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American Ethnic Literature Essay

… In this argument, Anzaldua uses the concept of how language help define the experience of minority individuals, which is very often a theme that is not explicitly expressed in American ethnic literature. Here, she writes, "Chicanas who grew up speaking Chicano Spanish have internalized the belief that we speak poor Spanish. It is illegitimate, a bastard language. And because we internalized how our language has been used against us at the dominant culture, we use our language differences against each other," (Anzaldua 2950). There is a need for the individual and society at large to except these hybrid forms of identity in contemporary American culture. Language is crucial to the formation of both culture and identity. By being denied this by both Americans and Mexicans,…. [read more]

American Ethnic Literature Analyzing Essay

… Iranian American writers, for example, "grapple with exile [and] 'depict cultural identity as caught between abstract theories of boundary-free identity, the politics and problematics of representation, and the painful realities of exile, authoritarianism, and social marginalization" (Karim, Rahimieh, 2008, p. 10). In the modern American landscape, in other words, melting pot standards are resisted -- but definite and clear ethnic identity is difficult to manifest (especially when the landscape is hostile to what it perceives as a foreign threat). Liberty, opportunity, and equality are therefore not truly experienced by the Ethnic American writer unless he adapts to what the WASP lays out as conditions for joining the club.

In conclusion, the Ethnic American writer is in a way an outsider to the American tradition but…. [read more]

American Literature Discussion Topics Essay

… Friends make pretence of following to the grave / But before one is in it, their mind is turned" (Frost). Frost used the husband with the purpose of showing the world that modernism reduces people's ability to mourn others. The poet apparently believed that modern people are too consumed with their problems to care for individuals who are sick or dead. Most readers are likely to agree that they have problems caring about people who have recently died because they have their own lives and thus need to focus on their future rather on their past. While this might be perceived as being perfectly normal in the contemporary society, it is actually essential for people to understand that they need to refrain from being selfish,…. [read more]

African-American Art Creative African-American Literature Research Paper

… The vast majority of X's autobiography, of course, spanned more than his life, it detailed the history of oppression of African-Americans at the hands of America, which the following quotation proves. "One hundred million of us Black people! Your grandparents! Mine! Murdered by this white man! To get 15 million of us here to make us his slaves, on the way he murdered one hundred million! (Haley, 1965, p. 216)." This quotation is indicative of the incendiary language and graphic representation of facets of slavery that X employed to recruit African-Americans to resist their American oppressors. This aspect of The Autobiography of Malcom X is a central component of the literature of African-American artists in the 20th century.

In summary then, it is quite plain…. [read more]

American Life Term Paper

… This quote also presents another key difference in regards to style and content with the two works. Where Ellen layers and complicates, Douglass tries to simplify and explain. His whole narrative is a means of analysis of slave life and white's treatment of slaves. They in essence, are the opposite in terms of writing style and prove that through their aims and themes.

Both Ellen Foster and Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave deal with racial inequality and racial tension. In chapter 4 of Ellen Foster, aunt Nadine describes her disdain for the colored town as she passes it in the train: "My aunt is so glad to be out of a colored town. She unlocks her door now because she…. [read more]

American Literature and the Great Essay

… The first of these authors, Zora Neale Hurston, published her first major anthropological work Mules and Men in 1935, just as the Federal Writer's Project was getting underway. Mules and Men is a piece of literary anthropology, and in it Hurston attempts to record the folk tales of the South, and particularly of rural blacks, "before it's too late" (Hurston 8). Hurston's desire to record these folk tales in the wake of the Great Depression demonstrates quite a different response to the Depression than Steinbeck, because where Steinbeck's work seems to mourn the loss of an almost idealized pre-Depression world, Hurston recognizes that the world before the Depression was not especially positive (at least for blacks), and thus it is her duty so salvage whatever…. [read more]

American Revolution New American History Research Paper

… 3 Wood, The American Revolution, 126

Equality and the fact that 'all men are created equal' were stressed a lot in the Declaration of Independence.

The founders of the nation itself did not go on to act on the words that they had written. In the end, the ultimate result was that people realized that they were not slaves and they were also citizens of the country. Therefore, another reason why American Revolution was important is that it provided the basis on which racial segregation was removed.

