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Gender-Based Wage Disparities Essay

… Australian women in public sector jobs (particularly low-level positions) no longer seem as fully susceptible to these expectations in part because there is a growing consensus that the data being used is more reflective of the realities that women experience.

REFERENCES

Baron, JD & Cobb-Clark, WA (2009). 'Occupational Segregation and the Gender Wage Gap in Private- and Public-Sector Employment: A Distributional Analysis.' The Economic Record, vol. 86, no. 273. pp. 227-246.

Bertrand, M. (2010). 'New perspectives on gender.' Handbook of Labour Economics. Vol. 4b. DOI 10.1016/S0169-7218(11)02415-4. 1545-1592.

Cobb-Clark, D. And Tan, M. (2010). 'Noncognitive skills, Occupational attainment, and relative wages.' HILDA. Melbourne Institute of Applied Economic and Social Research.

Coelli, M. (2011). Occupation differences and the gender wage gap in Australia: a detailed re-assessment. HILDA.…. [read more]


Gap Pesti and SWOT Analysis SWOT

… Threat of New Entrants

Some important factors surrounding the threat of new entrants section of the five forces model include: barriers to entry, brand equity, switching costs, access to distribution and government policies. Understanding these concepts will help a firm understand the industry at a higher level. The popularity of the internet has brought more sales opportunities for all companies within this industry, which in turn, has increased the development of online marketing. While Gap and its competitors compete in the clothing store industry, they also have a number of competitors in the fashion industry which includes brands such as Polo, Tommy Hilfiger, and Lacoste. These industries differ slightly because these fashion companies sell their clothing to department stores like Dillard's, while Gap Inc. operates…. [read more]


two articles about the gender pay gap Essay

… Hirsch's (2013) article, 'The Impact of Female Managers on the Gender Pay Gap,' is similar to the work by Srivastava & Sherman (2015) in that it examines the relationship between the gender of the manager and the pay of the corresponding subordinates. In the Hirsch (2013) study, data from the Linked Employer'Employee Dataset of the Institute for Employment Research (LIAB) from the year 2008 was used. The LIAB dataset includes all employment data for German plants, including wages and gender. The main difference between the two studies is that Hirsch (2013) focuses on German examples and does not use a longitudinal data set. Econometric analyses were conducted, controlling for variables like sex segregation in different positions, job cell effects, and wage regressions. The researcher also…. [read more]


Gender Gap Wages Essay

… Public Administration

Gender Gap Wages

When economists talk about the gender gap nowadays, they usually are speaking about systematic differences in the outcomes that men and women attain in the labor market. These dissimilarities are seen in the percentages of men and women in the labor force, the kinds of professions they choose, and their relative incomes or hourly wages. The gender gap in U.S. labor force contribution has been wearing away progressively for at least 110 years. "In 1890, 15% of women in the United States aged twenty-five to forty-four (all marital statuses and races) reported an occupation outside the home. This figure increased to 30% by 1940, 47% by 1970, and 76% by 2000, when it was 93% for men in the same…. [read more]


Gender Inequality at Workplace Research Paper

… Moreover, the employers prefer recruiting childless women rather than mothers. (Hallman, 2013)

Currently the female workers earn $691 per week, whereas, the male workers earn $854 per week. Hence it is quite evident that the female workers earn about eighty one percent of what the male workers earn. (Hallman, 2013)

Reasons behind Gender Discrimination at Workplace

The major reason behind women earning less or being treated badly is that women are usually raised with the notion that 'good girls do not ask', so even if the female workers know that they are being paid less than the male workers or the behavior of the staff or top level management is unjust, they do not speak and never go for negotiation. Hence, this lack of response…. [read more]


Sociology of the Workplace Annotated Annotated Bibliography

… She has only collected qualitative data and discussed the issue of sex and race inequality at work organizations along with providing directions of the areas that need further attention.

