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Lives of Women in Archaic Athens? Unheard Essay

… ¶ … lives of women in archaic Athens?

Unheard voices from Ancient Greece

Although there is much controversy regarding conditions in Ancient Greece due to the little information that was passed on through the centuries, it is generally accepted that women were largely discriminated at this location at the time. As society influence men in adopting discriminatory attitudes in regard to women in Ancient Greece, it was very difficult for them to consider living as equal members of their community. Things such as marriage, legacy, and social life inflicted a lot of stress on women, as they had little to no power over their lives in general. There is limited information about women living in Ancient Greece because even the well-educated men that have written…. [read more]

Ancient Greece and Rome Women Term Paper

… Women in Greece, Rome

Although ancient Greece and Rome are heralded as forging the prototype of modern democracy, they were far from egalitarian societies. Half the populations of Greece and Rome had little to no social status or rights, as females were mostly cut off from public and political life. Ancient Greece and Rome were gender segregated worlds. Gender impacted roles and duties. Women were restricted access to education and were largely left out of the arts, literature, and athletic pursuits. In both ancient Greece and in ancient Rome, economic class and social status determined the actual day-to-day lives of women but even the wealthiest females in these societies enjoyed social or political parity with men.

Whether as a sign of global social progress or…. [read more]

women in ancient greece using primary sources Research Paper

… "[footnoteRef:12] Yet Antigone laments having never married, because dying without having ever been married mars her reputation.[footnoteRef:13] Women in ancient Greece were rarely powerful actors, able to participate in public discourse and politics. When they were, as with Antigone, they were depicted as being devoid of real status because they possessed no legitimate political or social status. Furthermore, Antigone might be active but she is also destructive, as she wreaks havoc on the lives of those around her. [12: Sophocles, n.d., Antigone, Trans. D. Fitts and R. Fitzgerald, line 735. Retrieved online:] [13: S. Wiersma, 1984, "Women in Sophocles," Mnemosyne 37(1/2).]

Women in ancient Greece were depicted in literature and in the historical record as being both passive and subordinate, as well as being…. [read more]

Women in the Ancient World Essay

… She also defended her inheritance and her sister's inheritance when her parents' will was challenged in court: her husband praises her for this, because by her actions she not only protected herself and her sister, but also the husband whom she had not even formally married at that point.

The woman described in the eulogy does seem extraordinary -- although an orphan, she took care of her husband's mother as if she was her own. She is praised for her fidelity, obedience, rationality, modesty, piety, and even her wool-making skills over the forty-year marriage. The husband notes that divorce is common, but he says that he wishes he had died first, given how virtuous his wife was and how much he loved her. His list…. [read more]

Birth Control Essay

… As mentioned earlier, the medieval methods of contraception have been in use since a very long time, and only recently the effective methods of contraception have been devised.

Now with extensive studies, the researchers have figured out that the reason why the herbs and plants that were being used by these people were not effective methods of contraception is that the women need to understand the difference between agents that were contraceptives and the agents that induced abortions[footnoteRef:7]. [7: Riddle, 1992]

The main factor that led to the people adopting the birth control methods did not have anything to do with pestilence, war or inadequate food supply, but in fact it was just that people at that time who wanted small families. For instance, at…. [read more]

Birth Control Practices Annotated Bibliography

… Selphium is one of the most important materials in the history of birth control. Other texts explore the flower as one of many forms of contraception but Evans helps to explain it in the context of the other birth control techniques. In addition to this, the article also explains other contraception materials and their uses by both genders increasing knowledge of the overall issue.