The American Revolution also gave rise to a cultural and social awareness for the people. It is clear that the people did not want to belong to the British empire. America originally had always been considered a free…. [read more]

American History Final Exam Stages Term Paper

… Turner lived at a time before a large middle class existed or the U.S. had become a consumer society, so he naturally thought of pioneers as farmers and ranchers who moved the agricultural frontier to the West. In his era, even though the country was rapidly industrializing, the majority of people still lived on farms and in small towns. For this reason and was always the main goal of Manifest Destiny, while industrial capitalism required a different type of imperialism that acquired markets and raw materials overseas rather than colonies. Eastern capitalists since the time of Alexander Hamilton and the early Federalists and Whigs had always had a very limited interest in expanding the agrarian frontier, and even less in the expansion of slavery. They…. [read more]

African-American Literature -- Alice Walker Term Paper

… .. inadequacies which might tell heavily against another novel seem relatively insignificant in view of the one great challenge which Alice Walker has triumphantly met ... I find it impossible to imagine Celie apart from her language; through it, not only a memorable and infinitely touching character but a whole submerged world is vividly called into being. Miss Walker knows how to avoid the excesses of literal transcription while remaining faithful to the spirit and rhythms of Black English" (Bloom, 1994:201).

Significant themes and effective character portrayals in the novel also provide readers with a new emerging literary genre, wherein Walker's story centers on an individual's journey to self-discovery. This is shown in Celie's transition from being an abused victim to being an empowered woman;…. [read more]

New African by Andrea Lee Essay

… Human nature

Shows how many behave in specific circumstances

Reading everything but the Bible.

Exercise 5.6C: Evaluative Essay

Directions: Now that you've finished the reading in your textbook, you'll write an evaluative essay offering your well-considered judgment on a piece of literature. Your focus work can be anything you've read during this course or outside.

This essay is not just an opinion though; you offer your evaluation and then support it with reasons and evidence to support your reasons. It should be at least (5) five paragraphs long.

Calculating the value of literature is much like calculating the value of a work of art -- it's mostly personal taste with some somewhat objective criteria (golden ratios and such). So what makes a good book? Mostly,…. [read more]

Colonization, Much of the African Term Paper

… When the European nations decimated the native populations in the Caribbean, North, and South America, a massive labor force was required. This labor force was garnered from Africa. African chiefs and kings bowed to pressure or bribes by European slave traders and handed over throngs of men, women, and children.

Religious conversion was often cited as an excuse to enslave the Africans. In fact, the Catholic Church fully supported the system of slavery in order to attract more subjects ("African Slave System"). Later, slavery was further justified by its necessity in exploiting the natural resources of the New World. The economy of the Americas, especially the United States, would never have burgeoned were it not for slave labor. Eventually, slavery became entrenched in North America…. [read more]

American Exceptionalism Essay

… American Exceptionalism refers to allegedly exceptional social and political destiny of Americans guided by Puritanical values of the early migrants. This concept is attributed to Alexis de Tocqueville who believed that the special political nature and social history of America had given it a unique place in the destiny of nations.

"The position of the Americans is therefore quite exceptional, and it may be believed that no democratic people will ever be placed in a similar one. Their strictly Puritanical origin, their exclusively commercial habits, even the country they inhabit, which seems to divert their minds from the pursuit of science, literature, and the arts, the proximity of Europe, which allows them to neglect these pursuits without relapsing into barbarism, a thousand special causes, of…. [read more]

African-American Literature the Implications Term Paper

… These African-Americans write to not only to express themselves, but to express feelings and thoughts that seem to collectively belong to a group of people, tied together by struggles in the past and in ethnicity that they are still working to overcome, even in present-day society. But the works of literature that have been produced by African-Americans indicate that, at least in the literary field, they have caught up to and oftentimes surpassed their Caucasian literary counterparts.

The Implications of African-American Literature

There are many implications for African-American literature. It has affected this country socially, economically, environmentally, culturally, and historically. In this section, each one of these specific implications will be examined, in order to have a clearer understanding of the full impact that African-American…. [read more]

African-American Male Students in Community-Centered After-School Programs Literature Review

… African-American Male Students in Community-Centered After-School Programs

It is said that the teenage years are the most critical when it comes to determining how a person enters adulthood and who they will be as adults. African-American males are of teens that are left out and therefore do not get the whole experience on how to face challenges and life that awaits upon reaching adulthood. This work is to look at the behavior of African-American male youths and how that behavior can shape after school programs that can make their future brighter.

Teenage years of an individual are the most critical and substantial years that determines how the person would be in their adulthood. Therefore, in terms of growth and development of a child, these years…. [read more]

African-American Women's Literature Term Paper

… African-American Women's Literature

Unlike any other marker of civilization literature demonstrates a vision of the social and psychological world in which we live. During the post civil rights era there have been a number of seminal authors who give meaning and message to their times and the times, which came before them. Literature during this period is a marker of change and also an exploration of modern concepts of the past. Through the works of African-American women writers can be seen a message of change that has overcome our society. We have reached a point at which it is now considered acceptable to explore the changes to our society that have come from the civil rights movement and discuss issues that before now were seen…. [read more]

African-American in the Third Chapter Essay

… African-American

In the third chapter of his book on African-American culture and the construction of self in fiction and autobiography, Robert Lee (67) notes that the 1960s is probably the decade of most significance for the realization of black culture in the United States. Indeed, this decade brought great literature, philosophy, and education for the black culture, and also provided the building blocks for the then future that we are experiencing today. However, the author notes that it is equally true that the vision of the past as well as the future among black artists often differ widely and even contradict each other. The author explains this by means of individual experience and heritage. While the African-American culture is indeed an identifiable ethnic group that…. [read more]

African-American Literature Term Paper

… What it does not tell you, is that it will show the reader (from vantage point of slave) how this practice is wrong.

