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Nervous System Essay


Northern Virginia Community College (n.d.), Chapter 49 -- Sensory Receptors, Northern

Virginia Community College, viewed 27 May 2012,

Oracle ThinkQuest (n.d.), Sensory Receptors, ThinkQuest Education Foundation, viewed 27

May 2012,

Oracle ThinkQuest (n.d.), The Endocrine System, ThinkQuest Education Foundation, viewed 27

May 2012,

Paul, I (n.d.), Blood Sugar Regulation, Biology Reference, viewed 27 May 2012,

E. [read more]

Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System Term Paper

… Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System

The heart is a pump responsible for maintaining adequate circulation of oxygenated blood around the vascular network of the body. It is a four-chamber pump, with the right side receiving deoxygenated blood from the body and pumping it to the pulmonary circulation and the left side receiving oxygenated blood from the lungs and pumping it to the systemic circulation. The myocardium is a specialized form of muscle, consisting of individual cells joined by electrical connections. The contraction of each cell is produced by a rise in intracellular calcium concentration leading to spontaneous depolarization, and as each cell is electrically connected to its neighbor, contraction of one cell leads to a wave of depolarization and contraction across the myocardium.…. [read more]

Tissue Aging and the Body System Essay

… Tissue Maturation: Body System Effects

On the cellular level, the body groups similar organisms to create tissues. Such cellular tissues do not perform in isolation, but collectively, they perform a specialized function, building a larger living organism called the human body. The human body contains four types of tissues: muscular, epithelial, nervous, and connective. Accordingly, at least two different types of tissues form various organs to serve a specific purpose in the human body, such as the liver, kidneys, heart, and skin. These organs create systems that combines two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function in which ten major organ systems exist in the human body: Skeletal System, Muscular System, Circulatory System, Nervous System, Respiratory System, Digestive System, Excretory…. [read more]

Anatomy and Physiology Organ Systems Are "Composed Essay

… Anatomy and Physiology

Organ systems are "composed of two or more different organs that work together to provide a common function," (Carpi 1999). Among the most important organ systems in the body are the integumentary, skeletal, muscular, nervous, senses and endocrine systems. None of these systems are any more important than any other, as all are crucial for the harmonious functioning of the human body.

The integumentary organ system consists of the skin and its related parts including follicles and hair as well as the sebaceous glands. The skin is the largest organ of the body, and comprises up to 15% of total body weight. Underlying tissues including fat can be considered part of the integumentary system.

Both the skeletal and muscular system enable bodily…. [read more]

Anatomy Major Cavities Term Paper

… For example, if a person is born with AABB, then the person has the darkest coloration, as all the genes are dominant and has no genes for lightness. If that person marries a person with likewise genes, the resulting offspring will lose the ability to be white. Likewise, a person with aabb, is married to a person with similar genes, the offspring produced will have the lightest possible coloration. The ability to produce sufficient melanin is lost in this case. (The origin of races)

6. Bones of the axial and appendicular skleton:

The skeleton is made of bone and cartilage. There are two major divisions to the skeleton: the axial and the appendicular. The axial skeleton has bones that make-up the body's center of gravity…. [read more]

Physiology Body Systems Essay

… This is as true for the gross motor movements like reaching, to the fine motor movements like picking out one chip from the bag and placing it into my mouth. My jaw muscles are likewise engaged fully in every bite I take. Those jaw muscles are attached to the mandible, which moves up and down as I chew.

In reading the label of the bag, my neurological system was engaged. I was making decisions based on memories of what I like and what I do not like. All the sense perceptions of the body were engaged in this activity. My tongue is the major sensory organ involved in the process of eating, and the different parts of the tongue detect different flavors such as sweet…. [read more]

Parkinson's Disease the Human Central Essay

… Ascending nerves take information from the body to the center of the brain while descending nerves work in the opposite direction.

Neurons are the basic building block of the central nervous system and every organ within this system is made of these neurons. Healthy nervous systems would demonstrate that these neurons are able to transfer this electric energy to each location of the nerve endings that produce sensory stimuli to the human mind. Neurons are either considered motor neurons, sensory neurons or interneuron.

