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American Foreign Policy Since Its Inception Term Paper

… American Foreign Policy

In his farewell address, given to Congress on September 17, 1796, the father of the country, George Washington warned his fellow Americans against "the insidious wiles of foreign influence, & #8230;since history and experience prove that foreign influence is one of the most baneful foes of Republican Government." (Washington) When discussing American foreign policy since the inception of the nation, one must take into account that the United States of America has been an ever-expanding nation; territorially, politically, and economically. As a result of the continually change in American power and influence in relation to other nations, there has been a continual evolving foreign policy. When George Washington warned about foreign entanglements, the United States was a small and weak nation, but…. [read more]

Foreign Policy of the United States Term Paper

… ¶ … United States

Digressions with Current American Foreign Policy

Our Nation's cause has always been larger than our Nation's defense. We fight, as we always fight, for a just peace -- a peace that favors liberty. We will defend the peace against the threats from terrorists and tyrants. We will preserve the peace by building good relations among the great powers. And we will extend the peace by encouraging free and open societies on every continent," (National Security Council, 2008) the words of President Bush's speech on foreign policy spoken in 2002 reflect the ultimately what our current foreign policy is aiming for. However, it is much debated on how successful those policies are actually proving themselves to be. In the actual implementation of…. [read more]

Foreign Aid and Economic Development Thesis

… They discovered concrete evidence that foreign aid would boost economic development. The three authors asserted that, developed countries should provide the most favorable aid to developing nations to boost their economic development (Barro; 1990, Barro; 1991 Barro; 1996).


Foreign aid plays a significant role in supporting growth processes within developing countries. The empirical evidence it produces is intricate and mixed. Most of the developing countries rely on the help they obtain from donors in order to carry out most of the projects they have within their countries. On the other hand, interested donors dispense their financial assistance but with conditions. This is to ensure that accountability level is the key thing while accounting for the finances dispensed. In addition, there are other measures that…. [read more]

Bush Revolution Term Paper

… Bush Revolution

Analysts believe that President George W. Bush initiated a revolution in American foreign policy, signifying a radical departure from the foreign policies of past presidential administrations. With few exceptions, American foreign policy under the Bush administration differs significantly from foreign policy even of Bush's father or of Ronald Reagan, two recent presidents sharing similarly conservative values and objectives. For example, Reagan intervened in Nicaragua to topple the Sandinistas but did not, as Bush has, proudly proclaim America's right to instigate regime changes in nations that had not directly attacked the United States. The Bush Revolution in foreign policy has largely rewritten the "the rules of America's engagement in the world," proclaiming the need for a strong and "unbounded" United States. The three core…. [read more]

Democratic Party in Massachusetts Term Paper

… The readers will gain respective information regarding the democratic party of Massachusetts and its importance in the state's affairs. The study does support previous researches; Infact the study has also included some elements of previous researches, which were useful; for the development of the study based on the democratic party of Massachusetts. The observations, analysis and findings of previous researches are also added in the study so as to provide the readers with the strong evidences and support regarding the topic of discussion. The analysis and study of the questions and their relative answers will provide the readers with effective information regarding the duties, responsibilities and actions of the authorities of the democratic party in Massachusetts. All in all, this research study is an effective…. [read more]

Civil Liberties in Wartime Thesis

… Civil Liberties During War

Losses on the Home Front in American History

We -- we Americans, that is -- like to think of ourselves as decent people. People who respect the rights of others. People who believe that what we are fighting for when we go to war is to protect democracy and the civil liberties of all of the people of our great and worthy nation.

And yet.

