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Subprime Loans Essay

… 7. Corruption and Larceny in Banking Sector:

Money laundering activities and illegal business transactions by customers has spoiled the image of banking sector in the eyes of customers. The corruption and mismanagement at the Top level has also put a negative impact on the customers' perception towards efficiency and reliability of banking companies. Now customers have to evaluate all the banks on their credit ratings, asset management, and other parameters of financial performance before putting their savings with them in the form of deposits. All these black marks are caused by corruption and larceny which has also made the efficient and transparent functioning of banks doubtful in the eyes of their stakeholders. The decisions made at the Top level affect the entire business relationships of…. [read more]

Social Accounting Socio-Economic Essay

… 1995a: 62-3, Monbiot 2001). Business increasingly has seen social accounting as a public relations opportunity in an age where increased emphasis has been placed on business image. As global communication in cyberspace has taken off, social accountings have manifested increasingly on the World Wide Web. From the 1980s onwards, business has reflected the increasing concerns about the ecological environment in their social accounting, displacing other social accounting concerns to some extent (Owen et al. 2005, Gray 1999:9). If environmental accountings have in some cases intermeshed with wider social concerns - a tendency that is marked in some forms of sustainability reporting (Elkington 1998) - such social accounting in practice has continued to be disappointing. Environmental and sustainability accountings may have become increasingly evident in practice…. [read more]

Lao Tzu Essay

… Machiavelli's concept of the Prince and Lao-Tzu's concept of Tao Te Ching are intriguing facets that touch on many aspects of leadership. These facets deal with human life and existence in the world. From the study reiterated on the relation between the two bodies of knowledge, it is evident to find commonalities and differences that exist between them. Machiavelli's concept of the Prince and Lao-Tzu's concept of Tao Te Ching are rudimentary to human virtuous existence, stability of political and social themes, and equitable leadership and power of the leaders over the people. This piece of study has endeavoured to explore on the relationship between Machiavelli's concept of the Prince and Lao-Tzu's concept of Tao Te Ching.

The two passionate individuals portray ancient inceptions up…. [read more]

Policy Studies Term Paper

… For developing consistent policies, it is also important to relate them to general principles of evaluation. In order to develop policies with maximum possible output, tradeoffs between conflicting aspects have to be made. Such tradeoffs can often be made by means of a cost-benefit analysis.

The knowledge pertaining to policy analysis is primarily drawn from the social sciences. However, the knowledge necessary for effective policy analysis is not derived from any particular discipline of social science. It draws its problems from the realm of actions, rather than the questions asked by particular disciplines. (Duncan) This is the reason that the process of policy analysis involves various disciplines rather than a single logical subject. The disciplines considered while conducting a policy analysis might include economics, political…. [read more]

Relevance Materiality Quantitative the Financial Essay

… In the process of analyzing the financial conditions of a company, the company management is noted to have an upper hand. Franco et al. (2009) on the other hand indicated that users use financial information for comparability purposes. They use it for comparing the performance of an organization to its competitors' performance. The users in this case can be shareholders and company management. Financial reports can also be used for corporate governance. In this case, management, shareholders and regulatory authorities can use it in evaluating the level of corporate governance and accountability (Dabor and Adeyemi,2009).

Financial Year/Accounting Period Concept

The concept of financial year is not widely explored in existing literature.

The Analysis and interpretation of financial reports with Ratios and percentages

Application of Literature…. [read more]

Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq Literature Review

… Role of Private Investment on Economic Development in Iraq

Private investment in developing countries

An overview on early Empirical studies

In 1980s, the developing countries encountered some increment in their development behaviours with debt crisis, which affected the formation of capital. Concurrently, the affected countries were transforming from the post-era to a structural reform efforts. In mid 1980s, the developing countries adopted the reform programs within the new paradigms (Serven&Salimano, 1993) & (Jaspersen, Aylward&Sumlinski, 1970). Consequently, this led to the formation of environmental private sector that highly relied on the existing market. The formation and implementation of the new policies affected the availability of response to the private investments. The debt crisis lowered the private investments within the developing countries and this disheartened them. The…. [read more]

