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Drug Use and Abuse Research Paper

… The participants averaged 32 years of age and 59% were male; males were more likely to use alcohol, heroin, cocaine, crack cocaine, methamphetamine, marijuana and hallucinogens than females; moreover, males reported using alcohol, marijuana and hallucinogens at "…a significantly younger age than females (Shannon, 98). The reason the study was done in eastern Kentucky included the fact that eastern Kentucky has "…the highest prevalence group when examining illicit drug use other than marijuana" for individuals 12 or over in the United States (Shannon, 99).

The participants were solicited by placing flyers in public locations. Once the initial participants were selected (they had to have been injecting drugs in order to quality) they were then interviewed and asked to bring friends (that were also drug users)…. [read more]

Drug Legalization Term Paper

… Drug Legalization

As the country was turning into the 20th century, drugs that were in the market were largely unregulated. There were medical remedies that often contained derivatives of cocaine and heroin. These were freely distributed over-the-counter without a prescription and without the consumer being much aware of which drugs were more potent and which were not. There was a caveat emptor attitude towards the use of medical tonics which could have led to the difference between life and death. This is what led to the war on drugs that led to the implementation of drug regulations. However, these drug regulations have since come of age and they need to be removed.

History of the war on drugs

The war on drugs began in the…. [read more]

Issues of Drug and Alcohol Abuse Term Paper

… Drug and Alcohol Abuse

Over the last several decades, the issues of drug and alcohol abuse have been increasingly brought to the forefront. This is because there has been an effort on the federal and state levels to increase awareness. As the problem has continued to become worse, despite the tremendous amounts of resources that are spent on these programs. Evidence of this can be seen by looking no further than the 23.5 million people ages 12 and older who are in need of some kind of treatment for drug or alcohol abuse (according to the National Survey on Drug Use and Health). This is problematic, as these kinds of issues can have a negative impact on society. ("Drug Facts")

Selecting a topic and defining…. [read more]

Drug Abuse Affects Families Essay

… Children are the most affected in families where the parents or members of the family are abusers of drugs or other type of intoxicants. While the effects of drug abuse among children and adolescents on the family have been researched extensively it has to be remembered that it is the adult to whom the child looks up to understand the world. Under such circumstances the children who have drug abusing parents grow up in a world which they feel is not safe and their sense of values are eroded. The impact their parents' drug use it has been proved, has had deep impact in the lives of children and it is also shown that these children had greater dependency on the parents and such parents…. [read more]

Alcohol Tobacco and Other Drug Usage Among Youths Research Proposal

… Alcohol, Tobacco & Drug Use by Adolescents

The use of drugs, alcohol and tobacco by adolescents in the United States has been a concern of parents, teachers, administrators and community leaders for many years and in many contexts. The purpose of this proposal for a dissertation is to embrace a number of research studies and scholarly articles that bring a fresh focus and provide a theoretical foundation for further study. Research methods include the review and analysis of meaningful scholarship in the literature. The research will also provide information on prevention models being proposed or already in play by communities, schools, and other agencies.

Data and Research on Drug / Alcohol / Tobacco Use

What is the frequency of drug and alcohol use among youth…. [read more]

Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising Term Paper

… Alcohol and Cigarette Advertising

Alcohol and tobacco are among the most heavily advertised products within the media industry, including magazine, newspaper, broadcast, and outdoor advertising (Pfleger Pp). According to a 2001 report, the six major tobacco companies spend approximately $6 billion annually on advertising and promotion in the United States alone (Pfleger Pp). Measured media is roughly $800 million a year for beer, $321 million for liquor, and $120 million for wine, and if sponsorships and promotions were added, these numbers would likely increase (Pfleger Pp). Despite legislation to curb tobacco and alcohol advertising, especially to youths, the companies are still getting their messages across to their targets.

Following the broadcast ban on tobacco advertising in 1971, magazines have become an important medium for tobacco…. [read more]

Drug Usage as a Multicultural Issue Term Paper

… Drug Abuse

The subject of drug usage is an issue that has plagued people all over the world for many years. Indeed, the issue of drug usage is multicultural and pervades many different people groups. The purpose of this discussion is to focus on the drug usage as a multicultural issue. This discussion will focus on a report published by the National Institutes of Health. In addition, we will review the findings of a study published in Journal of Addictions & Offender Counseling.