And yet when we go to war terrible things often happen at home. Not the grief of families who have learned that one of their loved ones has been killed. (Although of course this is common.) Not the privations of a country at war. (Although this too happens, although not during the current one.) But what…. [read more]

Federal Government (Both the Executive and Legislative Research Proposal

… ¶ … federal government (both the executive and legislative branches) did and did not do for the freed slaves, and why;

Following the Civil War, the United States still found itself grappling with the cultural divides on racial orientation that were a basis for the war -- along with economic realities of course. In the years immediately following unification and the initiation of reconstruction, these two issues of economic reformation anticipated abolition would be categorically dominant as President Lincoln attempted to balance a severe division of priorities. Naturally, the South would enact an immediate response at the state level to its defeat by beginning to adopt what were known as 'black codes.' These state-based laws proliferated in the south as a precursor to the Jim…. [read more]

State of Today's Modern American Political Parties Thesis

… ¶ … American Political Parties

There is a great deal of controversy concerning the state of today's American political parties, with some analysts suggesting that in spite of the enormous amount of resources directed to them, political parties have lost their direction and ability to fulfill their responsibilities to their membership in a meaningful fashion. Others, though, suggest that modern political parties in the United States have been recently reinvigorated and have become more important to the political process compared to recent years. Clearly, both of these perspectives cannot be entirely accurate so in order to determine which assertion is most accurate, this paper provides a review of the relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning current the state of modern American political parties, as well…. [read more]

Military Strategy Thesis

… Australia's Domestic and Foreign Policy Approach to Confronting Terrorism
Terrorism has emerged as one of the most pressing concerns in foreign
policy and international relations. With the inception of guerilla strike
tactics, multicellular militia organizations and rising tension between the
developing and the developed sphere over the course of the second half of
the 20th century, terrorism has become a method of choice for political
orientation by armed groups airing grievances over territory and
governmental determination. As a result, nations of the developed and
developing spheres alike have had to coordinate efforts to find ways to
respond to an enemy which is difficult to pin down and a nature of warfare
that is unfamiliar to traditional military stratagem.
Therefore, devising foreign policy approaches and national…. [read more]

There Have Been Radical Changes Term Paper

… (Some Points on Understanding China's International Environment) Further all along the 1990s China enhanced its foreign direct investment by 100% in the 10 member Association of Southeast Asian Nations- ASEAN and sanctioned a bilateral swap agreement under Chiang Mai and took significant measures with regard to the creation of a China-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement. (Carr, 2004) The shared sovereignty adjustments as a method of attaining the long-term solution to the prevailing territorial disputes is expected to be evident during the coming decades. (Some Points on Understanding China's International Environment)

To understand further China's significance as an economic and military power has been considerably enhanced since 1949 and particularly since the liberalization policies adopted in the 1980s. Such developments have been visualized in both positive and…. [read more]

British Policy Style? Term Paper

… This assures that they learn the proper attitudes and positions and gives traditionalist some security that the next administration will not undo what has already been done. This system assures that continuity and tradition prevails.

A prime example of a change in policy is the recent policies regarding the Coal and Steel industries. The 1951 Treaty of Paris establishes the market structure of this industry. This treaty formed a basis for maintaining market stability among the treaty countries (Dudley and Richardson 1999). The Treaty of Paris provided a frame work for outside intervention into the industry by the concerned parties in order to regulate prices and assure stability of supply and demand. Recently there has been a shift from this conservative prospective and a trend…. [read more]

Canada International Trade Research Paper

… On the other hand, Globerman said, the modern theory of the multinational corporation stresses the potential need for factor movements, especially the relocation of managers and technical experts, to expedite production rationalization... Since the overwhelming bulk of international trade is carried out by multinational companies (MNCs), foreign direct investment theory suggests that freer trade between Canada and the United States may have increased economic incentives for the cross border movement of skilled labor. (Globerman, 1999)

Globerman observed that laws and regulations that establish criteria and quotas for permanent and temporary immigration would have an important influence on actual immigration patterns. He discussed major changes in immigration laws and regulations implemented by the U.S. And Canadian governments. He reasoned that the net impact of those changes…. [read more]

Foreign Intelligence Surveillance FISA of 1978 Term Paper


Improving Counterterrorism through Modernization of the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)

The Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA) has long been a part of the toolkit of the U.S. executive branch for responding to threats to national security from foreign powers. However, in recent decades, the greatest threats to the security of the nation have not come from single foreign powers but rather from loosely allied groups and organizations that employ terrorist tactics to achieve their agendas. Intelligence gathering is a crucial component in effectively responding to any national security threats, including the threat of terrorism. Therefore, it stands that modernizing FISA to better allow for intelligence gathering of terrorist organizations is necessary in the interests of national security.