Lipsey, Richard G., Carlaw, Kenneth, & Bekar, Clifford. "Historical Record on the Control of Family Size." Economic Transformations: General Purpose Technologies and Long-Term Economic Growth. Oxford University Press, 2005. 335-40. Recorded history shows that since the beginning people have endeavored to prevent the birth of children because they could not afford their care or were not in a social position to…. [read more]

Roles of Women Figures in the Major Works Thesis

… Roles of Women Figures in the Major Works

Major literary works will always bear two distinct values for mankind: they are as much artistic pieces as they are testimonies of the times their authors lived in. Historians of the early ages have extracted as much as they could from the information provided by works such as Homer's Iliad and Odyssey to enlarge their horizon about the historic facts of passed periods. Warfare, language, customs, socio-economic relationships between towns and their people, religion and worldviews, all these were to be traced in the two fundamental myths of the Western world. Other epic heroic stories that followed over the centuries, such as: The Aeneid and Beowulf continued to influence historians in their pursuit of finding historic meanings…. [read more]

Relationship Between Men and Woman After Agricultural Revolution Research Paper

… ¶ … men and women change after the Agricultural Revolution?

Over the course of time the roles of men and women have changed. Modern feminists may believe that they are responsible for the improved status of women in modern society but they may be surprised to learn that in many ways their efforts have served to return women to the role that they once enjoyed.

Through the information discovered from archeological digs, all of human history can be divided into three broad, and overlapping, periods

The first period is characterized by the hunting and gathering behavior of the individuals who lived during this period. Humans during this period were nomadic and depended on vegetation and wild animals for their sustenance. This period was followed by…. [read more]

Ancient Sparta the City Term Paper

… They granted female citizens rights on a level unprecedented in the ancient world but treated their slaves with cruelty. They believed in a quasi-democracy, but relied on a fierce, disciplined and aggressive military.

This same military that facilitated their rise to dominance, however, eventually proved their undoing as well. The battle-savvy Spartan military proved ineffective in its administrative dealings with other states. In 370 BC, the Thebans defeated the Spartan army in Leuctra.

Backed by the Thebans, other city states in the Peloponnesian Island promptly overthrew their Spartan regimes, replacing them with new democratic and oligarchic forms of governments (Starr 138-139).

Works Cited

Baker, Rosalie F. And Charles F. Ancient Greeks: Creating the Classical Tradition. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc., 1997.

Durando, Furio. Ancient…. [read more]

Agricultural Revolution: The Role Essay

… Many civilizations were impacted by the revolution. The roles from hunting and gathering societies to farming and the development of personal property significantly changed how women and men interacted and what roles and responsibilities they would manage. Although the earlier societies were more egalitarian in nature, as power and the division of labor manifested, so did the development of more patrilineal societies. In various societies, the notions of romance, love and marriage were managed differently and the subordination of women became increasingly evident; in some societies more than others. Clearly, notions of marriage, love and romance had little to do with modern day interpretations. These notions were ideals of those in positions of wealth and authority and used to represent, build and/or maintain status positions.…. [read more]

Formation of Ancient Societies Essay

… Formation of Ancient Societies

The Ancient Near-East

The different religious beliefs of the Mesopotamians, Egyptians, Hebrews, and Assyrians tell us many things about the differences in these societies. However, since there was much cultural contact in the Fertile Crescent, similarities exist between the various religions and rules as well. The Mesopotamian cultures (Assyria and Babylon), for example, like the Egyptian culture had several gods: the deities influenced the way cultural perceptions were formed (for example when it came to burying the dead and preparing them for the afterlife): Egyptian beliefs featured Isis and Osiris, Amun and Ra; and Egyptian rulers were believed to possess a certain kind of divinity (Johnston 9).

The Hebrew religion, however, was strictly monotheistic -- and the Hebrew peoples were often…. [read more]

Women in Ancient Rome Essay

… It was called "The Poisoning Trials of 331 B.C." During the year 331 B.C., there were many deaths of "leading citizens" and those deaths were not caused by pestilence but rather "by poison" (Bauman, 13). That slave woman approached the government and said she would reveal the source of the deaths (e.g., the source of the poison) if she could be protected from prosecution.