Drug Usage as a Multicultural Issue

It is certainly true that no segment of the population that is not adverse effected by drug abuse. According to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Drug abuse is a persistent problem. The NIH explains that…. [read more]

Alcohol Advertisement Alcohol Abuse Is a Serious Essay

… Alcohol Advertisement

Alcohol abuse is a serious issue throughout the world. Many people have been injured and killed as a result of alcohol abuse. Alcoholism also has a negative impact on families and society as a whole. There are many questions surrounding the reasons why people drink excessively. The abuse of alcohol is particularly disturbing amongst young people who drink illegally (McClure, 2006). Underage drinking is a major problem that can lead to serious problems and the use of hard drugs. Some people believe that some underage drinking is due to advertisements that are geared toward young people. The purpose of this discussion is to critically evaluate any evidence that seems to indicate that alcohol advertising and promotion is a contributory factor in the initiation…. [read more]

Drug Intervention Term Paper

… Drug Intervention

Annoted Bibliography

Anglin, M.D., Farabee, D., Huang, D., Yih-ing, H. (2004). "Recidivism among an early cohort of California's propostion 36 offenders." Criminology & Public Policy, 3(3), 563-584. California societal voters approved the Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act (SACPA) in November 2000. SACPA or "Proposition 36" (as it is often referred to), gives adults drug abusers who have been convicted of non-violent drug possession the opportunity to choose treatment over incarceration. This study was a follow-up to the program and concluded that crime had been reduced marginally since the SACPA was put into effect. However, SACPA clients remained more likely to be rearrested for a drug crime even after controlling for the interaction between drug use severity and treatment modality.

Cartwright, W.S. (2000).…. [read more]

Drug Abuse and Multidimensional Family Therapy Research Proposal

… Drug Abuse and Multidimensional Family Therapy: Literature Review Only

Review of the Relevant Literature

By any measure, substance abuse represents a serious problem in the United States today among adolescents and adults alike, but younger people in particular can experience some life-altering changes as a result of such abusive practices. According to Burrow-Sanchez (2006), although many adolescents, and perhaps most, experiment with drugs at some point, not all of them go on to abuse drugs in ways that adversely affect their lives. In this regard, Burrow-Sanchez notes that, "Although some experimentation with substances is typical for many young people, fortunately most adolescents who experiment with drugs do not go on to develop substance abuse problems later in life. A small portion of adolescents, however, do…. [read more]

Drugs on the Economy History Capstone Project

… S. Department of Justice, 2010). Opiates were the primary drug of choice followed by marijuana and stimulants. A half of the admissions were taken to ambulatory facilities as opposed to residential facilities. Drug users react adversely to drugs including non-fatal overdoses. These individuals have to go to the hospital for medical attention. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN) in 2006 posited that out of 113 million hospitals ED visits, 1.5% cases were due to drug abuse or misuse hence causing a massive strain on the healthcare systems (U.S. Department of Justice, 2010).

Cocaine, marijuana, heroine and stimulants abuse prompt these ED visits. The 2007 DAWN survey of 63 metropolitan areas indicated that 12.1 deaths per 100,000 persons were because of drug use. Their records also reflected…. [read more]

Drug Use Essay

… Sure, parents are responsible for their children and for monitoring their teenagers for the signs of drug abuse but with prescription drugs, it may be difficult to know that the teenager is using. Unlike with marijuana smoking, there is no telltale smoke or aroma and the teenager might not even have bloodshot eyes. Even being drunk is easier to detect than being stoned on pills. Some parents do not even know their children had been using drugs for years, until something terrible happens. "Despite years using an array of drugs, Jay's mother said her son seemed normal," ("Teen Prescription Drug Abuse On the Rise"). Now that teenager is in a rehabilitation program.