The Confession of Nate Turner

In The Confession of Nate Turner, Thomas Gray is speaking for Nate Turner. He is slave who led the largest uprising in U.S. history. What happened was Turner published a pamphlet before his death that described: how and why the 1831 insurrection would occur in Virginia. As he was able to lead a group of slaves who: overpowered and gained control of South Hampton Country, Virginia. Once the uprising was over is when Turner would tell everything that happened with these events to his attorney (Thomas Gray). He would then take these conversations and distribute them as…. [read more]

African-American Literature Research Proposal

… African-American Literature

Early black literature was often viewed by white society as anomalous representations of limited scope that proved only the ability of the individual who attested to writing the work but did only limited work to forward a change in the pervasive opinion of black intellectual ability, or lack there of. To receive any publishable option in the U.S., especially black writers and thinkers had to find white intellectuals or high ranking society members to testify in print, as a prelude to the work, that it had been written by the black individual who claimed it. The intellectualism of some of these works are mentioned by Posnok in Color and Culture, one example being Iola Leroy an 1892 Frances Harper novel, which Posnok describes…. [read more]

African Studies Log What Does Africa Mean? Research Proposal

… African Studies Log

What does Africa mean? What is Africa to the millions of black Americans who were brought to the United States in captivity? What is it to those who live in European nations, to those who still live on the content? What has Africa contributed to the literature, art, theology, and philosophy of the East and West? And why has Africa, unlike any other continent, been the subject of such conversation, criticism, and analysis?

By taking this class, I was introduced to these questions, and though I am not much closer to answering them, I have learned the importance of considering them. Before I took this course, I thought Africa was just another continent with a rich history that affected its inhabitants. My…. [read more]

American Literature, Like All Other Nationalistic Term Paper

… American Literature, like all other nationalistic literature has had an evolution that marks frequently changing opinions with regard to what are to be included in the voice of literature. What do we consider the "classic" works of American literature and how do such representations display what is American literature? What it means to be American literature has expanded, as the political and social climate has changed to include previously disenfranchised voices, such as Native Americans as well as disenfranchised immigrants from many nations of origin. One example of this expansion can be found in analogies, as they have grown. Harper Single Volume American Literature is no exception as it has grown with others to more fully express the "American experience" now including works from authors…. [read more]

American Themes and Americanism in I Know Why the Caged Bird Sings by Maya Angelou Term Paper

… African-American Literature

The American experience is varied and includes both the good and bad aspects of American life, and both elements are reflected in American literature as well. The experience of black Americans is expressed most fully by black writers, and these expression are also reflective of aspects of American life and of the development of American society over time.

A large portion of the black experience relates back to the slave era and then to the ongoing discrimination and struggle of black Americans after that era. Both elements are reflected in the writings of African-Americans. An early expression of both elements can be found in the works of Charles W. Chesnutt, an African-American who was never a slave himself but who reflected on the…. [read more]

African and African-American Poetry Essay

… African/African-American Poetry

Poetry Analysis of Baraka and Soyinka

Amiri Baraka and Wole Soyinka are both voices of the black experience, but their differences in background, philosophy, and motive highlight the extreme separation of the black experience in the United States and in Africa. Baraka's poetry is punctuated, both in content and in style, by the angry forcefulness of someone who participated in the difficult birth of civil rights in America, while Soyinka's poetry is pervaded by the sadness and quiet patience of someone who has watched his country turn upon itself with deadly consequences.

In Baraka's poem "Fresh Zombies," the sharpness and bitterness for which he is known comes through not only in the content, but in his edgy use of syncopated rhythms, alliterative word…. [read more]

American Modernism and the Edenic Term Paper

… ..whether every poem in the book is true to life.... Bad enough to have white authors holding up our imperfections to public gaze." (Dickinson, 48)

The disillusionment of the New Adam with the myth that America would be an Edenic world spills over to the portrayal of American women in fiction as well. Take the example of Daisy Buchanan in The Great Gatsby, who gets as caught up in the acquisition of material wealth and social status as her counter parts in New York. Or, Langston Hughes's description of a New Orleans brothel: "...the men moved silently from doorway to doorway, looking, as one would move, from cage to cage in a zoo." (293) Characterizations and descriptions, such as these, imply that both the presence…. [read more]

American Literature Frederick Douglas' Autobiography "The Narrative Essay

… American Literature

Frederick Douglas' autobiography "The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglas" and Kate Chopin's short story "A Pair of Silk Stockings" put across accounts from the lives of two African-Americans living in the nineteenth century. Whereas the action in "A Pair of Silk Stockings" takes place somewhere around the turn of the century, Frederick Douglas' account is told from the perspective of a man who lived through slavery and who is determined to contribute to ending it. In spite of the fact that slavery is no longer present in Kate Chopin's short story, one can still understand that African-Americans were discriminated at the time and that they were associated with poverty.

