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African-American Art Research Paper

… Like Hayden's "Fetiche et Fleurs," Richmond Barthe's "Fera Benga" subverts European aesthetic norms. The "Fera Benga" small bronze statue is full of raw male potency. A naked man dances with a scimitar, a weapon that seems far more phallic than dangerous here. In addition to being filled with energy and motion, the statue also subverts European norms of male perfection and beauty. The "Fera Benga" does not need to be compared with Rodin, as Patton (1998) does, to be appreciated. This statue hearkens to every three-dimensional representation of the human form, from prehistoric art to Rodin. The "Fera Benga" is the idealized male form: no different from the Greek kouros. Only Hayden's form happens to be African. His pose also happens to be far different…. [read more]

African-American Slave Art the African-American Experience Thesis

… African-American Slave Art

The African-American experience is different from any other because of how Africans were introduced to America. Diaspora encouraged a tight bond between family members and friends. African-American heritage is one that is close to the heart because, in many situations, what existed a slave's heart and soul was the only thing that kept him or her going. Art has always been a representation of something - for enslaved African-Americans, art became of form of expressionism, hope, history, and therapy. From ordinary tools to literature, African-American art represents an era of struggle and survival.

Oral traditions go back as far as Africans do. While it might have been frowned upon in America, the tradition can be continued with songs and story telling. These…. [read more]

Colonial America African-Americans Essay

… There was a very small opportunity for moving up in class, as indentured servants, for example, were sometimes given land at the end of their servitude and could vote because they were landowners. Women in this class also worked, for example as slaves, to maintain at least a subsistence level of existence. The slave portion of this lowest class is well-represented by Mammy in "Gone with the Wind," who was in the lowest class and simply owned for her entire life. As descriptions of these three groups illustrate, it was possible for all three social classes -- high, middle and low -- to reside on one plantation and still retain their distinct class status.

3. Conclusion

African-Americans in Colonial America experienced the United States differently,…. [read more]

African-American History Between 1914 and 1929 Term Paper

… African-American History

Between 1914 and 1929, approximately one million African-American individuals moved from the rural south to the more industrial north in a mass exodus known as the Great Migration. This movement was caused by a number of economic, environmental, and social forces that together made life in the northern states far more attractive to the African-American population. This paper will discuss those forces, and how they interacted to help create one of the largest migrations in U.S. history.

First, the southern states had implemented Jim Crow laws, along with numerous other forms of segregation. These laws prohibited African-Americans from voting, marrying, traveling, eating in certain areas, drinking from "white only" water fountains, and many other common everyday tasks. Further, the persecution of African-Americans in…. [read more]

African-American History the Sharecropping System Term Paper

… African-American History

The Sharecropping system

The Sharecropping system was a labor agreement that was shaped by the situation in the South after the Civil War and by the mutual dependency between farmers and laborers. (the Sharecropping System) the Civil War of 1861-1865 brought an end to slavery in the country. However this also meant that many farmers in the South were left without labor to farm their lands. This situation was also worsened by the poor state of the Southern economy after the war." The Southern economy was in such shambles that in many cases they couldn't even afford to buy seed and farm implements, much less to pay hired hands" (the Sharecropping System) There were also many African-Americans still living on the land in…. [read more]

African-American History Sharecropping Was Not a Direct Term Paper

… African-American History


Sharecropping was not a direct effort by whites to keep blacks in a submissive position, but rather was a phenomenon that developed after the Civil War as the South tried to rebuild its economy (Riddle 1995). Southern white landowners did not like sharecropping, however they needed a means of labor to work their land, and ex-slaves had limited employment options as freedmen, thus sharecropping was essentially a necessary alternative, a compromise (Riddle 1995).

At the end of the War, freedmen owned no property, and most were illiterate, and the few skills they did possess related to agriculture production, thus the majority roamed the countryside seeking out family relations, while others congregated in shantytowns around Southern cities and towns (Riddle 1995).

