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Depression There Is a Stark Essay

… (Mood Disorders, 198). The causes of depression can be precipitated by external events such as grief over a loved one, or can be recurring states due to hormonal imbalances.

Once depression is diagnosed, depending on the severity of the depression than treatment options may include talk-therapy, anti-depressants, and electric convulsive therapy. The treatment will depend in large part on the patient's wishes, the specialty of the physician they elect to see. Everything from the way that a person thinks about the world, to the way they stand, or what they do for fun, may be cause for alteration in the treatment of depression. Depression can manifest itself in many ways and the treatments are just as varied (Keena, 2009).

Whereas individuals who experience unipolar depression…. [read more]

Clinical Depression Major Depressions Term Paper

… Moreover people do not know the entire truth as to how clinical depression actually works and also to realize as to the kind of treatment required. Like lots of other diseases if the treatment for this is also given at an earlier stage then the illness is easier to get rid of and also early treatment can prevent serious recurrences.

The main causes for depression are chemical imbalances, stress, drugs, reactions to medication, and mental disorders. Most Psychiatrists felt that the reason behind mental illnesses usually is because of early-childhood encounters. But lately, psychiatrics have come to the conclusion that it is not the parents who are responsible but the brain of the individual. The concept that mental illness was caused by a disparity of…. [read more]

Depression in Young and Older Term Paper

… However, approximately 10 to 20% of older women still experience "clinically significant depressive symptoms (Simonds, 2001, p. 121)."

The most important risk factor for depression in older women, according to studies, is physical health problems, such as pain, functional problems, and side effects of medications and treatments (Simonds, 2001, p. 122).

Structural brain changes, vascular risk factors, and cognitive impairment in older women are often to as vascular depression, which can render patients less affected by antidepressant treatment and may have a more chronic course than other forms of depression. Late onset depression can also be a symptom of dementia in older women.

In the past, many researchers have suggested that the "empty nest syndrome" is the major cause of depression in older women (NIMH,…. [read more]

Depression and Internet Usage Term Paper

… Internet Usage, Depression, and Addiction

No responsible treatment of the cause and effect dynamic of depression through Internet usage would eliminate the relationship between Internet addiction and depression.

Previous research has identified the existence of addictive Internet usage and has been able to indisputably link this activity with "significant social, psychological, and occupational impairment." The studies have demonstrated that 'average' Internet use (~ 8 hours per week) has not caused any problems or significant consequences in academic, employment, or relationship problems while the inverse is true of the Internet addict (~ 38 hours per week). This behavior is termed pathological Internet use (PUI).

Current data in the addictions field has shown that psychiatric illnesses such as depression are often associated with alcoholism and drug addiction.…. [read more]

Depression, Diabetes and Obesity Research Paper

… ECT is of particular benefit in patients who have significant functional impairment or have not responded to various trials of combination treatments. This mode of therapy may also be used for individuals who have major depressive disorder with associated psychotic or catatonic features or in those who require an urgent response, for example, in patients with suicidal tendencies. (Gelenburg et al., 2010) The mode of active of ECT is unknown. In this somatic therapy, seizures are electrically induced in anesthetized patients for a therapeutic effect.

Psychodynamic therapy and problem solving therapies are less common models of help in depressive disorder. Psychodynamic therapy focuses on a person's subconscious mind and its processes. These processes affect a person's behavior. The aim of this mode of therapy is…. [read more]

Clinical Theory Practice of the 21st Century Research Paper

… Clinical Theory Practice of the 21st Century


Background of the Comfort Theory

The Comfort theory is one of the theories that have achieved widespread application in the clinical nursing. This theory is an example of a mid range theory that has achieved an extensive application in the clinical nursing fraternity. Kolcaba's initial analysis of the theory of Comfort aimed at focusing on the patients and not nurses. Her further analysis revealed the importance of strengthening the aspect of comfort to all the players in the nursing field. The analysis came up with three forms of Comfort; transcendence, ease and relief. Relief denotes that state in which specific Comfort needs are addressed or fulfilled. Ease is a situation when a person achieves that state of…. [read more]