Pini, B. (2005). Interviewing Men: Gender and the Collection and Interpretation of Qualitative Data. Journal of Sociology, 41(2), 201+. Retrieved March 28, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5011020239

This article written by Barbara Pini is actually related to the agricultural organzaitions but it does provide important information about how men respond about gender issues during interviews. She has written this article on a study of an Australian organization, in which 15 male leaders were interviewed to find out why these gendered entities were dominant in the setting. This article can be a useful literature for research as…. [read more]


Oppression of Class and Gender Term Paper

… This work has at its reference point the American Association of University Women's 1990 study "Shortchanging Girls, Shortchanging America." The study polled the attitudes of 3,000 young boys and girls and their general attitudes towards their school and society. The book takes into account the very high statistics relating to the drop in self-esteem that occur in young adolescent girls. The author applies these findings to real life situations and people; and profiles female students in two California schools. The book reveals a school system and social structure that has in fact allowed circumstances to compound and led to the low self-esteem and loss of self -- confidence among young girls.

Among the aspects that Orenstein investigates in this book are the different gender biases…. [read more]


Salary Inequities for Nurses Essay

… The objective is to obtain data regarding the compensation of registered nurses upon placement following graduation and then at various representative points in their nursing careers. The rationale is that distinctions are likely to occur depending on the experience levels and educational attainment of registered nurses. Data will analyzed by using computer modeling that employs Bayesian network modeling. A modeling program will capture all the various data points that are likely to be relevant to the outcomes, such as gender, years employed, post-graduate specialty training, areas of work, and so forth.

As is typical with similar salary studies in other occupations, a fairly consistent band of variables is expected to have the strongest influence on the study outcomes. One objective of the study is examine…. [read more]


Title IX and Gender Equity Term Paper

… Title IX Gender Bias

Abstract This research paper examines the compliance, 30 years later, with the provisions of Title IX as it concerns eliminating gender bias in all school programs, public and private institutions that receive federal funding, including the school lunch program. The research goes to the heart of the provision, looking to understand why non-compliance with the Act is still a problem today.

Title IX and Gender Equity

Under Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972, amended by the Civil Rights Restoration Act of 1988, it is prohibited to discriminate against any student or an employee on the basis of sex in any school program in a school, public or private, that receives federal financial assistance, including school lunch programs, which most…. [read more]


Economics Gender Issues in Labor Force Structure Term Paper

… ECONOMICS

Gender Issues in Labor Force Structure within MENA Countries

The women in the Middle East and Northern part of Africa have for decades constituted the subject of fierce international debates. On the one hand, there are those who argue that severe breaches of human rights occur against the MENA women, whilst there are others, including actually some of those particular women, who argue that they are in fact extremely happy and would not want to change their social status. Aside of raising children and making household decisions, the females in most oriental countries do not have a say in political, economic or otherwise issues of national interest. Most of the arguments in favor of human rights infringements are forwarded by the western civilizations, which…. [read more]


Analyzing Gender Wage Gap Research Paper

… ¶ … Gender Wage Gap and the dynamics around it at the work place. It is an attempt to cross-examine the issue from both work and societal standpoints.

The gender wage gap is interwoven with several factors within the U.S. There are factors that are specific to gender such as qualification, overall wage structure, discrimination, rewards for services and skills and employment in the various sectors. The closing gap between gender wage differentials in the United States compared to other places can be attributed to factors associated with gender (Blau and Kahn, 2000). That notwithstanding, the relatively large gender wage gap in the U.S. compared to the situation in other countries is attributed to high inequality in wages. This paper seeks to demonstrate how gender…. [read more]


Gender Economy Essay

… ¶ … articles by Julie Nelson, Gabrielle Meagher, and Marilyn Warning. These will need to be finished in the reference section as well as in the in text citations.

Economics

Gender Economy

According to Mead, "gender is a social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women are to follow." In other words, how men and women are supposed to act in determined in how gender roles are defined by society. These gender roles determine the roles that people are supposed to follow. Women have always had lower status than men within society, but the extent of the gap between the sexes often varies across cultures and time. "In 1980, the United Nations summed up the burden of this inequality: Women,…. [read more]


Employment Law Policies for XYZ Business Proposal

… The hiring process should reflect outreach to people of various backgrounds and diversity groups who make solid candidates. Job openings should be advertised mainstream through traditional channels, as well as via diversity targeted fairs, publications and websites (Hennemann, 2011). An online example is www.employdiversity.com, a career site dedicated to providing jobs for underrepresented minorities, women and other diverse job seekers. Once hired, work should be done to retain such talent as well. Mentoring programs and professional development workshops will be helpful to achieve this goal.