With that in mind, it is…. [read more]

NAFTA Historical Beginning Term Paper

… 3. A panel of experts was utilized to handle disputes.

The creation of CUSTA sparked interest from Mexico. The free trading area or FTA spanned greater than 360 million people, and $6 trillion in annual output. NAFTA may also be considered a link to two of the largest trading partners to the U.S.: namely Mexico and Canada.

History Bibliography:

Mariama W. Williams, A Brief History of GATT and NAFTA; Women's Alternative Economic Network

Gary C. Hufbauer, Reginald Jones Senior Fellow and Diana Orejas, NAFTA AND THE ENVIRONMENT: LESSONS FOR TRADE POLICY, Institute for International Economics (2001)

Daryll E. Ray, Director, Agricultural Policy Analysis Center Melissa B. Cooney, NAFTA and the Small Mexican Farmer, Graduate Research Assistant University of Tennessee

US-Mexico Chamber of Commerce.

NAFTA Objectives…. [read more]

China and the World Trade Capstone Project

… However, during the late 1990's, Chinese companies sought listings and raised billions of dollars on overseas equity markets (Lardy, 2001).

Large Chinese companies, including China Mobile, PetroChina, Unicom, and Sinopec collectively raised more than $15 billion through equity sales in New York and Hong Kong in 2000.

Still, this was not enough. China was still not fully integrated into the world economy. High tariffs and various nontariff barriers kept the Chinese economy from being fully involved in international competition.

At this time, China controlled imports by placing limits on the "type and number of companies authorized to carry out international transactions; imposing onerous inspection and safety licensing requirements on imports; developing technical standards designed in part to protect domestic industries; discriminating against foreign goods in…. [read more]

Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gangs: Threat to National Security? Thesis

… ¶ … predominantly Latino Gangs, Mara Salvatrucha (aka MS-13), and the 18th Street Gang operating on the streets of communities across America. This study is significant because it will provide a snapshot in time concerning how these violent gangs operate in this country in ways that can inform and alert both civilian society and government agencies concerning optimal responses to the problem created by these gangs. Through a quantitative and qualitative analysis of documentary evidence and governmental statistics about the Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang, this study developed several conclusive findings on the negative effects of these groups in the United States. The Mara Salvatrucha and 18th Street Gang are becoming transnational criminal organizations given the fact that they originated in Central America and…. [read more]

Immigrants Serving in the U.S. Military Research Paper

… Except for the indigenous Native American population, the United States is truly a country of immigrants. Indeed, most modern Americans can trace their ancestry to the nations of Europe, Asia and Africa and it is reasonable to suggest that the vast majority of U.S. citizens today have ancestors who were immigrants at some point. It is not surprising, then, that the United States has historically turned to this immigrant population in times of war. Because immigrants have by definition intended to permanent relocate from one country to another, it was in the best interests of immigrants seeking permanent residence in the United States to serve in the armed forces because such service represented a fast track to citizenship. It has also been in the best…. [read more]

Japanese-American Biopharmaceutical Industry Term Paper

… The objective of such harmonization is a more economical use of human, animal and material resources and the elimination of any unnecessary delays in the global development and availability of new pharmaceuticals while maintaining safeguards on quality, safety and efficacy, and sustaining regulatory obligations to protect public health. This mission is embodied in the Terms of Reference of the ICH.

Limitations and Delimitations

This problem is limited by the extent to which the United States and Japan choose to continue to permit the extensive interval of time from which pharmaceuticals are available in the United States to when they are available in Japan.