Is Depression a Causative Factor in Metabolic Syndrome? Capstone Project

… depression and Metabolic Syndrome

Is Depression a Causative Factor in Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic syndrome refers to a condition that includes a number of symptoms that fall under two major categories. Metabolic Syndrome (MS) can be diagnosed by a number of methods, one of which involves obesity and waist circumference. Currently, the working definition proposed by the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) is, with some modifications, widely recommended and used (AHA, 2010). The NCEP definition stipulates that MS is diagnosable by the co-presence of at least three of five definitive factors: 1) abdominal obesity, or excess fat tissue in and around the abdomen; 2) elevated triglycerides; 3) hypertension, or elevated blood pressure; 4) low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL)…. [read more]

Admissions Summary and Analysis Postpartum Admission Essay

… Therefore, the study findings are limited in terms to exactly who they represent. This creates a situation where they can then be made to make assumptions on a very small percentage of people, thus limiting its potential to help create movements in progressive counseling strategies for various high risk populations of new mothers. What may be happening in Taiwan may not be occurring in the United States or Morocco. What is needed to address this clear weakness is a broader spectrum of study participants in similar future clinical trials. Further clinical trials conducted with a broader spectrum of individuals. Future research should incorporate participants from a number of different locations around the country, and potentially even the globe. In fact, using participants from very different…. [read more]

Depression: Not Just a Bad Term Paper

… Finally, I would validate Taylor's challenge in coping with depressive symptoms while being expected to function normally in her parents' house and in this unsupportive environment. I would explain that therapy is a safe place for us to explore her interpersonal challenges and all related feelings, and that I will do my best to be a positive support figure for her. It would be critical to empathize with the client's perception of her experience and synthesize strengths and supports in order to boost her emotional functioning. The core of empathic attunement, that is, seeing the world from the client's perspective, can have a powerful effect on the therapeutic process and outcomes (Mahrer.)

The treatment planning phase must include the beginning, middle and end stage goals…. [read more]

Women Depression Research Paper

… The diagnosis is a result of a combination of the factors being present.


Two primary methods of treatment exist in the world of depression at the present time. Patients receive either some form of medication, psychotherapy, or a combination of the two. Some patients do receive electro-convulsive therapies for their depressive symptoms, which has some efficacy according to research (Zalaquett & Stens, 2006), but it only used in very severe cases of the disorder. The issue among researchers has been which method of the two is the most effective, or is it better to use a combination.

Findings suggest that this depends on the type of depression being experienced. While researchers found that "antidepressants alone are as effective as counseling alone for the majority…. [read more]

Postpartum Depression and the Yellow Wallpaper Research Paper

… Postpartum Depression

Past and Current Understanding of Postpartum Depression: Comparative Analysis of "The "Yellow Wallpaper

Postpartum depression (PPD) also referred to as postnatal depression, is defined as a form of clinical depression which may affect women, and to a lesser degree men, subsequent to the birth of a child in most instances. Recent empirical studies report prevalence rates among women from approximately 5 to 25%; however methodological differences in the studies make the actual rate of prevalence unclear (Kinnaman & Jacobs 2006). Common symptoms associated with postpartum depression include irritability, sadness, guilt, low self-esteem, inability to be comforted, emptiness, social withdrawal, feelings of inadequacy with regard to caretaking of the baby, changes in eating and sleeping patterns, anxiety, and fatigue, episodes of crying and decreased…. [read more]

Depression Term Paper

… A person who develops severe depression may appear so confused, frightened, and unbalanced that observers speak of a "nervous breakdown." However it begins, depression causes serious changes in a person's feelings and outlook. A person with major depression feels sad nearly every day and may cry often. People, work, and activities that used to bring them pleasure no longer do.

Symptoms of depression can vary by age. In younger children, depression may include physical complaints, such as stomachaches and headaches, as well as irritability, social withdrawal, and changes in eating habits. They may feel unenthusiastic about school and other activities. In adolescents, common symptoms include sad mood, sleep disturbances, and lack of energy. Elderly people with depression usually complain of physical rather than emotional problems,…. [read more]

Depression an Analysis of the Role Thesis

… Depression

An Analysis of the Role of Spirituality in the Treatment of Depression

Though there are many modalities of treatment for those who have depression, it appears that the spiritual component for treatment is often overlooked. In modern medicine, for example, spirituality and religion have been viewed as sources of potentially harmful effects; and negative experiences in religion have been related to increased levels of depression (Williams, Sternthal, 2007, p. S48). Indeed, "the philosophy of modern medicine can be traced to Rene Descartes, a seventeenth-century philosopher who believed that the world operates according to mechanical laws without reference to meaning and purpose" -- a belief that has directed the focus of modern scientific inquiry (Puchalski, 2000, p. 32). Unfortunately, in our materialistic modern society where…. [read more]

Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Practice the Demand Essay

… Evidence-Based Practice in Clinical Practice

The demand for maximum quality in Clinical Practice, has increased pressure on medical professionals to ensure that clinical practice is grounded on viable evidence.