She then led authorities (Fabius in particular) to a place where "some matrons were brewing noxious concoctions" and so twenty of those females were summoned to the forum. Cornelia and Sergia, "both patricians, claimed the substances had curative properties" and so they were challenged to drink in front of authorities to prove their innocence. They did drink the liquids "…and all…. [read more]

Monolithic Theories of Myth Essay

… ¶ … Monolithic Theories of Myth

Much of what is known about Ancient Greece and Rome has been ascertained via the artifacts which those cultures have left behind them. These artifacts include artwork in the shape of pottery and statuary, and even architecture. One of the more lasting impressions of life within these societies exists in the form of the classical mythology that comes out of that period in world history. The Ancients had mythical stories in abundance on topics as vast as the creation of the universe and the pantheon of Gods at the helm, to the explanation of how man acquired fire, to suppositions on the origins of animal and insect species. Almost all civilizations have some form of mythology or cultural storytelling,…. [read more]

Heroic Ideal Greece, Rome Essay

… According to Aristotle, the ideal hero should be good (better than ordinary men), valorous, true to life, and consistent. Sophocles' Oedipus is certainly all of these things. The key, of course, to the Greek hero is the heroic insistence upon truth, honor, and respect for the gods.

Plato's hero Socrates intellectualizes this insistence and dramatizes the search for truth by way of dialogue, holding up the philosopher as a heroic type, as in the Allegory of the Cave.

In Rome and with Virgil's Aeneid, the hero, however, is once again a man of arms. He is the father of a country and of a noble race. He strives to be a mirror of virtue and of justice. But he also embraces the Stoic ideal of…. [read more]

Roman Religion Although the Ancient Term Paper

… "

Aeneas marks this altar as specifically Roman according to not only the city's religious tradition, but also its cultural tradition of dress of mythical history. One can see a possible motivation for this intentional linking when considering the other figures depicted in the Ara Pacis' friezes, and particularly the image of Augustus. The procession of which Augustus is a part represents "the processions that would have taken place in 'real life' around the sides of the precincts, leading up to the altar itself -- and perhaps, more specifically, that procession which took place on the day the altar was first consecrated."

Recognizing this is crucial for understanding the depictions relation to both Roman religious practice and political life, because the particular representation of Augustus…. [read more]

Civilizations Term Paper

… The political and military dominance that Roman Empire achieved over conquered states was dependent on the geographical advantages it had in attacking other states while defending itself through improvisation in natural barriers. The Roman Empire was established on the foundations laid by Greeks and thus it was Greek use of symbols and things that influenced the Roman more than any other factor. Vast expansion of the Empire was due to the diverse geographical location but this also caused the fall of empire as the geographical stretch spread too far (Adams et al. 2012, 5-50).

3. What was the function of religion in these ancient civilizations? How did it help to shape them, or how was it shaped by them? Compare and contrast the religions of…. [read more]

Birth Cintrol and Self-Induced Abortions Essay

… Therefore, customarily, Roman women turned to various mixtures and potions to self-induce abortions. For a moment, a plant known as Silphium was desired (Riddle, 1992, pg. 13-17). When swallowed, this plant was established to cause a self-induced abortion. In the end though, Roman women discontinued using Silphium. For the basis that it went inexistent. It is clear that many women in ancient Rome pursued abortions for undesired pregnancies that they caused a complete plant set to go nonexistent. There were accurately hundreds of other plants supposed to be known to cause elf-induced abortion. Wormwood which is the good things they put in real absinthe so that people can fantasize, myrtle, wallflower and generally the list can go on and on (Riddle, 1992, pg. 28). Nevertheless…. [read more]

Lysistrata Women Demonstrate Against the Oppian Law Term Paper

… ¶ … Lysistrata by Aristophanes and "Women Demonstrate against the Oppian Law" by Livy. Specifically, it will discuss how Lysistrata and other women had the power to demand change in law and public policy. These pieces were written during times of strife and war in Greece and Rome. "Lysistrata" takes place during the Peloponnesian War, between 431 to 404 B.C.E., while "Women Demonstrate" was written in 195 B.C.E., just after the Second Punic War. "Lysistrata" never happened, but the Roman women's protest actually did occur. Both works indicate the power of women to sway their husbands and demand changes in the law.