Parkinson's Disease

Parkinson's disease is a significant ailment within today's society. In the United States, 50,000-60,000 new cases of Parkinson's disease are diagnosed each year, adding to the one million people who currently have this illness. The Center for Disease Control suggested…. [read more]

Structure of the Nervous System Research Paper

… Physiology

Structure of the Nervous System

The Nervous System is the most complex and extremely ordered of the various systems which make up the human body. It is the system concerned with the association and incorporation of a variety of bodily process and the responses and alterations of the organism to its surroundings. The nervous system as a whole comprises the Central Nervous System, which is made up of the brain and spinal cord, and the Peripheral Nervous System, whose nerve fibers bond all parts of the body with the central nervous system. The Peripheral Nervous System is further subdivided into two branches, the Somatic Nervous system and the Autonomic Nervous System. All these nerves are exterior to the Central Nervous System. The Somatic Nervous…. [read more]

Integumentary Skeletal System Term Paper

… ¶ … Nervous Systems

The central nervous system is composed of the spinal cord and the brain. Along with these specific structures, the central nervous system also encompasses the neural tissue, blood vessels, and the connective tissue that surround these structures for protection (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). It is the job of the central nervous system to integrate, process, and coordinate sensory data into motor commands. The central nervous system receives the information that the body needs in order to execute a motor movement, and then signals are sent out commanding the body to perform these specific movements (Martini, Nath, & Bartholomew, 375). The sensory data received can be in relation to conditions on the outside or the inside of the body. The control…. [read more]

Comparison Between Human Circulatory System and Oyster Literature Review

… ¶ … Human Circulatory System and Oyster Circulatory System

15, November, 2010

There are two main types of circulatory systems, open and closed. Some Phylum Mollusca have a closed circulatory system, like humans, but not all do. Molluscas live in the fresh water and under the sea (this group includes oysters, octopus and squid). Like fish, Phylum Mollusca do not breathe air (like humans), but rather have a gill type of system. Humans oxygenate their blood by breathing in oxygen and passing it through the body. Molluscas oxygenate the blood through gills by direct contact in the water. Molluscas have soft bodies.

The human circulatory system is made up of the heart and pulmonary system, the coronary system and the system circulation. The heart, located…. [read more]

Physiology and the Orange Essay

… Next, my mind skips to Morocco where I washed my hands in orange-scented water before eating in the traditional fashion of shared trays of food taken up in the fingers and skillfully -- or in my case, not so skillfully -- popped into the mouth. I remember that I brought home a small vial of the orange oil; it still sits on a shelf where I see it when I pass and think simultaneously of the excitement of the trip and the many small places and manners in this culture that create an oasis for the mind. My academic orientation inserts itself here, and I remember that aromas are associated with long-term memory and emotions, apparently since the olfactory system appears to be linked to…. [read more]

Gastrointestinal and Cardiovascular Systems Integration in Humans Essay

… There are three different phenomena that have been observed during this interdigestive period. The first of these phenomena is motor activity in which "peristole and tonal and hunger contractions supplant peristalsis" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The second phenomenon includes a "lessoning in secretory velocity and a reduction of the tritatable acidity to less than half of that seen in the digestive phase" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). The third phenomenon is an "alteration in the status of the stomach and duodenum during this period" (Rehfuss and Hawk 1921). Interdigestive secretion follows the patterns of migrating myoelectric complexes (MMC); this pattern occurs every 60-120 minutes (Pandol 2011). Interdigestive activity begins with gallbladder contraction and when the Oddi sphincter relaxes; during the interdigestive phase, gallbladder volume decreases by…. [read more]

Integumentary System Physiology Thesis

… Integumentary System


The integumentary system is made up of the skin, hair, nails, and associated glands. The system protects the body from the external environment and its many harmful materials. The integumentary system is essential in order for the body to maintain homeostasis. The skin provides the first defense that a person's immune system has. The integumentary system works hand in hand with the circulatory system including the surface capillaries. The skin plays a very important role in regards to a person's sense of touch. Not only does it protect us from injury and infection but it holds all of the other organs inside that we need to survive.

