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Nuclear WMD a Real Threat A-Level Coursework

… Nuclear WMD a Real Threat within the Next 10 Years

Q 2) the value of non-proliferation treaties in today's environment

The United States has been seen to use the Non-Prolific Treaty in a way that satisfies is selfish interests. They are proud of the idea that their greatest rival has reduced the production of nuclear arsenals and have stopped other states from developing original arsenals. This is how the non-prolific treaty may possibly affect foreign policies in the United States. Other countries are under the fear of nuclear weapons that are spreading across the globe (Forsberg, 2005).

NPT was developed so that countries could protect their boarders from the nuclear warfare that was pending. During the commissioning of this treaty, United States and the Soviet…. [read more]

Robert Mcnamara "I Want Americans Essay

… He used as justification events that "…might have been purposefully exaggerated" (Serfaty, 2008). For example, the link that Bush and VP Cheney asserted existed between Saddam Hussein and al Qaeda turned out to be false. The assertion that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction and a nuclear program turned out to be false. The suspicion was (and is) that Bush and Cheney deliberately exaggerated and even deliberately falsified certain intelligence reports that would provide verification for their claims.

Bush should have learned from McNamara's mistakes in Vietnam. He should have learned from Lyndon Johnson's mistakes in getting the U.S. deeply into the Vietnam war; Johnson falsely claimed that the U.S. Navy had been attacked in the Gulf of Tonkin by North Vietnamese gunboats. He sold…. [read more]

Africa's Armies Robert B. Edgerton Term Paper

… Africa's Armies

Robert B. Edgerton provides a multi-faceted review of Africa's potential for discovery. The author explores from an "anthropological" perspective (supposedly) the "cultural and historical land of Africa" (Shaw, 2005), focusing primarily on the many armies of Africa and their role during many wars. These include the British and Zulu wars that took place during the 19th century and the Crimean War, the rebellion of Mau Mau and the warriors of the Asante that lived in West Africa (Shaw, 2005). In many instances Edgerton reviews each of these with regard to the "primitive" societies that engaged in these controversies, noting that Africa's military forces must explore "possible pathways to the future well-being" of the country (p. 8). The author notes that during colonial times…. [read more]

Army at Dawn by Rick Atkinson Book Review

… ¶ … Army at Dawn by Rick Atkinson

It is rare and encouraging that war blunders and lessons learned throughout the course of history are uncovered in such a well-researched and compelling manner. The book "An Army at Dawn" engages its readers due to its novel like narrative. Atkinson uses his many a year's experience of newspaper to craft a master-piece, covering the initial thrust of Allied forces in North America.

The Allied attack (1942-43) begins on the eve of operation TORCH, the audacious invasion of Morocco and Algeria. The Initial victories intoxicating the army of overwhelming confidence soon fades away; when damages suffered in form of increasing casualties resulted in low morale and vanquishes the chance of a quick decisive victory. The Allies discover…. [read more]

Rwanda Army for the Liberation of Rwanda ALIR Research Proposal

… Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR) also operates as, or is known as, Interahamwe, Former Armed Forces (ex-FAR).

The FAR was the army of the Rwandan Hutu regime that carried out the genocide of 500,000 or more Tutsis and regime opponents in 1994. The Interahamwe was the civilian militia force that carried out much of the killing. The groups merged after they were forced from Rwanda into the Democratic Republic of the Congo (then-Zaire) in 1994. They are now often known as the Army for the Liberation of Rwanda (ALIR), which is the armed branch of the PALIR or Party for the Liberation of Rwanda (Dept. Of State, 2000).

Interahamwe, which translates as "those who work together" are a mixture of the Hutu extremists…. [read more]

Dictator, Robert Mugabe Research Paper

… His removal of role of Prime Minister and creation of Executive President ensuring him continued political power. Although people as a whole perceive Mugabe as an ineffective leader especially in relation to the economy, he attempted to establish a sociopolitical united front, and individual connection between the political leaders first in Zimbabwe and then throughout Africa. [7: Vladimir Shubin, "There is No Threat from the Eastern Bloc" with Marina Traikova, The South African Democracy Education Trust (SADET), Road to Democracy: International Solidarity, Volume III Part 2 . The U.S.S.R. supported collaboration of Southern African liberation movements, backed by Soviet training and military hardware, dating back to the ANC-ZAPU Wankie and Sipolilo campaigns in Rhodesia in 1967-1968.]