BP Essay

… The ironic thing is that at the same time, BP mounted an extremely successful advertising campaign as a strategic move to portray itself as an environmentally friendly corporation and a champion for causes that are environmental. This marketing strategy worked extremely well and saw the company become one of the most profitable multinational companies in the whole world. Its ranking for the way it treated its employees and a champion of corporate social responsibility (CSR) also improved. The work of Cherry and Sneirson (2011) however examined the disconnect that existed on how British Petroleum portrayed itself in the public eye and the actual manner in which it behaved whenever its corporate image was at stake. The advertizing campaign launched by BP had a very striking…. [read more]

Employment Discrimination at Wal-Mart Foundation Essay

… But more than a handful of young ladies sewing garments in a classic version of a sweatshop are caught up in the Wal-Mart debacle. More than one million workers are employed at Wal-Mart, the majority of whom are women (Gary, 2011, Jay, 2011).

Part and parcel of the workers' rights violations at Wal-Mart is the patent discrimination against women workers. "In 1999, women constituted 72% of Wal-Mart's hourly employees, but only 33% of its managerial employees" (Bhatnagar, 2004). Employee grievances of any type at Wal-Mart appear to result in punitive managerial actions, up to and including dismissal. But grievances related to sexual discrimination in wages and promotions are treated particularly harshly, such that, a female employee at Wal-Mart who grieves her situation may find herself…. [read more]

Corporate Social Responsibilities Term Paper

… ¶ … responsibility of companies has historically been defined in purely economic terms. For example, Friedman (1990) considered maximization of shareholder wealth as being the sole objective and responsibility of a well-managed company. This perspective, though, generally viewed corporate social responsibility activities as a distraction rather than a goal. From this perspective, any expenditures of resources in the interests of social responsibility was at the expense of shareholders, and the interests of shareholders and other stakeholders were defined implicitly as conflicting and mutually exclusive. Today, though, stakeholder theory maintains that stakeholders should be considered as an important component in a company's overall business plan. By sharp contrast, neoclassical economic theory treats companies as unitary actors that seek to maximize their profits. The stakeholder approach to…. [read more]

Decision Making Barnes and Noble Essay

… The market research assists executives in determining whether or not developing a new product that will be the most beneficial for all stakeholders. Stakeholders are inclusive of employees, investors and consumers.

New business acquisitions

New business acquisitions are vitally important to the development and growth of Barnes & Noble Inc. Over the years the company has been involved in revolutionary business acquisitions that have assisted the company in becoming the large corporation that it is today. One of the most important acquisitions came in 2009 with the company's acquisition of the Barnes & Noble College bookstore business. This acquisition was important because it combined Barnes & Noble retail and college businesses permitting the company to increase its brand recognition while also ensuring that the company…. [read more]

Poverty and Economic Development Essay

… In other words, participate actively in making decisions that affect their life chances and engage the process of their empowerment, which are essential to improving their material conditions.

Trade and Investment

Trade and investment is very critical constituent of economic growth and a significant foundation of creating jobs and sustainable growth of the economy for Africans countries and both communities and producers. Despite the economic development which is visible in seventeen countries across the Africa continent for the last decade, most sub-Sahara Africa countries have done the necessary requirement to benefit from worldwide trade. During 1980, sub-Sahara Africa countries was having 6% share of the total global trade. But according to Adejumobi (2004) in 1998 the share of the total contribution of sub-Sahara Africa to…. [read more]

Social World? The Effects Essay

… It is therefore necessary for the society to be tolerant of the emerging technologies but while being aware of the potentially dangerous aspects of information technology.


Albu, M., .(1999). Knowledge Systems and Technological Dynamism in Industrial Clusters in Developing Countries. World Development, 27(9), 1715-1734.

Bourdieu, P., & Wacquant, J.D. (1992). An invitation to reflexive sociology. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Bolin, K., Lindgren, B., Lindstrom, M., & Nystedt, P. (2003). Investments in social capital -- Implications of social interactions for the production of health. Social Science and Medicine, 56, 2379-2390.