All terms and conditions of employment such as compensation, benefits, work assignment, and privileges of employment are to be built on the basis of equality. Fair and ethical diversity practice also extends to communicating expectations for work roles and the…. [read more]


Ethnography of Fictional Individual Essay

… There are approximately 25 licenses adult foster care facilities in the community where Sara is now living as one does not any medical background to run or start a foster care. The facility owned by Sara is licensed only to have five patients per a care-giver. Sara personally does not prefer residents with physical disabilities such as any physical weakness, old age or heart condition, and conversely prefers those with psychological disabilities such as those with dementia or Alzheimer's. Both men and women are welcome at the facility but in contrast to women, men do not tend to last long in such environments or develop behavior problems.

Given the rate of taxes that this institution, being an adult foster care facility, has to pay, i.e.…. [read more]


Feminist Jurisprudence Term Paper

… Feminist Jurisprudence: Landmark Decisions Relating to Gender

Feminist jurisprudence as a philosophy and practical enterprise began in the 1960's. It is a philosophy of law based on "...the political, economic, and social equality of sexes." (Feminist jurisprudence: Cornell law School)

Among the issue that are dealt with under the rubric of feminist jurisprudence are, "...sexual and domestic violence, inequality in the workplace, and gender-based discrimination." (Feminist jurisprudence: Cornell law School) These include aspects such as general issues relating to laws affecting employment, divorce, reproductive rights, as well as domestic violence, and sexual harassment.

The foundation of feminist jurisprudence lies in the struggle for equal rights and against gender discrimination.

It is essentially based on the view that societies have shown a tendency towards gender subjugation…. [read more]


Policy Proposal to Stop Use of Abortion as Birth Control Term Paper

… Abortion is important exercise towards birth control policy, according to the medical specialists, there is a need for the introduction and implementation of certain laws and regulations with reference to abortion practice. It has been recommended through different forums such as British Pregnancy Advisory Service and British Control Trust that, abortion should be introduced at community level from specialist hospital setting. Abortion is considered as serious, and in some of the cases extremely harmful practice because, of the failure of contraception, and its effective usage. It is important that the society should plan their families in such a manner that women are allowed to end unwanted pregnancies in abortion. The abortion practice has suffered collapse due to the abortion laws and regulations; it has been…. [read more]


Analyzing How Precarity Work Has Change Over Time in Canada Research Paper

… ¶ … Precarity Work Has Changed Over Time in Canada

The term "precarious work" implies work that draws a low wage, lacks continuity as well as benefits, and poses potential high risk of job-related illness and injury. The definition of "precarious employment" is employment marked by low hourly wage/salary and limited work hours. Levels of employer-sponsored benefits, earnings, influence/control within labor procedures, and regulatory safeguards constitute precariousness measures. The main kinds of precarious jobs are temporary jobs, self-employment, and part-time jobs (intermittent and steady) (Noack and Vosko, 1). The standard employment model, characterized by full-time employment with a decent wage/salary and benefits, eludes a growing percentage of Canadian citizens. Precarious employment rates in Hamilton and Greater Toronto Area alone are estimated to have risen by…. [read more]


Howell Neighborhood Watch Group Analysis Essay

… The government can also sponsor and broadcast these public service messages through different channels such as television, magazines, and billboards. In such measures, the government can communicate efficaciously and discernibly to the American people as a whole that such an attitude and standpoint signifies the willpower of the American people. Private organizations can also be involved in finding ways of collectively promoting tolerance and acceptance of racial equity within their local communities (Crone, 2015).
There are other policies and measures that can be undertaken to solve the problem of racial and ethnic inequality. These consist of the development of good-quality public schools for all individuals, generating more jobs that pay decently, and building a tax system that takes less funds from the poor individuals. There…. [read more]


Labor Discrimination Equal Pay Act Law and Reality Thesis

… Labor Discrimination - Equal Pay Act - Law and Reality

The objective of this work is to examine law and regulations relating to labor discrimination, the equal pay act and the reality of labor discrimination in today's workforce.