This problem is delimited by the extent to which the United States and Japan choose to cooperate in reducing or eliminating the…. [read more]

Origins, History of the IMF Term Paper

… SRF: Supplemental Reserve Facility loans are to be repaid within a year and a half, and there is a substantial surcharge of 3-5 percentage points.

CCL: This is under the same repayment criteria as SRF, but the surcharge is less (1.5 to 3.5 percentage points).

CFF: This type of loan was designed to help a country experiencing a very sudden "shortfall" in export earnings (caused by world commodity fluctuations), and the financial terms match those of the SBA (except CCF loans have no surcharge).

In the event of a nation suffering a natural disaster like an earthquake, flood, typhoon, or other calamities, or for a country just emerging from war, the IMF provides "Emergency Assistance" loans. They are subject to the basic rate of charge,…. [read more]

Shifts That Have Taken Place in American Term Paper

… ¶ … shifts that have taken place in American foreign policy since the end of the Vietnam War.

The Vietnam War can be rightfully seen as a pivotal moment in the history of the 20th century. The human loss could only be estimated, as there were too many unknown events that influenced the final outcome of the victim count, as "over 57, 000 Americans- and hundreds of thousands of Vietnamese- died. Total American expenses have been calculated at over a trillion dollars." (Rothney and Findley, 1986, 300) However important is the human factor, aside from the tragedies of the Vietnamese and American peoples who engaged their troops on the battlefield, there is the aspect of the dramatic political shift that the war and its outcome…. [read more]

Counterterrorism the Future of Counterterrorism Policies: Examining Literature Review

… Counterterrorism

The Future of Counterterrorism Policies:

Examining Partnerships


Special Operations Forces

Law Enforcement Agencies

The terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 will never be forgotten by the millions of people who witnessed them, whether live or on television, whether American or foreign, and whether old or young. This date has surely joined others as an infamous date in American history. In addition to the palpable shockwaves of grief and shock that these attacks sent around the world, the September 11 attacks have also ignited a fight between the United States and the forces that plot against it, namely the terrorist forces that exist all around the world, hidden from sight. This "fight" has been labeled by the United States government as a fight against…. [read more]

Theological Extremism in America Term Paper

… Domestic & Foreign Extremist Groups

Terrorism has a long and violent history; this is especially true of religious terrorism. While the conditions under which each extremist group operates are different, there nevertheless exist similarities. An examination of two terrorist groups, one domestic (the Ku Klux Klan) and one foreign (the Irish Republican Army), illustrate the differences and likenesses in their respective beliefs and goals, training techniques, tactics to gain social compliance, target selections, and psychological profiles of their leaders. After analyzing such contrasts and comparisons, it seems prudent to discuss the ways in which these terrorist groups are best subdued and conquered.

The Ku Klux Klan (KKK) is a domestic reactionary extremist group whose roots reach back to mid-1800; it surfaced in the South as…. [read more]

Effect of NAFTA in Shipping Essay

… NAFTA -- Maritime Policy

Maritime Shipping within the NAFTA Trading Partners

Alternatives to Waterways

Maritime Environmental Issues

NAFTA: The Effects on Shipping

Since the inception of the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) in 1993 there have been notable changes in the movement of goods from the trilateral trading block formed by the United States, Canada and Mexico. This agreement represents the largest trade block in the world by some economic measures and has consequently increased the strain on the infrastructure of the three countries. New ideas are under consideration for how to best alleviate the increasing amount of congestion on the infrastructure that the trade agreement has caused.

In Europe nearly ninety percent of all external freight trade is seaborne and also accounts for…. [read more]

Political Involvement Term Paper

… Non-American Culture

The World Outside of the United States in 2004

The purpose of this paper is to research contemporary culture outside of the United States and to examine the current trends and movements on the societal level as well as to touch upon the economical, political and religious themes that are predominant in today's international society. Further this paper intends to show that planning for the shifts in the society's culture may possibly for the future contemporary culture and at the least impact or effect it's formation to a great extent.