Because prescription drugs are legal, readily available, and socially acceptable, a new approach…. [read more]

Drug Testing in High School Not Just Dealing With Drug Testing Athletes but All Students Research Proposal

… Drug Testing in High School

The objective of this work is to examine the issue of drug testing in high school and not just in terms of drug testing athletes but of all students and the explain why drug testing in high schools is an important policy issue and the direct impact on education that drug testing of all students potentially has to improve education and learning.

It is stated in the work entitled: "The Overlooked Cause of Children Being Left Behind: Drug Use Compromising Academic Success" that students who are drug-impaired "undermine our country's ability to compete on the world stge. Unfortunately, compared with many of our international competitors, the U.S. is operating at a handicap because too many of our youth, indeed our…. [read more]

Drugs Many Essay

… Drugs

Many drugs have been used for medical purposes at one time or another. Pick two drugs that have been used in this capacity and explain the medical rationale behind their use. Conclude with a description of why each drug was later banned from medical usage.

Cocaine and heroin both made their way into the modern pharmaceutical lexicon as medically valid substances. The analgesic effects of cocaine rendered it an easily accessible and effective method of pain relief, and the drug was used as an anesthetic during surgery in the nineteenth century (Burnett & Adler 2008). In particular, cocaine was found to be a potent surface anesthetic and could therefore be used as a local anesthetic during surgery ("History of Cocaine, Medical Use"). Over the…. [read more]

College Students and Alcohol Use Research Proposal

… College Students and Alcohol Use


International Perspective

Findings of studies conducted in 13 countries found that college students are at a high risk for heavy drinking with serious immediate health consequences (Karam, Kypri & Salamoun, 2007). These consequences included drink-driving and other substance use and longer-term consequences, such as alcoholism. Perilous drinking appears more prevalent in Australasia, Europe, and South America than in Africa and Asia, according to the studies. They also said alcohol consumption has been increasing, especially among young people who are college students, in the U.S.A. (Karam, et al.).

These studies surveyed a mixed set of other recent studies from Africa, Asia, Australasia, Europe and South America (Karam et al., 2007). They found that alcohol was more…. [read more]

Substance Abuse Intervention for Homeless Youth Research Paper

… Substance Abuse and Homeless Youth

The focus of this research paper is to discuss the connection between homelessness in youth populations and substance abuse. "Homeless young adults are defined as individuals between 12 and 24 years of age who are without stable housing and who identify with the culture and economy of living on the street [1, 7-9]. Identification with street culture includes engaging in accepted practices for earning money (such as panhandling), adopting unique slang language and developing strategies to prevent victimization" (Gomez et al., 2010). Thus, with homeless youths, the homelessness is not a temporary flirtation with time away from home, but a complete and thorough transition to life on the streets. This distinction is important to make, as this paper is will…. [read more]

Teen Alcohol Abuse Adolescent Essay

… S. aged 12 years or older. The survey collects data through face-to-face interviews of approximately 67,500 persons each year. The survey reports on alcohol use broken out by persons aged 12 to 20 by three categories: current (past month) use, binge use (five or more drinks on the same occasion on at least 1 day in the past 30 days), and heavy use (five or more drinks on the same occasion on each of 5 or more days in the past 30 days) (HHS, 2011).

Timeline. The report on 2012 state-level estimates is expected to be released in the spring of 2013, with substate estimates expected during the summer of 2013.

Program Resources. This prevention program primarily supplements some existing underage drinking programs and services…. [read more]

Adolescent Substance Use and Addiction Research Paper

… Adolescent Substance Use and Addiction

Substance Use and Addiction

Adolescent substance abuse is a major national public health problem. The current levels of the problem remain high despite the existence of recent leveling-off of the substance use by adolescents. Adolescents who abuse substances consistently and persistently often experience an array of problems such as academic difficulties, health-related problems, criminal activities, and poor-peer relationships. . In addition to these problems, there are influences or negative implications on the concept of family, community, and the entire society under the influence of adolescent substance abuse. The main objective of this research exercise is to discuss the aspect of adolescent substance abuse and addiction in relation to five critical concepts: legal/ethical issues, family, school, characteristics, and valuable treatment of…. [read more]

People's Response to Drugs Term Paper

… Using an example from a research a driver who was dosed with moderate marijuana perceived to be driving at a higher speed than the actual speed. Another issue is that the perceptions of enhanced sex under marijuana are believed only exist in temporary distortions (Galizio & Maisto, 2010).