Only about…. [read more]

African-American Literature Du Bois Term Paper

… (93) "The harder the slaves were driven the more careless and fatal was their farming. Then came the revolution of war and Emancipation, the bewilderment of Reconstruction, -- and now, what is the Egypt of the Confederacy, and what meaning has it for the nation's weal or woe?" (92-93) The message is a strong sentiment describing the history of the place, the remnants of fences and homes once opulent and plush, though not enjoyed by the laborers, still indicative of care and prosperity, now only a skeleton of history rotting into the ground or roughly rebuilt to house a worker who simply has nowhere else to go. "I think I never before quite realized the place of the Fence in civilization. This is the Land…. [read more]

African-American Art Creative African-American Literature Research Paper

… The vast majority of X's autobiography, of course, spanned more than his life, it detailed the history of oppression of African-Americans at the hands of America, which the following quotation proves. "One hundred million of us Black people! Your grandparents! Mine! Murdered by this white man! To get 15 million of us here to make us his slaves, on the way he murdered one hundred million! (Haley, 1965, p. 216)." This quotation is indicative of the incendiary language and graphic representation of facets of slavery that X employed to recruit African-Americans to resist their American oppressors. This aspect of The Autobiography of Malcom X is a central component of the literature of African-American artists in the 20th century.

In summary then, it is quite plain…. [read more]

Importance of African-American Music With AA Literature Essay

… ¶ … African-American music with AA literature

Importance of African-American music in AA literature

Music receives a truly hallowed position in African-American literature. A passion for music, especially African-American music, should come as no surprise. After all, African-American ("Black") music has been and still is the dominant influence on modern American popular music, which now captivates and influences most of the world's audiences. American Pop music, even Hip-Hop itself, has penetrated countries as isolated as Guam and Ghana. Thesis: Music is emphasized so much because music is the only distinguishing feature of African-American culture which is exclusively positive.

The Development of African-American Culture and Art (Music)

The migration of many talented, ambitious Blacks from the Agricultural South after Reconstruction to urban areas further north set…. [read more]

African American Literature Term Paper

… Describing a naming ritual, Haley has the father walking through a village to his wife. "Moving to his wife's side, he lifted up the infant and, as all watched, whispered three times into his son's ear the name he had chosen for him. It was the first time the name had ever been spoken as this child's name, for Omoro's people felt that each human being should be the first to know who he was" (Haley, p.3). This ritual shows the involvement of both parents in the child's rearing; not only with the selection of name, but also with their involvement in the community. Moreover, it highlights the importance of naming to parents, which brings to mind the fact that so many African-Americans carry surnames…. [read more]

Du Sable Museum Essay

… Out of Sub-Saharan regions, Yoruba, Senufo, Pende, Chokwe, Shona, Zulu and Ethiopia, have been emphasized in the collection of artifacts. Furthermore, major collection of photography, bibliography, archived documents and photographs and artifacts made by numerous artists are also part of museum's collection.

The art collection comprises of contribution of African-American community living in Chicago and hence contains the work of many Chicago artists. Special attention has been given to the work of those who are part of African-American legacy and have initiated their careers in Chicago after African-American Diaspora such as William W. Carter, William MacKnight Farrow (the first African-American to teach at the Art Institute), William A. Harper, Frederic D. Jones, Achibald Motley, Jr., Norman Parham, William E. Scott, Charles White, Ellis Wilson, Charles…. [read more]

Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

… Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time in history has Latin American art been as relevant and important as today and goes on to support these assertions with several examples to demonstrate why. Another important point made by Bailey concerns the creativity of these artworks irrespective of the artists' origins, a point once again supported with examples from the historical record. To determine how other curators have interpreted these two primary issues through the exhibition of colonial Latin American works, this paper provides a review of Painting a New World: Mexican Art…. [read more]

Historical Progression of African Americans Thesis

… Progress of African-Americans

Historical Progress of African-Americans

"Progress of African-Americans…"

"Progress of African-Americans Through Time"

The historical progress of African-Americans has been peppered with both successes and obstacles. Yet, as we have seen through the development of this course, broken down in units thusly, Unit I 1865-1876, Unit II 1877-1920, Unit III, 1921-1945, Unit IV 1946-1976 and Unit V 1976-Present there are consistent themes of progress political, economic, social/cultural and literary in each of these periods that have brought the culture to where it is today. This work will address one of these themes in each of the units of time and discuss ways in which each led into the other in a system of progress.