Campbell, C., Williams, B., & Gilgen, D. (2002). Is social capital a useful conceptual tool for exploring community level influences on HIV infection? An exploratory case study from South Africa. AIDS Care, 14,…. [read more]

Management Control Systems Essay

… This approach of using an MCSP as both a control system for accounting, finance and operations combined with market data is unique to IKEA. Their approach to measuring performance underscores the ability they have to attain high levels of customer loyalty and profitability as well.

Another example of how MCS as packages support organizational objectives and increase performance is the use of the perfect order metric in manufacturing, the reduction in Days Sales Outstanding (DSO) in financial statements and increases in customer satisfaction all emanating out of having a solid MCSP platform in place that unifies and strengthens the organization in pursuit of financial and market-based goals.


Cruz, I., R. Scapens, and M Major. 2011. The localisation of a global management control system. Accounting,…. [read more]

Managing Out the Public Sector in the Community Essay

… Partnership OZ:

'Managing out' public social work administration in Australia

In 2008, Social Work theorist, Jim Ife made public his critique of the Australian Association of Social Workers (AASW) Code of Ethics (AASW, 2002). Referencing John Solas and the propensity and limits to official advocacy within the scope of national social work practice, Ife describes the preemption of social justice by market forces in the nation's policy, where utilitarianism, the basis of economic rationalism and crude empiricism has come to dominate the field of governance and social service known as public administration. According to Ife, "utilitarianism forms the basis of many of the policies, practice manuals, and managerial practices that form the context within which social workers work." Not surprisingly, he maintains, adherence to utilitarianism…. [read more]

PESTLE Analysis Country's Profile Political Essay

… Poor water management and inadequate storage are the main causative agents for this situation. There have been various plans been rolled out in Pakistani parliament, however most of them failed to secure the support of majority so there has been no substantial growth in this regard. The country has been working in a close liaison with United Nations Development Pogramme and has been taking measures for saving wildlife, and maintaining adequacy of natural resources (See Figure A in Appendix A).

Out of all these factors, poor infrastructure and shortage of energy and fresh water resources are main factors which can act as a major hurdle in carrying out manufacturing in Karachi, Pakistan. According to Pakistan Textile Journal, more than three hundred factories have shutdown only…. [read more]

Regulation of Banks Essay

… Investment banks also underwrite stock offerings just as they do bond offerings. In the stock offering process, a company sells a portion of the equity (or ownership) of itself to the investing public. The very first time a company chooses to sell equity, this offering of equity is transacted through a process called an initial public offering of stock (commonly known as an IPO). Through the IPO process, stock in a company is created and sold to the public. After the deal, stock sold in the U.S. is traded on a stock exchange such as the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE) or in India on the National Stock Exchange (NSE). The equity underwriting process is another major way in which investment banking differs from commercial…. [read more]

Rise and Fall of Nortel Essay

… The organization experienced increased strain because of prompt acquisitions that detrimentally implicated on its performance and elicited its decline. Fraudulent financial analysts and irresponsible accountants induced rapid deterioration of the company's performance (Markarian, Magnan & Fogarty, 2009). Such irresponsible and unfit analysts and accountants largely violated ethical and accounting principles. This unethical activity decreased profitability and productivity of Nortel Corporation. They intentionally disregarded the principles set by GAAP to the detriment of the company. Instead of employing qualified accountants, the managerial team appointed internal accomplices to aid in the embezzlement of company funds.

Reasons why Business do this Mistake

Aggressive growth is a serious mistake that induces failure among corporations. Unplanned expansion and aggressive acquisition of assets and shares causes the companies to seek unprofitable…. [read more]

Stock Market and the Banks Essay

… This result of the paper are certainly reliable with the opinion that the services offered by financial institutions and markets are significant for long-run growth.