Changes in treatments and improving expectations from clients to provide the best care possible, place high requirements on therapists to maintain a service that is grounded on current best evidence.

This paper critically appraises and applies the principles of evidence-based practice in Clinical Practice.

The demand for maximum quality in Clinical Practice, along with the need for sensible use of resources has increased pressure on medical professionals to ensure that clinical practice is grounded on viable evidence. Changes in treatments, a significantly rising volume of research information, and improving expectations from clients to provide the best…. [read more]

Adolescent Depression the Family Term Paper

… al., 1986 in Walker (1986)). Identified several biological, personality, and familial characteristics that may mean a youth has a greater chance of developing adolescent depression. Learning to recognize the signs of trouble are the keys to preventing or helping to alleviate adolescent depression before they become problematic. This may seem like a reversion to the stereotypical "at-risk" child identified earlier. However, this study was much more comprehensive and stressed the point that an individual's ability to deal with stress was more important than any one factor identified. It also stressed that one or a combination of these factors needed to be present to produce depression in some individuals. It was a step forward from previous studies.

Stress and depression should be taken seriously. Approximately 39%…. [read more]

Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia, and Depression: Case Scenario Research Paper

… This is the most severe stage of hypertension and requires extensive interventions that include medications and lifestyle changes. The staging of hypertension is based on multiple blood pressure readings performed on subsequent visits to the clinic. In this case scenario, the blood pressure was measured twice but in the same sitting. Despite this detraction, given Mr. P's history and associated hypercholesterolemia, the stage 2 diagnosis appears to reasonably reflect the severity of Mr. P's hypertension. Stage 2 Hypertension is characterized by a systolic blood pressure exceeding 160 mmHg. Management must address the underlying conditions affecting the patient's depression, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia.


1. Maes M, Mihaylova I, Kubera M, Ringel K. (2011). Activation of cell-mediated immunity in depression: Association with inflammation, melancholia, clinical staging and…. [read more]

Postpartum Depression: The Role Research Paper

… Failures of this kind increase the chances of postpartum depression.


The various roles that nurses can play in the life of a pregnant woman or first-time mother could determine whether mother and child suffer from mental problems over the short-term, and whether the infant suffers from health and social problems over the long-term. While avoiding postpartum depression seems to be theoretically simple, by promoting a strong maternal-infant attachment and reducing stress caused by pregnancy and parenting, treatment approaches are necessarily more complex because they should be tailored to the unique needs of each patient.


Choi, Hyungin, Yamashita, Tatsuhisa, Wada, Yoshihisa, Narumoto, Jin, Nanri, Hiromi, Fujimori, Akihito et al. (2010). Factors associated with postpartum depression and abusive behavior in mothers with infants. Psychiatry and…. [read more]

Psychology Test and Assessment Development Analysis and Clinical Formulation Data Analysis Chapter

… G:
The ease of the administration of MMPI-2 could invite unethical use or utilization of the instrument, leading to careless administration. It is also important to note that the need to ensure that the results of the assessment are kept secure cannot be overstated.
Test scores can be interpreted and presented via percentile ranks. Percentile ranks, it should be noted, come in handy in seeking to enhance the interpretability of z-scores. A test taker with an 87th percentile score would, for instance, easily interpret the said score as being relatively high. This method is also of great relevance in seeking to express scores in relative terms.

IV. Clinical Formulation
With regard to the patient's general intellectual ability, it is clear that the patient…. [read more]

Postpartum Depression Screening Essay

… (2007). Screening for depression in medical settings with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ): A diagnostic meta-analysis. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 22(11), 1596-1602.