The Integumentary System

The integumentary system is made up of the skin, hair, nails, and…. [read more]

Kidneys and How They Function Term Paper

… ¶ … Kidneys and How They Function

One of the most important functions of the kidneys - though not the only key function - is to provide an effective filtering device for the blood in the human body, through which about 200 quarts of blood flow on a daily basis, according to the National Kidney and Urologic Diseases Information Clearinghouse (NKUDIC). Within those 200 quarts of blood the kidneys screen out about 2 quarts of waste products. A big portion of that waste becomes urine and is stored in the bladder, thanks to the smooth functioning of the kidneys.

Where did those wastes in the blood come from? This is the explanation of what the kidneys' principle role truly is. There is a normal breakdown…. [read more]

Integumentary System Term Paper

… Deeper within the skin than heat and cold receptors are Meissner's corpuscles, which are especially common in the tips of the fingers and lips, and are very sensitive to touch. Pacinian corpuscles respond to pressure.

The metabolism of Vitamin D, a vitamin essential for proper bone growth and normal cell growth, is yet another important function of the skin (Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology). When the skin is exposed to ultraviolet rays in sunlight, a form of cholesterol is eventually transformed into Vitamin D Vitamin D is the only vitamin that can be produced by the body.

Last, but certainly not least, the integumentary system helps the body dispose of certain waste materials (Owens, 1996). The fluid from the blood stream enables waste produced by…. [read more]

Heart Identify the Basic Anatomy and Physiology Essay

… Heart

Identify the basic anatomy and physiology of the heart- the human heart is actually a muscular organ that serves to pump blood through the body (circulation). It is divided into four main chambers -- the two upper are the left and right atria, the two bottom the left and right ventricle. The septum, or a thick wall of muscle, separates the right and the left side of the heart. In normal function, with each contraction (beat) of the heart, the right ventricle pumps oxygenated blood from the lungs into the left ventricle, which then pumps into the body. The heart is powered by electrical energy from the sinoatrial node which transfers the energy into the ventricles . Normally about the size of a fist,…. [read more]

Fishes to Frogs: Respiratory Adaptation Research Paper

… References

Farmer, Colleen G. (1997). Did lungs and the intracardiac shunt evolve to oxygenate the heart in vertebrates? Paleobiology, 23(3), 358-372. The author offers evidence to support her theory that hypoxic aquatic conditions caused cutaneous respiration-dependent fishes to evolve lungs, in order to oxygenate cardiac tissue.

Farmer, Colleen G. (1999). Evolution of the vertebrate cardio-pulmonary system. Annual Review in Physiology, 61, 573-592. Building upon her earlier scholarship concerning respiratory system evolution from fish to amphibians, Farmer expands her thesis by suggesting that the evolution of lungs enabled the myocardium to benefit from the increase supply of oxygen made available through vascularization.

Gargaglioni, Luciane H. And Milsom, William K. (2007). Control of breathing in anuran amphibians. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part A, 147, 665-684. The authors…. [read more]

Nervous and Digestive Systems Term Paper

… Some reptiles, such as lizards or snakes, swallow their prey whole, which led to a specific adaptation of the salivary glands. Some of these contain enzymes which help moisten the prey for swallowing. On the other hand, especially for venomous snakes, some of the salivary glands have in time transformed into venom glands and seldom play a role in the actual digestive process. In the case of such reptiles, the upper and lower jaws are mobile in order to increase the dimension of the oral cavity through which the pray has to pass

The esophagus is longer in the case of reptiles that swallow the prey without masticating it. In the case of crocodiles or turtles, for example, the requirement of a long esophagus is…. [read more]

Muscular System and Exercise Essay

… Muscular System and Exercise

The muscular system in an integral component of the human body. Muscular tissue movement within the system is caused by the contraction of muscle fibers within the body. Movement is caused by the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through a variety of processes. Muscle tissue is categorized into three types including skeletal, cardiac, and smooth. Furthermore, these tissues are categorized as voluntary and involuntary muscles. 1(p39) Through proper care and exercise, muscles can strengthen or weaken.