Asli Demirguc-Kunt and Vojislav Maksimovic (1996) illustrate those firms in countries with improved functioning banks and equity markets grow at a high rate than predicted by individual firm characteristics. Industries that rely more on external finance prosper more in countries with better developed financial markets. Raymond Atje and Boyan Jovanovic (1993) show a cross-country study of stock markets and economic growth. They find an important association between growth over the period 1980-1988 and the stock market trading value divided by Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 40 countries. Apart from added number of countries by 20% and approximately doubling the number…. [read more]

Cultural Distance Essay

… This means it would be less expected to acknowledge a higher organizational culture as McDonalds (Tallman, 2007). In any case, the popular fast food organization devised a workable plan to succeed and survive the Nippon market courtesy of some strategies.

The first issue of the company was that the Japanese social order is well-known for consuming rice throughout the day as a "filling" dish. As a result, McDonald's presented new items made of rice in the business sector, such as Chinese fried rice, curried rice with a fried egg burger and chicken. After the launching of these new items, the organization devised a workable plan to be considered from the Japanese social order (Parvis, 2007). Besides Japan, there is a hoisted feeling of commonality, something…. [read more]

Managerial Benefits of CSR Improves Essay

… CSR affects employees, investors, and customers positively

A lot of research has been conducted in so as to look at the effect of CSR activities on a corporation's relationship with the stakeholders as well as investors management. Sturdivant & Ginter (1977) pointed out that, the corporation having good CSR activities have a higher chance of posting better financial performances when it comes to their EPS, ROE, net margin, profit margin among the rest of the equally important financial indicators. The positive relationship that exists between CSR and the overall financial performance then transforms to improved relationships between the firm and its investors. This therefore means that it can have a direct impact on the investment decisions of the investors.

On the effect of CSR on…. [read more]

Management Planning: The Failure of Worldcom Essay

… ¶ … management planning: The failure of WorldCom

(A lack of) management planning: The failure of WorldCom

The former corporate behemoth 'WorldCom' has become such an infamous symbol of accounting fraud that it is easy to forget the company was once one of Wall Street's hottest commodities during the bubble. But its investors were not simply victims of the 'irrational exuberance' of the late 90s/early 21st century boom and bust. WorldCom's presentation of its financial status to its investors was a blatant fraud. Lackadaisical management of the increasingly unruly conglomerate, deregulation that permitted conflicts of interest between investment banking firms and the organization, and 'creative' accounting that inflated the corporation's net worth were all factors in the losses suffered by innocent investors and employees.…. [read more]

International Human Resources Culture, Political Essay

… 45-58). The management of this hotel can do an agreement with Pepsi for soft drinks, and other specific vendors for other fast turnover items, this approach can also help this hotel to convert its global presence into competitive advantage. In short, we can clearly state that creating critical mass in selecting items or fast turnover items can be helpful for global player to avail the opportunity to build centres of excellence for the development of specific technologies and/or products (Gupta, Govindarajan and Roche 2001, pp.45-58).

There are many activities that a global company performs all over the world. These activities include sales, distribution, production and procurement etc. There are various advantages of tapping into different locations and resources, for example performance enhancement, cost reduction and…. [read more]

Financial Scandals and Management Essay

… The justice principle requires the theories to present actions that are fair in management decision-making. The beneficence principle expects one to do good. The theory of deontology requires one to adhere to their obligations and responsibilities. In this theory, Enron executives are obliged to serve their stakeholders with dignity. They were responsible for the employees, debtors and customers.

However, it is not easy to apply the managerial ethics and management principles as suggested by Jackall (2010) and Mintzberg (1989). This is because managers in today's business world have a different managerial behavior as compared to the behavior of the classical theorists Henri Fayol and Henry Mintzberg. This is because managers are faced with larger workloads, and an organizational structure that has a pattern that is…. [read more]

White Collar Entrepreneurial Crime Allen Essay

… In this case it may have been in the best interest of the investors to try to salvage some of the funds that were in the firm's possession to repay the company's clients. Many people had their entire life savings invested with the company and lost everything. Even if they could have gotten only half of their investment back then they would have been in a much better financial position; especially for the clients close to retirement. However, protecting the clients was complicated by the fact that most of the company's holdings were held oversees and thus out of the U.S.'s jurisdiction. Closer integration with foreign countries and stronger prosecution for tax havens could also prevent the possibility for this happening again in the future.…. [read more]