Gilbody, Simon, Sheldon, Trevor, and House, Allan. (2008). Screening and case-finding instruments for depression: A meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 178(8), 997-1003.

Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: A new health system for the 21st century. Retrieved 20 Sep. 2012 from

Kozhimannil, Katy Backes, Adams, Alyce S., Soumerai, Alisa B. Busch, and Huskamp, Haiden A. (2011). New Jersey's efforts to improve postpartum depression care did not change treatment patterns for women on Medicaid. Health Affairs, 30(2), 293-301.

Leung, Shirley S.L., Leung, Cynthia, Lam, T.H., Hung, S.F., Chan, Ruth, Yeung, Timothy et al. (2011). Outcome of a postnatal depression…. [read more]

Long-Term Depression and Increased Risk for Heart Term Paper

… Long-Term Depression and Increased Risk for Heart Disease Later in Adulthood Compared to Individuals Who Do Not Have Depression: Systemic Review

Individuals with depression have been found to have a higher risk in later adulthood of developing heart disease than are individuals who do not have depression.

The objective of this study is to examine whether individuals who have long-term depression are at an increased risk for heart disease later in their adulthood compared to individuals who do not have depression.

The work of Kop, Synowski and Gottlieb (2010) report that depression "is associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular disease and heart failure progression. The largest published meta-analysis to date provides a review of 54 observational studies and indicates that depression is consistently…. [read more]

Severe Major Depression and Treatment Modalities Term Paper

… Depression treatment modalities among the elderly: do personality traits effect treatment outcomes?

Depression is a severe disorder that can have devastating effects on the elderly. This disorder can affect all aspects of life, including physical, emotional, and psychological well-being. Although research has determined that combination therapy (antidepressants and psychotherapy) is the most effective treatment intervention for elderly individuals with depression, little research has focused on the influence that personality traits has on treatment outcomes. This study proposes to study the impact of personality traits on the treatment of depression among the elderly through the examination of NEO-Five-Factor-Inventory scores in comparison to improvements of Beck Depression Inventory scores between baseline and outcome measures in 3 experimental treatment conditions (antidepressants, psychotherapy, combination therapy). This study hypothesizes that…. [read more]

Advanced Clinical Practice With Individuals Critique Term Paper

… ¶ … Clinical Practice with Individuals Critique of Practice

Behavioral change theories and designs mainly allow an individual to adapt and change a negative or damaging habit into a positive and healthier one. All behavioral change theories help the researcher to categorize the changes that individuals go through and the behavioral change designs help the individual to have basic guideline form where they can start to initiate the change themselves. The main aspects in the behavioral changes theories are internal factors like the confidence, behavior, attitude and beliefs of the individual and the external factors like the social structure, family and environment that surrounds the individual (Maurer, 1996).

Purpose of the Paper

In this paper we will analyze the behavioral changes that a teenager, 19-year-old…. [read more]

Analysis of Clinical Depression Capstone Project

… These four sessions are important since they will address various issues relating to developing coping skills for handling major depressive disorder.

The goal of the first session will be to help the student identify how his/her condition is affecting his/her ability to handle academics and relationships. The second session will focus on helping the student develop self-advocacy skills while the goal of the third one is to create strategies for managing the impact of the condition's symptoms in the school setting. The fourth session will be centered on teaching the student how to seek adult help/support when experiencing difficulties in coping with the condition. These goals and objectives are suitable because it will help the student develop suitable coping and management skills for dealing with…. [read more]

Depression and Eating Disorders Term Paper

… The researchers classified a sample of college students as asymptomatic, symptomatic, or eating disordered using the Questionnaire for Eating Disorders Diagnosis. The researchers found that self-esteem was negatively related to the presence of eating disordered behavior, whereas perfectionism was positively related to eating disordered behavior. They also were able to classify 59% of their sample on the continuum from asymptomatic to eating disordered using these variables.

Reference two: Green, M.A., Scott, N.A., Cross, S.E., Yu-Hsin Liao, K., Hallengren, J.J., Davids, C.M., Carter, L.P., Kugler, D.W., Read, K.E., & Jepson, A.J. (2009). Eating disorder behaviors and depression: A minimal relationship beyond social comparisons, self-esteem, and body dissatisfaction. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 65, 989-999.

