought enrollment at UT-Austin back to previous levels, but it has not had nearly the same success at Texas A&M or at UT-Dallas, and at UT-Austin minority enrollment still is not proportionate to minorities' overall representation in the student population.

It is politically smart for President Bush to avoid declaring that he is unequivocally opposed to affirmative…. [read more]


Affirmative Action Term Paper

… Affirmative Action is defined as the taking of proactive steps to ensure that minorities and women are adequately (and therefore, from a historical perspective, increasingly) represented in today's economy. This, in today's world, is a controversial topic; because, the presumption is if a sub-section of society is given preferential treatment then certainly it introduces biases into that system. This essay will be an opinion against affirmative action. This essayist will also attempt to address the assigned readings for this essay. All three readings are supportive of affirmative action.

Affirmative action is premised on aiding a section of society to ensure an artifice -- representation or to redress perceived historical loss. During the civil rights movement of the fifties and sixties, in the United State, leaders…. [read more]


Downside of Affirmative Action Term Paper

… Therefore, many minorities may be unqualified for the positions, yet are chosen over more qualified candidates solely because of the skin color. This is an excellent example of reverse discrimination.

In many states, colleges and universities have quotas set by the government that force them to include a certain amount of minorities in their admissions procedures. This practice has resulted in reverse discrimination, as whites with better academic achievement are passed over in favor of minorities.

Future of Affirmative Action

Beginning in 1995, affirmative action has been standing on shaky ground. Addressing Affirmative Action in a White House memorandum, President Clinton called for the elimination of any program that creates a quota; creates preferences for unqualified individuals; creates reverse discrimination; or continues even after its…. [read more]


Education the Relationship Between Affirmative Action, Diversity Term Paper

… Education

The Relationship between Affirmative Action, Diversity, and Social Justice

American society has been profoundly affected by affirmative action policies. Developed as an attempt to address racial imbalances in education, the workplace, and the military, affirmative action has long been a contentious issue. As I see it, a major part of the argument focuses on whether affirmative action is itself a form of discrimination - discrimination against individuals who do not happen to be members of the minority groups affirmative action was designed to benefit.

Affirmative action works by giving preference to ethnic or racial minorities. This preference is based largely, or wholly, on the racial or ethnic background of the individuals concerned. In other words, it is possible for a more highly qualified individual,…. [read more]


Discrimination and Affirmative Action "Firefighting Case Study

… Conclusion

By hiring an outside consultant -- and not using its own legal talent to create a test -- New Haven made its second mistake. Its first mistake was its failure to use actual work-related criteria as part of the promotion process. Why wasn't a portion of the competition for promotions based on the leadership shown in work-related situations? Why didn't the city do its homework and review the fairness shown in other cities' firefighter hiring and promotional strategies? In view of the mistakes that were made in the entire process, New Haven did the only thing they could do -- throw the test results out, take the public relations and litigation-related beating, and go back to the drawing board. As it turned out, the…. [read more]


Discrimination and Affirmative Action Case Study

… Discrimination and Affirmative Action

Should disabled veterans get preferential treatment over better qualified candidates who are not disabled veterans?

Over the last several decades, the issue of employment discrimination has been increasingly brought to the forefront. Part of reason for this is because many minorities, women and the disabled are subject to instances of favoritism towards particular groups of workers over them. Once this takes place, it means that anyone who does not fall under these guidelines will have trouble finding good employment opportunities with the possibility of career advancement. This will have an impact on their standard of living and quality of life. To combat these issues, both the state and federal governments have been implementing various hiring quotas to give preference to these…. [read more]


Sexual Harassment the Impact Essay

… Sexual Harassment

The Impact of Sexual Harassment, the Glass Ceiling, and Affirmative Action on Psychological Development

Gender roles and social expectations have undergone a tremendous upheaval in the past fifty years of the United States. Previously, gender roles were strictly defined and women were expected to perform certain traditional roles. Stepping outside of those roles was socially forbidden. Women were expected to remain in the home caring for children, while the men worked outside of the home providing for the family. In World War II, these roles changed. Women had to work in factories and other jobs, as there were not enough men to fulfill the positions. Women experienced a newfound freedom, as they now had their own money and source of independence. Women were…. [read more]

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