Archive. "Full text of "Southern Rhodesia 1890-1950; A…. [read more]

Robert Hayden Term Paper

… His poetry combined great historical integrity, accuracy and realism with a powerful imagination, and even though many of his subjects were black history and culture, he did not wish to be thought of only as a 'black' poet.

Hayden described the Middle Passage as "a voyage through death to life upon these shores" where the sick and the disabled who were of no economic value were thrown overboard to the sharks.

Joseph Cinque (or Cinquez), the leader of the revolt on the slave ship Amistad, became the epic hero in Hayden's Middle Passage, although he was not a great warrior of chief but merely a rice farmer. He delivers no heroic or epic speeches in the poem, but in arguing his case before the U.S.…. [read more]

Ethical Issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program Term Paper

… Ethical issues of South Africa's Black Economic Empowerment Program (BEE)

Across the formerly colonized African territory, South Africa's turbulent history and multifaceted makeup is not unique. However, the country remains unique in light of the particulars. First, the nation has a direct experience with the leading violent eras across African history. My interest to cover this topic has emerged from this context of the subject matter. The history of South Africa is unique hence shaping the analysis. Therefore, I have provided readers with a unique case study established by the guidelines of social science qualitative methodologies. My work has clanged on the academia utilizing one single case analysis to obtain universally applicable lessons and generalizations. This study provides suitable and detailed insights concerning the issue…. [read more]

Conference Berlin Consequences Essay

… Chief among these factors was the terrible price of decolonization. IN most instances, European nations refused to abandon their African colonies and make good on the rights of self-determination to these people. Therefore, there were many seditions and rebellions that resulted in a considerable amount of bloodshed as African territories had to literally fight for their right of liberation. When such liberation was achieved, the political instability that rocked these nations was largely able to still continued since new leaders had little experience with centralized forms of government. Oftentimes, colonies would get replaced by new military regimes, that frequently had lifetime presidents -- all of which set the political climate rife for turmoil, infighting, and a unstable government.

Additionally, once European colonies were formally abandoned,…. [read more]

Why Does the World Ignore Africa? Term Paper



This paper presents a detailed examination of Africa and its issues with a focus on why the world seems to ignore many of its needs for assistance. The writer explores financial and political issues that have an impact on the nation and provides insight as to why the world seems to have Africa on "ignore." There were nine sources used to complete this paper.

As the world continues to globalize Africa's needs become more evident than ever before. Religion-based television shows pipe images of children who are starving into living rooms weekly asking for donations. The news media brings home stories of political unrest and issues that brew just beneath the surface. At first glance it appears that Africa is…. [read more]

Great War in Africa 1914-1918 by Byron Farwell Essay

… Great War in Africa, 1914-1918 by Byron Farwell.

Farwell, Byron. The Great War in Africa, 1915-1918. New York: W.W. Norton & Company,

Although World War I has been the subject of countless fictional as well as historical surveys in recent years, the fact that it was indeed a total 'world war,' encompassing Africa as well as Europe, Asia, and the Americas, is often forgotten. One of the reasons for this may be that the African theater was a largely colonial war, fought between England and France vs. Germany, and involving the conscription of their respective colonized peoples. America was not a 'key' player in Africa. However, it is important for all students of the period to study this part of the conflict, as it has…. [read more]

Africa the Continent Term Paper

… Famously Mt. Elgon, Mt. Kenya and Mt. Kilimanjaro are part of the East African Plateau, while Mt. Camaroon is situated in the West, near the Ubangi-Shari Divide (Bediako Lamouse-Smith). The four lakes of Tanganyika (the longest freshwater lake in the world), Kivu, Lake Edward and Lake Albert are situated in the Central African trough. The Congo basin is one of the most well marked basins in the continent, and is bisected by the equator. The Sahara, famously the largest desert in the world, covers 9,000,000 square km, slightly less than that of Europe. It reaches from the Red Sea all the way to the Atlantic. The headwaters of both the Congo and the Nile are found in East Africa. West equatorial Africa is home to…. [read more]

Africa and the Slave Trade Essay

… These would all feed into the ease with which Europe could commoditize the African man and woman.