The article begins with a discussion of how downward social comparison, low self-esteem,…. [read more]

Depression Article Review

… The USPSTF felt by 2004 that the quality of evidence for the 2002 study was insufficient in areas such as screening, but now feels that screening is effective in detecting suicide risk (ibid., 786).

The methods for formulating the recommendations described are sound. Based upon this. The USPSTF recommends screening adults for depression when there are staff-assisted depression care supports in place to insure accurate diagnoses and effective treatment and follow-up. Otherwise, the recommendations are against routine screening outside the assisted care environment (ibid., 784).

The health benefits, side effects and risks have been effectively considered so the recommendations to treat depressed adults and older adults were identified by screening in primary care settings by the use of antidepressants or psychotherapy (ibid., 785).

Given the…. [read more]

Depression Disorder Term Paper

… Depression Disorder


This paper is about depression. It will cover the DSM diagnostic criteria, and discuss the development of depression from two viewpoints, CBT (cognitive-behavioral therapy) and the biochemical and environmental components which are linked causative factors. This paper will then cover the four key indicators of depression, including physical, cognitive, social and emotional symptoms.

Description of depression

DSM-IV criteria

Depression is typified by a number of key diagnostic factors. One can differentiate between generalized depression and major depressive episodes. In order to be diagnosed as a depressive episode, five of the following elements must be present, according to DSM-IV criteria:

Depressed mood most of the day, and every day.

Reduced sensory interest, including taste, visual, smell.

Significant change in body weight (up or…. [read more]

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder Symptoms and Symptom Management in the Combat Veteran Capstone Project

… Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been recognized by a growing number of healthcare authorities and U.S. governmental agencies as a serious and potentially debilitating condition in combat veterans returning from tours of duty in Iraq and Afghanistan. Although estimates vary from troubling to extremely alarming, the incidence and prevalence of PTSD among this population is far higher than for the general population in the United States, and the adverse effects of the condition are further exacerbated by a number of other factors, including early life stress, different levels of individual resiliency and a potential genetic predisposition as well. The consequences of untreated PTSD can be severe, including suicide, another trend taking place among the combat veteran population that has researchers scrambling for answers and efficacious…. [read more]

Client in Question Is a Relatively Young Thesis

… ¶ … client in question is a relatively young white female. At 30 years of age, she has recently been divorced from her husband of several years. At the present time her ex-husband has custody of her two children she had had during the course of their relationship together. Her children's ages are eight and ten years of age. Currently, she works at a local public school where she is employed as a teacher's assistant. However, she has not yet earned her Bachelor's Degree which results in a relatively low salary due to lack of accreditation. Although her children do not presently live with her, she does share her home with her unemployed mother, whom she solely supports. Despite such economic hardships, the client is…. [read more]

Non-Drug or Supplement Treatments for Depression Compared With Prozac for Effectiveness Research Paper

… Prozac

Non-drug or supplement treatments for depression compared with Prozac for effectiveness

There are a number of experts who believe that an imbalance in an individual's neurotransmitters is the root cause of depression and clinical depression. Prozac is described as being affective in addressing this mental health condition by preventing the reuptake of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, by nerve cells after the substance has been naturally released in an individual's system. Uptake is considered an important mechanism in removing released neurotransmitters and ending their actions on connected or adjacent nerves. As such, the diminished uptake caused by the introduction of Prozac or flouxetine increases available serotonin that then stimulates nerve cells in the brain. Prozac has been approved by the Federal Drug Administration as a medication…. [read more]

Herbs That Have Been Proven to Treat Depression and or Anxiety Successfully Research Proposal

… Herbs as Treatment

Treating Depression and Anxiety with Herbs

Millions of Americans are prescribed prescription drugs every day to help relieve symptoms of depression or anxiety. What are usually not discussed with the patience is how prescription drugs work, whether or not they provide lasting relief safely, and alternative options.

FDA reports, warnings, and independent reports have continuously confirmed that prescription drugs cause severe side effects, may be addictive, and may not be any more effective than placebo in relieving many types of depression or anxiety.

Natural Alternative Medicines

Herbal medicine comes from an herb that is a plant or plant part used for its therapeutic properties. Herbal medicine products have been used medicinally for thousands of years to promote good health, to relieve symptoms…. [read more]

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