Globalization is the theme in today's modern culture throughout the world. Globalization is defined simply by the acceptance of other cultures and beliefs for the purpose of applying economical and ecological benefits to…. [read more]

Security Explain the Endurance of NATO Term Paper

… ¶ … security explain the endurance of NATO since the end of the Cold War?

NATO continuous survival after the end of the Cold War still remains a mystery for the academic environment, for scholars, and politicians alike. There have been numerous theoretical debates on the necessity, reasons for being and possible means to influence world politics and international conflicts. In this sense, the main directions of analysis tried to explain NATO from the neorealist, institutionalist, and social constructivism perspectives. However, it can be said that all these three approaches were viable at a certain time in the history of post Cold War NATO.

From its very inception, NATO was built in terms of the realist perspective of the post World War experience. In traditional…. [read more]

Norway and Its Resistance to Join the EU Term Paper

… Norway and the European Union

When Norway gained its independent from Sweden in 1905, (the country having been ceded to Sweden by Denmark in 1814) creating its own monarchy and political governing body, the mood of the Norwegian people was really one of isolationism (Burch, 2005, 2). The reason behind creating the monarchy might at first strike the historian being strange, given that Norway was seeking independence and had been under the Swedish monarchy. However, the reason for creating Norway's monarchy, and inviting Denmark's Prince Carl to be Norway's king, was very much a political decision, and focused on an important issue with which Norway continues to be concerned about today in its decision not to join the European Union; that is, security (Burch, 2005,…. [read more]

Globalization Cafta and Globalization" Corporate Social Responsibility Term Paper

… Globalization CAFTA

CAFTA and Globalization"

Corporate social responsibility is a collective of concepts that are said to further the governance of business in a manner that takes into consideration the ethical aspects of business that could potentially be left behind if the bottom line is the only traditional guide used by any business to make decisions. In a climate of government, consumer and collective business demand for increased CSR in business practices there are many concerns that arise, not the least of which are those surrounding an emerging global economy. There are clear threats to economies that are associated with international trade practices in both old and new markets that have been realized throughout history and have negatively affected nations and regions. One of the…. [read more]

Pharmaceutical Industries Have to Operate Term Paper

… The data that was evaluated was a combination from book, journal articles, review papers and the Internet. The information reviewed pertained to a wide variety of situations and industries. There were some common trends observed in all the material. The commitment of the management and the involvement of the worker are critical no matter what the condition of the external and internal environment the company faces. Integrating the core function -- marketing and sale of products along with the goals and the objectives of the organization is the new route the organization has to now follow.

A distillation of the interviews will be provided in Chapter 2.


Understanding the main…. [read more]

Pri and Carlos Salinas Term Paper

… Salinas PRI

Carlos Salinas de Gortari and the turning Point for Mexico and the PRI

Mexico is a nation long embattled by poverty, political corruption and exploitation by powers foreign and domestic. This disposition is best captured by a consideration of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), which held the office of the presidency from 1930 until 2000. The dominant political party would be notorious for acts of political and electoral repression as well as for the ultimate mismanagement of the Mexican economy, leading to its fundamental meltdown and its inflation ailment in the 1980s.

1988 would mark a turning point for Mexico, with the PRI candidate Carlos Salinas de Gortari taking office under the heavy shroud of election fraud. Consistent with the hostility which the…. [read more]

ASEAN the Study Term Paper

… A majority of the ASEAN initiative ideas surface from the sectoral associations as an outcome of combined recognition, talks, negotiations, and development conventions. In certain instances, novel, rising precedence needing instant performances can also be converted into a new project.

The endeavor of ASEAN was to augment the competitive advantage as a manufacturing centre slated for the global marketplace. A vital stride in this path is the globalization of business in the area by abolishing the interregional tax and non-tax blockades. The outcome of globalization renders the production businesses of ASEAN to be more productive and more competitive in the international market. Concurrently, consumers are positive to buy products from other competent manufacturers in the ASEAN fold, therefore increasing conduction of business among the ASEAN…. [read more]

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