In, "Women Demonstrate against the Oppian Law," the author shows why Roman women were so dissatisfied with the law. The Oppian Law was…. [read more]

Inequality Between the Genders Term Paper

… Inequality Between the Genders

Today a number of scientists who represent different anthropological and sociological schools agree that gender inequalities were basically created by physical factors (differences in anatomy of man and woman) and by economical factors. Psychological factors and others played an important role as they contributed to these two. In the primitive societies there existed formal equality between genders as there were no personal or private interests, inequality was mainly expressed by the fact that man was stronger than woman. In such society there existed no personal interests, the main interest was collective survival as human was unable to survive individually under conditions of wild nature.

With the development of human society there appered gender roles division, which became more obvious in hunting…. [read more]

Psychology of Gender Research Paper

… In doing so, it forced these self-doubting men to increase their efficiency and productivity in the office as a means of keeping their job (that is, not losing it to a woman).

Though while lower-ranking male employees have felt an ongoing sense of apprehension and concern over the increasing power and influence of women in business, the male leaders of the corporate world have maintained the financial superiority to women. As women have worked their way up the corporate ladder in the last few decades, it almost seems like the aforementioned cycle of discriminatory pay practices has begun once again. In fact, as recently as 2004 it was determined that women in high-ranking corporate positions earn approximately 80% of the salaries earned by their male…. [read more]

Worlds They Create for Us Term Paper

… And lest the concern between beauty and health between the two magazines seem to be too sharp, consider that the magazine of "Men's Health" devotes an entire section to weight loss and another to nutrition and fitness.

There are several notable differences between the two magazines, however. First of all, rather than stressing career and financial advice, "Shape" for women tends to include articles regarding 'de-stressing' from a day of doing too much all day, than getting ahead at work. Although "Shape" does give bits of career advice from time to time, and how one's finances relates to one's well being, it emphasizes a work day that embraces the second shift of child care, housework, and emotional issues as the 'work day,' rather than the…. [read more]

Greek on Mediterranean World Sparta in Greece Term Paper

… ¶ … Greek on Mediterranean world

Sparta in Greece

The impact of Greek on the Mediterranean world

Knowledge of Mediterranean world is one aspect that is very interesting; it needs a proper social contact of both Greek as well as Roman influence on the culture of the people of that period as well as place. Similar to overriding threads interwoven into a great needlepoint, Mediterranean world was shaped by the Roman rule as well as Greek culture. This paper will dwell purely on the impact of Greek on the Mediterranean world touching on different aspects.

The Greek impact on the Mediterranean world started during the rain of Alexander the Great in the 4th century B.C, the spread of the Greek language, culture as well as…. [read more]

Homer's Iliad Is an Epic Thesis

… After the decision is made by Jupiter, Ceres has nothing left to do for her daughter nor does she have power to protect her daughter.

In the Trojan War, Achilles kills Hector and he brings Hector's dead body back to the Greek side. When Andromache hears of the death of Hector, she said, "There's nothing left for him in life but pain and deprivation, all his property" (Homer, 542-543). Because of her husband's death she also fears for her son's impending death because without Hector, Andromache has no ability to protect her son. Even though she was opposed to the fight between Hector with Achilles, he decides to fight and consequently dies.

In the Ovid's story, Jupiter says to Ceres that if Proserpina does not…. [read more]

Healing Through the Senses the Use of Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment With Women Term Paper

… ¶ … Aromatherapy in Addiction Treatment for Women

Many people regard the sense of smell of the least valuable of the five senses; however, experts today point out that the human olfactory system provides more environmental information than any of the other senses. Furthermore, while there has long been a firmly held belief among alternative medicine practitioners that specific types of fragrances could trigger specific changes in emotional states, recent findings by the 2004 Nobel Prize winners for Physics appear to scientifically validate these claims. As a healing modality, though, most authorities today believe that aromatherapy is many thousands of years old, dating back to the times of the ancient Egyptians, Mesopotamia and ancient China (Ba, 2003). Today, aromatherapy represents a promising new addition to…. [read more]

Politics of Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes Lysistrata Term Paper

… Gender and Sexuality

New Criticism: Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes' Lysistrata