Drugs may be the facilitating factor behind altered individual perceptions. On the other hand, the occurrence of hallucinations and illusions is not likely to be influenced than changes on other perceptions by other factors that are not related to drugs. Hallucinations including LSD promote the visual threshold in individuals arousing the central nervous system, which prompts hyper-excitation of auditory and visual events. Sounds are likely to appear louder while colors are likely to appear more saturated. Likewise,…. [read more]

Co-Occurrence of Substance Use-Behaviors Essay

… Essentially, the issue becomes not one of ethnicity, but one of socio-economic status, education levels, skilled or unskilled labor, and the like. Further, the samples include reference to African-Americans, not blacks, and whites, but not Caucasians. The lack of consistent categories is unsettling and results in inaccuracies (not all blacks are African-Americans, for example) and assumptions. Further, there does not appear to be a categorical analysis for Asians or Pacific-Islanders. This is a significant omission -- one that is no doubt difficulty to remedy in longitudinal studies.

Ethnic and racial status influence the decision made about youth at every step of the juvenile court process. Juvenile offenders who have several arrests are more likely to be involved in violent crimes and property crimes. This research…. [read more]

Contingency Management Alcohol Marijuana Studies Term Paper

… Contingency Management


The purposes of this review are to gain an understanding of the controlled studies using contingency management (CM) in the substance abuse field, and where applicable emphasize those studies that incorporate CM with community reinforcement approach (CRA). This paper should offer a critical review of the literature with an eye toward identifying important and unresolved theoretical and research questions. Logan (1972) holds that there is much evidence that animals also respond to operant contingencies with psychoactive substances.

The New York Times reports in the work entitled: "Toward a Behavioral Economic Understanding of Drug Dependence: Delay Discounting Processes" (2006) states that many times those who are addicted to alcohol or drugs do not stay clean because they either "won't go…. [read more]

Tobacco Products Just Put Out Term Paper

… [NCI]


Tobacco smoking is a grave health threat to the world population and without immediate action the situation will escalate to alarming proportions. With cancer and cardiac diseases on the surge the negative impact of tobacco is plainly obvious. Going by the statistical data it is pretty clear that immediate positive intervention is required to contain the harmful effects of tobacco addiction. Creating awareness among the people as to the dangers of smoking is the first and foremost step in our efforts at controlling this global health menace.


1) FRANK D. GILLILAND, YU-FEN LI, and JOHN M. PETERS, "Effects of Maternal Smoking during Pregnancy and Environmental Tobacco Smoke on Asthma and Wheezing in Children," AJRCCM, Volume 163, Number 2, February 2001, 429-436

2)…. [read more]

Alcohol Prohibition From 1920 Term Paper

… Drug maintenance and substitution programs can also play an important role in harm reduction efforts. Methadone maintenance programs-most of which provide counseling and other medical and social services in addition to Methadone-have proven effective in reducing heroin and other illicit drug consumption, drug-related criminality and the transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases. Methadone is now dispensed in dozens of countries-including every member of the European Union except Greece. The United States was one of the first countries to experiment with methadone maintenance programs, but quickly fell behind efforts in other countries. In the United States, methadone may only be dispensed in licensed "programs" subject to strict federal and state regulations regarding dosage levels, and pick-up times and locations. Methadone maintenance programs in the United…. [read more]

Criminal Justice Scare Tactics and Drug Abuse Essay

… Criminal Justice

Scare tactics and drug abuse

Over the last few decades, there has been use of scare tactics on the drug users in order for organizations to try and keep the younger generations from engaging in the drug use habit. There was use of all kinds of media to communicate this and even movies like Reefer Madness that was released in 1930s and re-released in 1970s depicted several exaggerated and tragic scenes that befell high school students who used marijuana (Sara B., 2012). In the 1980s and 1990s with the clarion call of Just Say No being the top call on drugs, there were other scare tactics that were predominantly used like the frying of an egg to simulate the brain being charred by…. [read more]

Legal Age for Alcohol Consumption Term Paper

… Excessive alcohol consumption is especially related to violent criminal behavior, and the relationship between binge drinking and criminality is more robust among young males than young females. By deferring the legal age to twenty-one, binge drinking among youth may be prevented and thus occurrences of violent criminal behavior may be reduced. Allowing adolescents that are eighteen years of age to consume alcohol directly increases their risk for violent criminal behavior.