Anatomy and Physiology

Skeletal muscle tissue, also referred to as striated or voluntary muscle tissue, composes 40% to 50% of the body's weight and is called striated muscle due to its striated composition, visible when analyzed under a microscope.1(p126) the contractions of this…. [read more]

Biology an Inconvenient Truth Term Paper

… a) Human males reproductive organs are comprised of the penis and testicles. The latter sends sperm through the penis and into the female. The female reproductive system is comprised of the ovaries, uterus, and vagina. Eggs are released through the fallopian tubes into the uterus where they may be fertilized by the sperm from the male.

b) Males produce sperm in the testicles only after they reach puberty. Women release eggs from the ovaries into the uterus once a month. If the egg is fertilized then it will grow into a baby. If not, the egg will drop off and be removed from the system via menstruation.

c) The sperm must pass from the testicles. It begins in the seminiferous tubules, goes into the epididymus,…. [read more]

Endocrine System to Include Dwarfism Gigantism and Addison's Disease Book Report

… Diseases

The Endocrine System

The endocrine system comprises eight chief glands all through the body. These glands produce hormones. Hormones are chemical couriers. They move through the bloodstream to tissues or organs. Hormones work gradually and influence body processes from head to toe. These include:

Growth and advance

Metabolism including digestion, elimination, breathing, blood circulation and sustaining body temperature

Sexual function



If ones hormone levels are too high or too low, they may have a hormone disorder. Hormone diseases also take place if the body does not react to hormones the way it is supposed to. Stress, infection and alterations in ones blood's fluid and electrolyte equilibrium can also influence hormone levels (Endocrine Diseases, 2011).

The glands of the endocrine system and the…. [read more]

Cardiovascular System Functions Term Paper

… Cardiovascular System

Functions of the Cardiovascular System

Food substances, transported by the blood, include: amino acids, fatty acids, mineral salts and vitamins from a person's intestines to the cells of his/her body.

Waste substances, transported by the blood, for produced by cells during their normal metabolism. The primary ones include carbon dioxide, water and urea. The blood transports these waste substances from an individual/s cells to his/her excretory organs.

Heat, produced in the liver and muscles, is transported by the blood to all areas of an individual's body. This constitutes a person's central heating system, which helps keep his/her 37 degrees C.

Hormones, from an individual's endocrine glands, are transported by the blood to his/her target cells.

Oxygen it's transported by the red blood cells…. [read more]

Skeletal System Purpose and Functions Term Paper

… Skeletal System

Purpose and Functions

The skeletal system is fundamental to survival itself (Think Quest 1999). It keeps the body in shape. It protects vital organs, like the heart, the brain and the lungs, and enables the body to move. It consists of the spine, the ribs, the hands and feet, the hips and legs, the arms and the joints (ThinkQuest).

The spine serves as the central support of the body (ThinkQuest 1999). It consists of vertebrae and cartilages, which hold the bones together. The ribs form the thoracic case, which helps protect the chest. It is connected to the sternum, which makes them more flexible. Flexibility is necessary for breathing. The rib cage consists of 12 vertebrae, 24 ribs and a breastbone. It protects…. [read more]

Exercise Science and Term Paper

… De Humanis Corporis Fabrica by Vesalius "can only be compared with Hippocrates in stature and importance" in the field of medicine, according to Vesalius, Humanist. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius had studied Cicero and Celsus, among the ancient writers, and so he knew that the ancients had dissected human bodies. (University of Virginia Health Sciences Library Web site.)