Business Law Essay

… (Eichenwald, 2005) (Fox, 2004) (Fusaro, 2002)

The Effects of Enron on the Legal System

The biggest problem with Enron from a legal perspective; is that the firm was in violation of the Securities and Exchange Act of 1934. This requires that all firms must disclose any kind of adverse material changes in their financial situation to investors and regulators. The fact that they were hiding these losses was an attempt to defraud the public. Moreover, the false reports meant that the information submitted to the SEC was considered to materially misleading (which is also in violation of these provisions). (Farrell, 2009) (Niskanen, 2007)

After the bankruptcy, the federal government went after executives who were a part of the cover up. Their basic strategy was to…. [read more]

International Training and Development Essay

… They believe that their employees are perfect in each way and as technical skills are required to carry out the job, there is no need for further training. Along with the perception of senior level management, the limited budget and lack of knowledge about proper training courses are two other factors that limit the use of international training programs in the West (Kissack and Callahan, 2010, p. 365-80).

The reasons for Chinese lack of training in Multinational Enterprises are somewhat similar to the Western world. They also believe technical skills to be the dominating factor leading to the success of assignments abroad, and their employees are technically sound so they do not need to go through the hassle of training programs. For Chinese MNE's cultural…. [read more]

Human Side of Change the American Workforce's Journey Through Lean Manufacturing Essay

… Human Side of Change, The American Workforce's Journey Through Lean Manufacturing

The modern day American workforce is one of the most globally developed and empowered workforces. The employees become organized in unions that protect and promote their rights. The individual staff members are able to select from several employment opportunities those that best serve their needs. Once on the job, they are subjected to training programs which improve their career paths and they are protected by the constantly developing employment legislations.

However, the American workforce has not always been this developed and protected. Its basis was set starting with the Industrial Revolution, as the innovations of the time such as the steam engine, textile production or the iron processing operations allowed entrepreneurs to emerge and…. [read more]

Nature Project, Sources Information Plan Essay

… Aside from the secondary sources -- as shown in the Nature of sourcessection -- the actual research and analysis would also draw on the primary sources, namely the documents provided by the company for the public. The use of these primary resources is limited, since Ford is a private company and only discloses partial information to the audience. The usage of secondary sources of information is characterized by an efficiency of research, through the elimination of the need for field research. Nevertheless, focus will have to be placed on the nature of the sources selected, so that they are relevant, pertinent and trustworthy.

The precise research method to be employed in the collection of data is represented by the case study, which is a commonly…. [read more]

South Australia Ambulance Service Organizational Essay

… STEP analysis


SAAS is a socially responsible organization investing in disaster prevention and primary care.

Due to increase in disaster care and primary care interventions, the mortality rates of heart disease and cancer are decreasing. This is resulting in increased life of an individual.

The demographic trend is slowing down.

Life expectancy is increasing due to increased access to primary care and standards of living.

Raising taxes earmarked for health leads to higher expectations.


Medical science is advancing at a rapid pace. There is an increase in technological advances including treatment ways, and advanced pharmaceutical procedures.

Due to advances in surgical equipment, the patient hospital stay time has decreased.

Genetic advances leading to improvements in diagnosis and treatment with improved results.

Patients will…. [read more]

Pepsi Cola Company ) Is a World Essay

… Pepsi Cola Company (2008) is a world leader in foods and beverages with revenues of more than $39 billion and operates with more than 185,000 employees. It consists of PepsiCo American Foods of PAF, PepsiCo Americas Beverages or PAB and PepsiCo International or PI. Among PAF products are Frito-Lay North America, Quaker Foods North America and all Latin America food and snack businesses in Mexico. PAB covers all PepsiCo beverages in North America and Latin America. And PI covers all of its beverage businesses in the United Kingdom, Europe, Asia, Middle East and Africa. PepsiCo brands are sold and available in almost 200 countries, selling at more than $98 billion on retail level. The company headquarters are in Purchase, New York (PepsiCo).


The beverage…. [read more]

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