DEFINITION of LABOR MARKET DISCRIMINATION

The work of Becker (1957) defines 'Labor Market Discrimination' by stating that Labor Market Discrimination "...may be in the form of differences in wage rates for workers who are equally productive but who are different in terms of their personal characteristics including race, age, religion, nationality or education. Labor market discrimination also comes in the form of job exclusion upon the basis of social class, union membership or political beliefs. (Becker, 1957)

BACKGROUND to the STUDY

The Equal Pay Act (EPA) is…. [read more]


Equal Pay Act: Difficult Term Paper

… It would also subject employers to unlimited compensatory and punitive damages, even for unintentional pay disparities. As if that doesn't leave employers vulnerable enough, the bill would also prevent employers from defending differences in pay as based on factors other than sex (for example, productivity, years in the workforce, education level, etc.). In other words, the bill is a trial lawyer's dream come true. The potential for costly litigation is endless, which is likely to raise the cost of employment and discourage workplace flexibility, both of which are bad news for women. (Kasic, 2009)

A woman who is receiving unequal wages who works with an employer who has the views expressed above will no doubt find herself in an extremely hostile situation. It is likely…. [read more]


Changes in the Distribution of Workers Hourly Wages Between 1979 and 2009 Term Paper

… ¶ … rank the different components / larger areas they discuss, then proceed to smaller focus some specific areas of question, then point out ways the study could be improved. The critical approach will start from global, macroscopic overall description, and focus in to describe the continents on that globe or the different major sections of the paper, through details that comprise the broader map. Micro-level focus on details will pay particular attention to specific notes, where many of the assumptions underlying the conclusions this paper draws, originate. I compare this publication with similar papers by parallel Congressional and Executive agencies and a few academic sources. Finally areas for improvement and further research will reflect implications and information necessary or useful but omitted.

Review of…. [read more]


Human Resources Management in Public Administration Term Paper

… ¶ … Compensation Equity via Equal and Fair Pay Laws

Human Resource Management is a field that has been evolving gradually over time in terms of its responsibilities, structure and functions within an organization. As time progresses, these factors will continue to evolve, making the HR departments of the future look considerably different than those of the past. As a result, progress toward compensation equity will rest largely in the HR departments ability to incorporate awareness of inequity through training programs specifically designed to change attitudes towards diversity and give women and monitories the respect (and the pay) they deserve. The laws enforcing equal and fair pay remain critically important, however ultimately, we need to address the problem at the core in order for lasting…. [read more]


Human Resources Recruitment and Selection the Equal Thesis

… Human Resources

Recruitment and Selection

The Equal Pay Act of 1963 is a change to the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938. It is a federal law that necessitates employers to pay all employees equally for equal work, regardless of their gender. This act bans unequal pay for equal or considerably equal work performed by men and women in the same company. The Equal Employment Opportunity Commission is charged with enforcing this act. It also bars employers from dropping the wages of either sex in order to comply with the law. The act makes no requirements as to wage discrimination based on race or national origin, addressing only the issue of sex-based wage discrimination and covering only situations involving substantially equal work. The Equal Pay…. [read more]


Immigrant Experience and Its Psychological Term Paper

… This trend in immigration has and will continue to have a significant impact on all U.S. institutions, from schools to the labor force, to media and politics, to health care.

Dissertation 1

Feldman, E. (2007). Implementation of the Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools with Spanish-Speaking, Immigrant Middle-School Students. (Doctoral Dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses database.