Unit I 1865-1876

During the period between the close…. [read more]

Malcolm X's Contributions Essay

… also rejected Malcolm X's rhetoric without offering a closer examination of what the Nation of Islam leaders were trying to say. "All Mr. Muhammad is doing is trying to uplift the black man's mentality and the black man's social and economic condition in this country," Malcolm X states (Chapter 14).

Both Dr. King and Malcolm X grew up in a climate of racism; Malcolm X's father died by white supremacists. Therefore, it would not seem that the two leaders would develop divergent approaches to the subject of social justice and political change. Their respective approaches are different because unlike Martin Luther King, Malcolm X remained deeply cognizant of the structural issues that prevented equality, which could not necessarily be erased with integration. Integration, for Malcolm…. [read more]

Art Exhibition Essay

… Art Exhibition

One of the more often repeated sayings is that the United States is a melting pot of cultures. This is nowhere as true as it is when thinking about the artistic experience since the late 18th century forward. Celebrating this immigrant experience, the Smithsonian Institution presents an exhibit entitled, Our America: The Latino Presence in American Art. The exhibit is located in Washington, D.C., and lasts from October 25, 2013 to March 2, 2014. The exhibition includes 92 works in all media from 72 artists in various styles and genres. The overall message of the exhibition is to celebrate Latino culture through the local experience about what it means to be a Latino in modern-America; the cultural and personal heritage expressed though art…. [read more]

American Revolution New American History Research Paper

… 3 Wood, The American Revolution, 126

Equality and the fact that 'all men are created equal' were stressed a lot in the Declaration of Independence.

The founders of the nation itself did not go on to act on the words that they had written. In the end, the ultimate result was that people realized that they were not slaves and they were also citizens of the country. Therefore, another reason why American Revolution was important is that it provided the basis on which racial segregation was removed.

The American Revolution also gave rise to a cultural and social awareness for the people. It is clear that the people did not want to belong to the British empire. America originally had always been considered a free…. [read more]

American Since 1990 Term Paper

… American Artists 1990

American since 1990

By the early 1990's, John Rozelle had earned critical acclaim in The New York Times and the New Art Examiner for his expertise in combining colorful layers of acrylic paint and collage to create a distinct form of nonrepresentational mixed-media art (Mercer pp). His technique is inspired by his African heritage and says, it "reflects the appropriation of textural surfaces one encounters with sacred objects that have been consecrated with sacrificial offerings" (Mercer pp).

His work is exhibited nationally and can be found in the collections of museums, including the Studio Museum in Harlem, the California Afro-American Museum in Los Angeles, and the African-American History and Cultural Museum in Philadelphia, and corporations including AT&T, Ralston Purina Group and Citibank…. [read more]

Art? To Me Essay

… Moreover, she points out that attempts to strip people of their attachment to art and creativity is one means of dehumanizing people by suggesting that "contemporary African-Americans have been increasingly socialized by the mass media to leave behind attachments to the oppositional worldview of our elders, especially to those having to do with beauty and to assimilate to the mainstream" (Hooks). She reminds people that art can be a critical political and social construct. "Learning to see and appreciate the presence of beauty is an act of resistance in culture of domination that recognizes the production of a pervasive feeling of lack, both material and spiritual, as a useful colonizing strategy" (Hooks).