Consumption of alcohol among adolescents also greatly increases their chances of using illicit drugs. Adolescents who consume alcohol are 22 times more likely to use marijuana, and 50 times more likely to use cocaine ("Hot topic: Underage teen drinking"). Although this relationship is not necessarily causal, it does point to a correlation that cannot be…. [read more]

Drugs Past and Current Substance Term Paper

… In addition to abuse of illicit substances, teens have consistently demonstrated tendencies toward the use and abuse of tobacco and alcohol products.

The use of mind-altering substances increased considerably during the 1960s, when recreational drug use became "fashionable among young, white, middle class Americans," ("Thirty Years of America's Drug War," 2000). Prior to the 1960s, American mainstream culture did not encourage or support the use of drugs; since then, drugs have been glamorized and even promoted as a tool to enhance self-image. Drugs have also been touted as a means by which to rebel against established authorities. American culture continues to support, even encourage drug use by the ways it is portrayed in the media. The government's so-called "war on drugs" has not helped prevent…. [read more]

Tobacco Industry Research Proposal

… Tobacco Industry: Where Business Meets Ethics

Whether they like to puff up each night before bed, live in the smoking section, and have a jeweled case for their cigarettes, or they walk out of their way to avoid the smoker in the parking lot and would rather sleep in a hotel lobby than a room filled with the stench of smoke, people have an opinion about smoking. Economically, the tobacco industry is one of the largest in the United States, with a history as American as Uncle Sam's. Just as America's citizens and visitors have come to associate the country with Indiana's wide corn fields and the brown cotton pants of the South, tobacco once was both the cash crop and cash itself of the…. [read more]

Addiction Research Paper

… It was quickly adopted for recreational purposes and it became to be widely abused. Within time due to some highly publicized acute reactions and fatal overdoses, stiff restrictions were placed on its use and it was ultimately removed from the market.

Two other drugs, Ecstasy and Crack Cocaine, appeared on the horizon following the demise of Quaaludes. The danger of Ecstasy was made apparent within a few short months after its introduction and it was quickly made illegal. Crack, however, proved to be far more problematic. Crack, because of its relatively low cost and ease of use, rapidly became extremely popular. Its introduction ushered in an entire new era of drug enforcement efforts that viewed crack cocaine usage as a new epidemic.

Obviously, if drug…. [read more]

Drug Control Prevention Is Better Term Paper

… All it needs is awareness of the parents about the prevalence of drug use among children and the dangers it poses to their health and future life.

A more exact estimate of the treatment of alcohol and drug abuse is given in a 2004 report released by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) The report titled "Alcohol and Drug Services Study Cost Study," found that the average cost for treatment of alcohol or drug abuse in outpatient facilities was an estimated $1,433 per course of treatment in 2002. The report also states that non-hospital residential treatment for alcohol or drug abuse cost $3,840 per admission and outpatient methadone treatment cost $7,415 per admission in 2002. ("Alcohol and Drug Services Study (ADSS) Cost…. [read more]

Drugs, Rock Music and Developing Research Paper

… On the other hand, conservatives and traditionalists always blame the corporate mass media from promoting "sexuality, violence, and extreme individualism" (Kraidy, 2001, p. 263). In 1994-95, 97.5% of the 40 highest-earning films showed alcohol and drug use, while in MTV music videos, alcohol was used every 14 minutes and illegal drugs every 40 minutes (Gerbner, 2001, p. 70). Even a country like Lebanon, which is one of the most liberal in the Middle East, although still very socially conservative by Western standards, privately-owned media often came under criticism for portraying sexuality, drug use and violence (Kraidy, p. 270). Western-controlled institutions like the IMF, World Bank and WTO all existed to promote free trade and privatization according to the Washington Consensus, but because of this "traditional…. [read more]

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