Douglas is prevented from achieving freedom by the slavery system, as it…. [read more]

African-American Poetry Studies: The Expression of Racial Term Paper

… African-American Poetry Studies: The Expression of Racial Tension in the Work of Hughs, Mccay, Cullen and Brown

The objective of this work is the review the work of four authors, specifically those of:

Langston Hughs - "Democracy";

Claude McKay - "If We Must Die";

Countee Cullen - "Uncle Jim"; and 4) Sterling Brown - "Bitter Fruit of the Tree" and to then discuss how each of these authors expresses within their written work the subject of racism.

Many feelings and emotions are expressed through the art of poetry and this is particularly true of the works of Hughs, McKay, Cullen and Brown in their expressions of racism in the poems studies in this research work.


In 1919 Claude McCay…. [read more]

African-American History the Nationalism Movement of Biafra Term Paper

… African-American History

The Nationalism Movement of Biafra

What every happened to the nation of Biafra after the Nigerian-Biafra Civil War in 1967 to 1970? Many people have forgotten Biafra and its' fight for independence. However, the natives of Biafra, the Igbo peoples, are still fighting for their own nation, 35 years after their fledging country disappeared back into the boundaries of Nigeria.

Today, a majority of the Igbo people are still fighting for independence. Their nationalist movement does not receive much media attention, but it is there, nonetheless. Those who advocate freedom and nationality for the Biafran nation cite atrocities and religious intolerance from the Nigerian Federal Government as some of their reasons for still hoping for freedom. According to one group fighting for independence,…. [read more]

American National Character (History) Term Paper

… Meanwhile, Tocqueville argues that "newspapers in America lack power," and he spells out the reasons why through a comparison between French newspapers and American papers. "In America (209), political life is active, varied, and even agitated, but it is rarely roiled by deep passions." And since passions are rarely stirred "unless material interests are compromised, and in the United States material interests prosper," he suggests that thinking alone passionate lines is not very deep nor very frequent.

Further, by glancing at a newspaper in France, Tocqueville sees that "commercial advertising occupies only a very limited space... [and] the vital part of a [French] newspaper is the section that features political debates." However, "three quarters" of "the bulky newspaper that is set before you in America…. [read more]

American Jazz in Jack Kerouac Research Proposal

… ¶ … American Jazz in


As perhaps the only true American musical artform, jazz was created mainly by African-Americans in the early years of the 20th century through an amalgamation of elements drawn from European-American and tribal African musical forms. As Barry Kernfeld so acutely points out, jazz "has had a profound effect on American culture, not only through its considerable popularity but also through the important role it has played" in shaping the numerous forms of American popular music that developed around it and out of it (580). This role can also be applied to other forms of artistic expression, particularly in the field of American literature in categories like poetry, the short story, and the novel. One pivotal…. [read more]

Modernism, and How the Literature Term Paper

… Both writers are products of minority race and their race and experiences influenced their writing. Morrison was African-American. Her books, famously The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon and Beloved, deal with the struggles of growing up debased and disadvantaged in a humiliated sector of America. The novels detail the characters' travails as victims of child molestation; outcasts of society due to differences in race and gender; ravages of slavery (e.g. "Beloved"); and the difficulty of being different ("Sula"). Roth, on the other hand, filled his books (that include Goodbye, Columbus, Portnoy's Complaint, and Everyman) with his Jewish experience; Portnoy's Complaint deals with Jewish identity in America whilst Everyman describes the hardships of growing old in America.

Morrison deals with feminism and the experiences of…. [read more]

African-American Males Essay

… Significance

Since little is known about how African-American mothers actually react to suicides committed by a son, there is little knowledgeable help that the therapeutic community can give to them. It is known that grief is a very private event, maybe even more private in this community because of institutional lack of trust, so getting mothers to tell relate how they have been effected will be central to making sure that other mothers in a similar situation are able to receive better regulated assistance from helping professionals. The body of research in any field is necessary to formulate treatment plans, and the lack of knowledge in this area prevents such plans to be made to any realistic extent. The study can continue the dialogue on…. [read more]

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