George Hegel's approach to art focuses on the fact that art is a…. [read more]

Connect the African Cultural Roots Term Paper

… 4. Briefly describe places of cultural significance (Specific museums/events/locations) to study contributors and movements involved in Black intellectual and political recognition/emancipation.

The Washington Monument may seem like the most obvious locale, as it is the physical location of Martin Luther King's famous "I have a dream," speech. Yet far more profound might be the ordinary experiences chronicled in The National Afro-American Museum in Wilberforce, OH. There, there is a "Permanent Exhibit: From Victory To Freedom: Afro-American Life in the Fifties," that chronicles the bravery of ordinary African-Americans during the civil rights movement and the struggle to move what was still seen as the promised land of the industrialized North. In August 200 at that same museum, devoted to the African-American experience, there was a "Temporary…. [read more]

American Versions of Modernism Research Proposal

… American Versions of Modernalisim

The lives of many African-Americans in the U.S. had not changed greatly consequent to the Civil War. It took several decades for black people to be accepted in society as equals to whites and only in the early 20th century have black people started to become recognized as people that should have had equal rights with any other race. When concerning literature, black people found that an imaginary wall stood between them and the community of writers.

Being black in the 1920s in the U.S. meant that one would have to struggle every day to prove that he or she was worthier than people normally expected an African-American to be. Whites often disregarded blacks and refrained from admitting any sign of…. [read more]

American Exceptionalism Essay

… American Exceptionalism refers to allegedly exceptional social and political destiny of Americans guided by Puritanical values of the early migrants. This concept is attributed to Alexis de Tocqueville who believed that the special political nature and social history of America had given it a unique place in the destiny of nations.

"The position of the Americans is therefore quite exceptional, and it may be believed that no democratic people will ever be placed in a similar one. Their strictly Puritanical origin, their exclusively commercial habits, even the country they inhabit, which seems to divert their minds from the pursuit of science, literature, and the arts, the proximity of Europe, which allows them to neglect these pursuits without relapsing into barbarism, a thousand special causes, of…. [read more]

Harlem Renaissance- Literature and Art Term Paper

… " Among the first collaborators to the magazine were Zora Neale Houston and Bruce Nugent, but the magazine itself was short lived. However, it pointed out the need of the "young negroes" not only to find an identity, but also to express it and coordinate it. The movement was already on the way by now, despite its decrease in strength during the Great Depression.

Among the greatest literary works of the Harlem Renaissance is the novel Cane, written by Jean Toomer. Focused on native Georgia, the novel is a return to the ancestral tradition and spirit. Indeed, the hero, Kabnis, considered to be Toomer's alter ego considers his place in society and among races. The author uses verses from African-American gospel songs to depict a…. [read more]

African Art the Trade Center/Royal Term Paper

… Although this has all been proven false by more recent archeological investigations, it is a telling history of Britain's attempt to take indigenous peoples out of the historical mix.

The people who built the Great Zimbabwe lived at the site and built it up from approximately 1100-1450 AD (Ampim). It is divided, primarily, into two different areas. These are the Hill enclosures and those in the valley. It is believed by many that the hill enclosures were the first seats of the kings, but they eventually moved to the Great Enclosure which is in the valley. This is a picture looking down on the valley enclosure.

The Great enclosure iint he valley is also thought to have housed the harem of the king (Tyson) as…. [read more]

African Art Term Paper

… In terms of painting, this sometimes takes on an utilitarian dimension, with painted houses or cloth.

Many elements of African Art are also interconnected with a common denominator, that of performance art. For example, dancing is quite often a significant part of African Art, but this usually comes associates with special dancing clothes and dancing masks, which are often properly decorated to receive the embodiment of what they are supposed to represent (quite often, the dancing may be associated to a ritual or a religious ceremony and the art objects in the ceremony will reflect this).