3) In a short paragraph describe the following:

a) The curse on the Sons of Ham

According to Old Testament legend, following the great flood and Noah's survival on an ark, an incident occurred which may have presaged the fate of the African people. The story of Ham states that Noah, while in a state of drunkenness, removed all of his clothes. His youngest son Ham, for seeing his father's nakedness and failing to covering him up in deference, was cursed by his father, who "awoke from his wine and knew what his youngest son had done to him, 25 he said, "Cursed be Canaan; A slave of…. [read more]

Africa Since 1940 Essay

… " (14-15) Indeed, Cooper goes on to state that in post-colonialism Africa, they want to be free to rule with all their cultural past whilst moving beyond the bonds of colonialism, making, in a sense, pre-colonialism and post-colonialism meet in the middle (15).

According to Cooper, a secondary catalyst for nationalism within Africa started in the 1950's with protests over how Africa should participate in various levels of government and economics, wanting to be part of the world leaders in export and import, but of course, various colonizers were against letting native Africans participate (86).

After the 1970's the economic status that Africans wanted became increasingly hard to control or even maintain, and even more protests broke out during this time, and growth was limited…. [read more]

Level-Six Leader Research Paper

… ¶ … Level-Six Leader

Are you a level six leader

Based on the work of Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohberg, and Robert Kegan there are six levels of leadership. These levels are Sociopath, Opportunist, Chameleon, Achiever, Builder, and Transcendent. The goal of this paper is to explore each of these levels as they may relate to business and management, and answer the question "Are You a Level-Six Leader?"

Level One Sociopath

In a business situation dealing with a sociopath can be very difficult. It is said to take whatever a sociopath says with a grain of salt due to the fact they can be chronic liars. If the sociopath is in management it could prove to be disastrous for any co-workers as well as the whole…. [read more]

Africa Comparative Review Book Review

… Africa Comparative Review

Comparative Book Review: Africa

Fanon's aim in Black Skin, White Masks is to elaborate the features of psychic alienation experienced within the African man in the context of European colonialism, along with the mechanisms by which such alienation occurs. He states, "What we are striving for is to liberate the black man from the arsenal of complexes that germinated in a colonial situation."

He wants to liberate him (or her) so that he (or she) can "choose action (or passivity) with respect to the real source of the conflict, i.e., the social structure."

A pragmatic and social function is implied. He hopes that his book is "a mirror with a progressive infrastructure where the black man can find the path to disalienation."…. [read more]

Breaking Robert's Rules (Brr) Essay

… I would then provide expert opinions to help provide contrary evidence to each party's argument. Then, I would attempt to arrive a mutually beneficial solution that helps both parties involved.

Does the mediator have a responsibility to help the weaker parties for the sake of a better outcome overall? Should their support be purely procedural in manner, avoiding the substantive? Alternatively, should mediators strictly avoid dealing with power imbalances for the sake of maintaining neutrality? What do you think?

The mediator does not have a responsibility to help weaker parties. The mediator should focus primarily on the process, helping both sides come to a mutually beneficial solution. However, the mediator should not help the weaker party. Through aiding the weaker party mediators bias will enter…. [read more]

Africa's Political Crisis Most African Term Paper

… Africa is in need of improved political leadership, but not a stronger or bigger state. For Africa to succeed in its post-independent state, it needs leaders who can rise above their ethnic origins and who will create a sense of fair play and rules that apply to all ethnic and socioeconomic groups. Democratic processes would accommodate the development of this sense of fairness.