This dissertation is significant as it explores one possible treatment option for immigrant children dealing with the impact of violence in their communities. The Cognitive Behavioral Intervention for Trauma in Schools (CBITS) is a community and individual program intended to lower the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and behavioral problems; strengthen peer and parental support and improve student coping skills when confronted with traumatic…. [read more]


Community Colleges on the School-To-Work Transition Research Proposal

… ¶ … Community Colleges on the School-to-Work Transition

What problem did the researcher present for research?

The problem being researched in the article "The Impact Of Community Colleges On The School-To-Work Transition: A Multilevel Analysis" by Catherine Mobley is the ability of community college students to effectively adjust from the school setting to the work setting. School-to-work transitions for community college students, according the authors, have traditionally experienced difficulties in terms of social adjustment despite the notion that community colleges are often considered to be "transitional institutions" Their focus on local labor markets has helped the transition process, as has the technological focus of their curricula. However, "Critics have claimed that community colleges are not fully accountable for student outcomes because they are not required…. [read more]


Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete Dissertation

… ¶ … Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete High School

Richard Wieringo

This case study explores the experiences of students with disabilities who have dropped out of high school, so as to identify related factors that led to their decisions. Participants will include both males and females who were designated as students with disabilities at Ridgeville High School (pseudonym for a Virginia high school) and who dropped out between their third and fourth years of high school, during the 2009 to 2012 academic school years. All participants will be between the ages of 18 and 21. The proposed research design is a phenomenological study to be conducted through the use of semi-structured interviews, journaling, and observation of the sample population, with the aim of…. [read more]


Women and the Glass Ceiling the Disparities Term Paper

… ¶ … Women and the glass ceiling

The disparities in terms of opportunities, advancement and position between men and women in the workplace are a well-known and much debated issue in sociological discourse. This is due to the fact that hindrances to female advanceman or the "glass ceiling" is related to central sociological concepts and to the analysis of the way that societies are constructed by ideological as well as class and gender issues. As one researcher states; "It is well documented that women are less likely than men to exercise authority in their jobs... Yet the causes of this gender difference in authority have received little attention...." (Hopcroft R. 1996)

These disparities in the sexes and the glass ceiling phenomenon are intimately linked to…. [read more]


Plays of British Dramatist, Pam Gems Dissertation

… Edith once engages two marines she meets in a pub in a menage a trois; it is possible, that the bartender formed the fourth of this group. There is no indication that Edith is particularly gifted in the art of making love. She just makes her self available as a willing sexual partner. Except with Marcel Cedran, the married boxer, Edith manages to dissociate physical pleasure from any emotional foundations. With Marcel, Edith is truly in love. But this union is not to be. Anecdotes abound, that Edith's jealous sister informs Marcel's wife of her husband's "philandering." Edith's sexual proclivities and escapades are not a manifestation of her femaleness. Her sexual nature transcends gender. It is a flaw in most superstars. In Edith's case, particularly,…. [read more]


Advertising and Public Relations Serve Case Study

… Clinton was successful by almost every measure except the one that counted, the delegate votes. So the case study allows the student to look at a highly successful advertising and PR campaign that failed. The second thing that stands out is that the campaign was well-structured according to traditional primary campaigns, but failed to take into account changes in the technological environment, even from the 2004 primary campaigns. This case therefore highlights the importance of adaptability and knowing one's audience. Clinton's campaign was lost on tactics, not strategy, and not money. Sometimes in marketing, the subtle nuances make all the difference between success and failure, and the Clinton primary campaign is a perfect illustration of that.

References:

Cree, C. (2008). Hillary Clinton's approach to social…. [read more]


Cloud Computing Research Proposal

… They're more alert than ever, and seek not those brands that offer only "a me to" approach to loyalty. Customers are demanding away from the norm, with ubiquity comes skepticism and constant comparisons which makes it difficult to impress consumers by offering more of the same. Cloud computing will allow companies to enhance their software. For example, Microsoft and Google have already got into the field of cloud computing but there are others like Amazon have just started to get a feel for it as seen below.

Large companies such as Microsoft and Google aren't the only ones getting attention from the surge in interest around cloud computing. RightScale, a startup that offers developer tools for setting up server clusters that run on Amazon Web…. [read more]

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