As dancing masks have been mentioned in the previous paragraph, it is necessary to go into more detail in terms of the importance of the mask in African Art…. [read more]

African and Asian Influences on Western European Art Essay

… She is standing on a Chinese carpet and wearing a Japanese kimono. However, Asian influence was just one out of several styles that affected European art. African art had a profound effect.

African art influenced 20th century styles of European art which is evident in cubism. Looking at the Bakota reliquary guardian figure from Gabon, Mbulu-Ngulu, we see an intermediary between the living and the dead. It is formalized into geometric shapes, the base taking the shape of a diamond, the solid contrasting the empty space (Soltes). The head depicts the connection to the soul and the realm of the dead. Another geometric piece of art is the Fang mask from Gabon, with geometric reduction and geometric emphasis on light and shadow. The Kifwebe mask…. [read more]

American History Changes Essay

… In 1952, Malcolm X, a controversial figure, became a leader in a new movement. The editors of a timeline write, "Malcolm X becomes a minister of the Nation of Islam. Over the next several years his influence increases until he is one of the two most powerful members of the Black Muslims (the other was its leader, Elijah Muhammad)" (Editors, 2010). The Black Muslims believed that Blacks were the only ones who could resolve their differences with society, and that they should use any means to meet their goals, including violence.

In 1954, a landmark decision by the Supreme Court opened up education to blacks and white equally. The case, called Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka allowed black students to attend a previously…. [read more]

Art Qs the United States Essay

… Art Qs

The United States became the focal point of the artistic and painting world following World War II, with the advent of the abstract expressionism school of painting. European paintings remained more tied to traditional roots and still typically depicted scenes, if even abstractly, but American painting moved more towards complete abstraction such as the action paintings of Jackson Pollack and others. The cultural and economic center of the world moved from Europe to the United States during the same period, and this perhaps led to a more intrepid sense of adventure in exploration in American painting, looking towards the new future, while Europeans still tried to make sense of the past that had been lost.


Censorship has long been a major issue…. [read more]

African-American in the Media Term Paper

… I believe that language such as defined in the work by Bogle is extremely derogatory and harmful towards those of African descent. This is especially true since there are no equivalent terms to describe White performers or White people in similar positions. Terms such as "Coon" do tend demonstrate that the person using these terms is racist. It is also unfortunate that even in today's enlightened times, the ideas spawned by the above-mentioned terms continue to pervade Western thinking, and especially White racist thinking.

Bogle suggests that Black actors playing these stereotypes managed to overcome both racism and stereotyping by bringing pleasure to both Black and White audiences. This appears to be true when one considers the many African-Americans in the media who are being…. [read more]

African-American History the Reconstruction Era Term Paper

… African-American History

The Reconstruction Era after the Civil War is one of the most divisive periods in American history. Healing the wounds between the victorious North and the conquered South caused rifts from the smallest farm all the way to Congress and the Presidency. Had the results of the Reconstruction Era brought about a fair and productive division of land in the South following the Civil War, it may have had long-lasting and far-reaching effects. Giving newly freed citizens a share of the spoils of war might have given them a greater chance at an equal footing in society and could have headed off years of racial and economic oppression. Such a division did not occur on any meaningful level because of the lingering resentment…. [read more]

Art Museum Review Essay

… Art Museum Review

The George Eastman House International Museum of Photography & Film in Rochester, New York holds its place in visual history with the exhibition of photographs. The current exhibits of the museum includes "Cameras from the Technology Collection," a retrospective of camera technology from the first Kodak camera to the Brownie, a later model; "Taking Aim: Unforgettable Rock 'n' Roll Photographs Selected by Graham Nash," a retrospective of 100 photographs in pop music, chosen by Crosby, Stills & Nash's musician, Graham Nash, and "Sweet Creations: Gingerbread House Display," which is a baker's delight, featuring exhibitions produced by bakers, community groups and families (George Eastman House, 3).

The Museum had previously exhibited photographs by the Oscar-winning actress, Jessica Lange, 33 images from her travels…. [read more]

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