The government has a key role to play in building a stable, democratic nation, as does the international community. The government must invest in education and health to populate the civil society with independent and activist citizens. It must also create a safe and impartial judicial system to protect private property and contracts, as well as develop effective rules for private competition…. [read more]

Africa Since Independence Review Reaction Paper

… South Africa, for example, is becoming a nation that acknowledges its entire history, and is starting to embrace the whole of it. Native tribes and Afrikaaner people alike can be proud of the progress the nation has made (Bauer & Taylor).

Legum is very optimistic regarding the future of the continent. He sees the return of those first moments of euphoria that accompanied the original freedom from colonialism (72). He says this because it has been a cultural revolution in which people who were long made to suppress their heritage have now been able to embrace it. He believes that the Africa of the past will spread a new renaissance that the people of the present and future can enjoy.

One nation that comes to…. [read more]

Africa so Poor? Term Paper

… What adds to this is the fact that the country has a history of long drawn out conflicts and civil wars, and these civil wars do tend to slow down and even arrest the growth and development of the African continent. While armed conflict is contained in one area, the same would inevitably erupt in another area, and this phenomenon will not stop unless strict measures are taken to stop it. Poor weather conditions, deterioration and a decrease in the trade of the country, combined with this type of domestic conflict have all contributed to the loss of a good economic momentum in the country, especially in the past few years. (Promoting Growth in Sub-Saharan Africa)

How can the geography of Africa be used in…. [read more]

Africa There Are Many Ambiguities Article Review

… Idleness in South Africa

The local natives have everything in common with the dumb cattle, barring their human nature….(They) are handicapped in their speech, clucking like turkey-cocks or like the people of Alpine Germany who have developed goiter by drinking the hard snow-water…. Their food consists of herbs, cattle, wild animals and fish. The animals are eaten with their internal organs. Having been shaken out a little, the intestines are not washed, but as soon as the animal has been slaughtered or discovered, these are eaten raw, skin and all.[footnoteRef:2] [2: (Coetzee)]

The description above is geared on the observations of Western settlers when they come into contact with the Hottentots of the Cape of Good Hope. The discourse that is used to describe these…. [read more]

Singapore Airlines Has Built SWOT

… More offerings to North America would improve its ability to develop as a truly global airline -- instead it has cut both its Los Angeles and Newark routes for being unviable, all but eliminating it from relevance in the Americas (AP, 2012). The location in Singapore makes it less convenient for travellers as well, since this location close the equator is out of the way for travellers between Europe and locations in China, Korea or Japan. Singapore has an advantage, however, in travel between Europe and Australia, a function of the same location.

There are also threats to Singapore Airlines' service dominance. The first is the emergence of new aircraft (technological innovation) that could render the company's current physical infrastructure dated. The Boeing 787 Dreamliner…. [read more]

Colonization of Africa Research Paper

… Colonization of Africa:

The occupation and control of one nation by another is defined as colonialism. Various European countries have colonized many areas of the world including North and South America, Asia, Africa, Australia, and the small islands around the world. Africa was colonized by different European nations between the late 19th century and late 20th century. Prior to the colonization, Europeans had had contact with Africa for long such as through the Atlantic Slave Trade. It was not until the late 19th century that they imposed a formal rule of law over Africa. Regardless of their ideologies, and administrative systems, most of the colonial states justified themselves in the name of civilization and pacification ("Colonialism" par, 3).

In Europe, the 19th century was a…. [read more]

US Relations W. South Africa Thesis

… U.S. Relations W/South Africa

Racism has always been a divisive matter, but fortunately it appears to have been eradicated from most parts of the modern society. The apartheid system of laws functioning in South Africa throughout most of the twentieth century proved that discrimination can still be performed in modern times. The South African government encouraged its citizens to differentiate blacks through various methods. The black people residing in South Africa during the century had suffered greatly as a result of them being controlled by the government, with any sign of retaliation being quickly put down by the authorities.

Considering the fact that the U.S. has had a history in discrimination, and, has actually started a civil war in order to stop the exploitation of…. [read more]

Malaria in Sub-Saharan Africa Term Paper

… Malaria in Sub-Sahara Africa

It is beyond any shadow of doubt that malaria is the world's most lethal bloodsucking infection. DDT is a customary choice in the Sub-Sahara African Countries to control Malaria. These countries have given notifications that they are preserving the privilege to utilize DDT against malaria. The effect of the successful ban on the use of DDT could have in-depth repercussions for numerous developing countries in the Sub-Sahara Africa since DDT has been an extremely cost effective measure to control the spread of malaria.