Vesalius believed that anatomy:

should be recalled from the dead, so that if it did not achieve with us a greater perfection that at any other place or time among the old teachers of anatomy, it might at least reach such a point that one could with confidence assert that our modern science of anatomy was equal to that of old (ancient Greek)…. [read more]

Major Organ Systems: Pituitary Gland Essay

… Oxytocin

Uterus and breasts

Stimulates contraction of the uterus to assist in childbirth, and increases prostaglandin production, which heighten contractions further; stimulates breasts to produce milk during nursing, and regulates the flow of the produced milk.

Referred to as the 'love hormone' because of its chemical messenger role in promoting human behaviors, including mother-infant bonding, anxiety, trust, recognition, and sexual arousal.

(Source: Turley, 2011; Davies 2007)


Davies, J. (2007). Essentials of Medical Terminology (3rd ed.). Clifton Park, NY: Cengage Learning.

Turley, S. (2011). Medical Language: Immerse Yourself (2nd ed.).…. [read more]

How Skeletal and Muscular Systems Work Together Essay

… Notably, the blood needs calcium so that the nervous system can send signals, for blood to clot, and for contraction of muscles for movement. In essence, the muscles in the body link with the nervous system and permit initiation of movement through nerve signals that are sent to and from the brain. Notably, the skeletal muscles are connected to the bones and work with the connective tissue in various joints in the body to enable body movements. The connective tissue plays a crucial role in structural support for the body.

Given that the skeletal systems and the muscular systems support each other and are inter-linked, an injury to either of the systems has an instant impact on the other. Moreover, an imbalance or weakness in…. [read more]

Lymphatic System Essay

… The body has over 300 nodes filtering foreign elements. As unknown and unhealthy materials are captured by the nodes, each person's unique white blood cells move in to destroy them and keep the body healthy.

There are select white blood cells that make special disease-fighting proteins which kill off diseased and infected cells. There are others that help quarantine germs in the body and kill them before they have a chance to spread infection or disease. Because of this valuable protection, any type of disorder of the lymphatic system has the power to prevent the body from being able to defend itself against infection and sickness and can ultimately lower the function of the immune system and contaminate the circulatory system (Brown, 2005). The lymphatic…. [read more]

Functions of the Skeletal System Essay

… ¶ … Functions of the Skeletal System

When one thinks about the skeletal system, the function of support is the first thing that comes to mind. However, the skeletal system serves other functions as well. It supplies a place for muscles to attach to allow for movement. It serves to protect the soft tissue from harm. It serves as a storage reservoir for minerals. It is also the place where hemopoeisis takes occurs. The following will explore these five important functions in greater detail.

The first function of the skeletal system is to provide support for the body. Without our skeletal system, we would be little more blobs of tissue on the ground. The purpose of support is the most obvious function of the skeletal…. [read more]

Muscular System Function of Action Term Paper

… They are arranged spatially into sarcomeres. Thin filaments run between and parallel to the thick filaments within the A band. It is this placement that allows for the sliding filament model.

18. Location of active sites? Location of ATPase?

ATPases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the decomposition of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and a free phosphate ion. This dephosphorylation reaction releases energy, which the enzyme (in most cases) harnesses to drive other chemical reactions that would not otherwise occur. ATPase is in the head of the myosin myofilament.

19. Is ATP needed for contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle?

Yes, the energy from one ATP molecule is required for each cycle of cross-bridge formation, movement, and release. After a cross-bridge…. [read more]

Nervous System the Major Structures Term Paper

… What information do the ascending pathways to brain communicate? Where are the cell bodies for first-, second-, and third-order neurons for this pathway located?

7. This highly convoluted nature of the cerebrum increases the surface area to accommodate a large number of neurons and nerve cells.

8. Hypothalamus take part in neurotransmitter regulation, salt and hunger cravings, behavior and mood function, feeding organs' reflexes, and pituitary gland regulation.

9. Cerebellum coordinates muscles activity in order for them to produce smooth movement by linking with extrapyramidal and pyramidal systems as well as descending reticular formation. It therefore plays a coordination role.

10. The structures associated with limbic system comprise of anterior thalamic, hippocampus, limbic cortex, and amygdale. Its major or primary role is influencing both the…. [read more]

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