Aristophanes' Lysistrata is one of the eleven plays penned by the playwright that has survived over time. The original performance of this production occurred in classical Athens reportedly in 411 BC

Lysistrata is considered a comedy; an account of one woman's unique goal and desire to end the Peloponnesian War. During the course of the play, Lysistrata is able to persuade the women of Greece to withhold any form of sexual satisfaction from their lovers and husbands as a tool designed to force the men to negotiate peace

This suggested strategy, however, incites the battle between the men and women. Because of the use of sex, issues raised with regard to gender, and addressing…. [read more]

Ancient Greek History the Persian Wars Term Paper

… Athenian Greeks vs. The Persian Empire Army

At the beginning at the fifth century B.C., the city states of peninsular Greece allowed themselves to embrace their own selfish separatist ideas, confident that no outside enemy threatened them. The northern Illyrian tribes, from where the Achaeans and Dorians once came, ceased their attacks on Greece. In the south, the power of Egypt continued to decline. In the west, Rome and Carthage were only on the eve of their existence. But danger lay in the east. The Persian Empire, now at the height of its power, was advancing west. Already the Greek cities of Asia Minor had been conquered. The Persian army crossed the Bosphorus straits into Thrace and conquered Macedonia and the islands of Lemnos, Chios,…. [read more]

Attitudes Toward Human Sexuality Term Paper

… Attitudes Toward Human Sexuality

Human sexuality is often mentioned today when there is a differentiation between humans and animals that comes in discussion. Many people are proud to say that the only creatures that engage in sexual activities for the sake of pleasure are humans. Some may add: there appears to be recent evidence that dolphins may enjoy having sex, too. Since there were recent attempts to classify dolphins as "superior beings" instead of "animals," regardless of the grounds or the purpose of such an attempt, an empirical theory regarding the nature of these aquatic creatures has already started to challenge the traditional view and therefore the boundaries between the human and the animal world.

Human sexuality is a vast field that still has numerous…. [read more]

Shifting Work Patterns Introduction Number Term Paper

… Most Armorers were members of the Middle Class and were often very wealthy ("

Increase in Popularity

In the late 12th century, the Bowyer became been a skilled profession that was in high demand, due to the bow becoming a standard weapon in war. Locksmiths became important during the 13th century, as castles demanded more security. Their skills were "in the beginning stages, but an intricate lock that resisted the efforts of picking or tampering was soon highly valued. To maintain security, Locksmiths were trained in guilds and the secrets of their craft were kept highly guarded (" Shoemakers began to become popular during this time as they "curtailed their businesses to suit the needs of most people ("

Loss of Importance

In the time…. [read more]

Zeus Myth Served Several Functions in Ancient Essay

… Zeus

Myth served several functions in ancient Greek and Roman societies, providing them with a backbone for religious ritual, practice, and ideology. For example, Zeus was worshiped at Olympia in Greece. Zeus also represented "control" over the "natural order," according to Morford & Lenardon (p. 7). Myths were therefore integral to ancient Greek and Roman social structures and psychological realities. Zeus also embodied gender roles and norms in ancient Greece and Rome. The ultimate paternal figure, Zeus was also the quintessential chauvinist who used his divine powers to seduce and then rape mortal women (Morford & Lenardon p. 20). However, the Greeks sometimes presented Zeus' sexual exploits as being "for a grand purpose intended for the ultimate good of the world," (Morford & Lenardon p.…. [read more]

How Women in Sparta Played a Role in the State Term Paper

… Spartan Women

The lives of Spartan women were unusual in the sense that they were very different from those of other Greek women. In Athens, for instance, women were confined to the domicile and wore clothing that covered and hid their form. In Sparta, this was not the case at all. Sparta enjoyed communal ownership of property and all things, in essence, belonged to the State -- men, women, children and goods. Thus, all were equal (or nearly so) before the State's needs and women had more freedom to move about. They were, as Simone de Beauvoir noted, liberated of patrimony by the fact that Sparta had no sense of patrimony in its culture (Foley 56). Spartan women were also comfortable with nudity and performed…. [read more]

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