The paper reviews the first program to control the spread of malaria in Sub-Saharan African Countries that started in the 1920s with larval restrain. It had not been until DDT substituted parathyroid that the program for malaria control…. [read more]

Rap Music - A Soundtrack Essay

… As a result, rap has been like a cultural virus, spreading its sounds, attitude, and images throughout all cultures (social and political bodies).

DJ Kool paved a leeway for hip hop culture across the entire world, for the new rap artists such as "Grandmaster Flash." DJ Grandmaster Flash together with his group of the "Furious Five" were great innovators of hip hop, surpassing the rap genres of the party music origins in order to explore a wide scope of rap lyrics and sonic horizons. DJ Grandmaster Flash began to spinning musical records in his youth age in a team within the Bronx. While attending his technical school courses in electronics, Grandmaster was a deejay within some local disco trails

. With time, he developed a…. [read more]

Mobile Phone Industry in Africa Essay

… Mobile Phone Industry in Africa

Africa's attractiveness to MNCs from mobile phone industry

Africa is the second largest and second most populated continent, after Asia. The 992 million people (as of 2005: UN, 2006) in its 61 territories account for around 14% of the world population and the 30.2 million km2 (or 11.7 square miles) representing these territories account for 24% of Earth's total land area. The continent is made of 53 countries, including Madagascar, and various island groups that are associated to it.

PEST Analysis

Political factors. The African Union (AU) is a federation including all African states, except Morocco. The union, formed by an Act of Union aims to transform the African Economic Community from the federated commonwealth that is today, into a…. [read more]

Adolescent Childbearing in Africa Term Paper

… Adolescent Childbearing in Africa

Adolescent sexual and reproductive behavior in Africa

It is abundantly obvious to researches and laypeople alike that AIDS is a huge risk associated with adolescent sexual activity in sub-Saharan Africa. However, the negative sequelae of adolescent childbearing in the same region is of particular concern as well. Although the act of becoming pregnant is even easier to understand than is getting AIDS, as Kiragu and Zabin point out, "within any given society, the issue of adolescent fertility is rarely monolithic. In fact, the complexity of its consequences is often underscored by the contrast between two or more different aspects of the problem that exist within a single society; each may have serious consequences but often very different implications for intervention" (1998,…. [read more]

Compare North Africa to Sub-Saharan Term Paper

… Africa

The diverse continent of African can be conveniently divided into two geographically, historically, and culturally distinct regions: Northern, or Saharan Africa, and the larger sub-Saharan portion. Nations in Northern Africa include Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Morocco, Sudan, and Tunisia, nations with mainly Berber or Muslim Caucasian populations and close ties to the Middle East and the Mediterranean. The Sahara desert not only characterizes the topology, climate, and agriculture of this region but also serves as a geographic border demarcating these nations from the rest of the continent. Sub-Saharan Africa basically includes all the territories and nations south of Northern Africa, from Angola to Zimbabwe. The several African island nations and territories such as Madagascar and Mauritius are also considered to be part of Sub-Saharan Africa…. [read more]

Review Africa and the Anthropologist Essay

… " (Bernal, 1996, p. 87) Bernal goes on to claim that the use of images of ancient Greek in the work of Lefkowitz is used "for their own political agenda." (1996, p. 87) Bernal states that while Lefkowitz claimed that Diodoros lacked specific information, if Lefkowitz had been more thorough in her research she would have known that Diodoros "specified that Solon had adopted an Egyptian law according to which everybody had to declare the source of their income." (Bernal, 1996, p. 87-8) According to Bernal, Diodoros in 1.79.3. made the specification of "yet another Solonic law supposed to be derived from Egypt, his famous 'seisachatheia' or 'shaking off of debts' according to which a man could not be imprisoned or enslaved for debt." (Bernal,…. [read more]

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