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Ancient History of Yemen Research Paper

… In the south it is important to remember that the League did not always have influence but it tried to do so without ceasing, frequently depending upon its own internal evolutionary strife and who its power brokers were at any given time.

Intermittent clashes took place along the frontier in 1954. The leader of the north (San'a) signed a tripartite military alliance with Saudi Arabia and Egypt on 24 April 1956 (Jidda Pact) and, in 1958, federated with the United Arab Republic (the federation was called the United Arab States). These arrangements were dissolved in 1961. San'a also claimed South Yemen (Aden). When the treaty was broken, a long period of Egyptian-supported subversion began in San'a. [as a direct result of Arab League influence by…. [read more]

Economics in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… Source: Stein, Kenneth, 1995.

Egyptologists point to the extent by which tributary construction was attributed to leaders of Ancient Egypt is evidence that continuity was sought in proclamations of economic and political stability; composed in perpetuity as a standard of perfection dictated by those rulers. Tomb paintings referencing elaborate banquets and trade activities in the afterlife, give some inference into the sophistication of everyday economy in the region (de la Croix and Tansey). Mummies provide important support of this fact, and dietary assessments reveal much about the abundance and fortitude of Ancient Egypt at a time when the inhabitants of Europe were largely migratory with caves as the only source of protection from the elements.

According to Wharburton (2000) in Before the IMF: the economic…. [read more]

Traditional Southeast Asian Bamboo Flutes Studies on Origins and History Research Proposal

… Traditional Se Asian Bamboo Flutes: Studies on Origins and History

The study investigates the bamboo flutes found in Southeast Asia, as well as their history and origin. The earliest known extant bamboo flute, a chi, or ancient Chinese flute, from the Zhou Dynasty, discovered in the tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng, dates from 433 BC. Southeast Asian bamboo flutes, diverse in shape and size, vary in the way musicians play them. During the ethnography, a qualitative study, the researcher utilizes an extensive literature review to explore the development of bamboo flutes in SEA and examines the link between these instruments and music, as well as traditions from and beyond Asia.

As the study focuses on the flutes from three main areas: Mainland SEA, Maritime…. [read more]

Muhammad Ali in Egypt Thesis

… But they took away, for five centuries, the possibility of an independent Arab-dom, and Arab nationalists bore them considerable ill-will for it[footnoteRef:13]. The only 'Arab' state conquered by the Turks which was not in irremediable decay, was the Mamluk state of Egypt and Syria[footnoteRef:14]. The Mamluks themselves were a dynasty of Turkish slaves; and in any case they afterwards succeeded, as did all the North African provinces, in enjoying internal autonomy under Ottoman suzerainty. The claim that the caliphate had been transmitted to the Ottoman sultans was made only late in the history of the Empire. It was as Turkish rulers that they held their power, and only secondarily (if at all) as vice-regents of the Prophet. They preserved and even sharpened the distinction between…. [read more]

And Hospitality Industry Research Paper

… The elements that were regarded as most important in this revolution were: justice, which is referred to as adalah, freedom, which is referred to as hurriyah, dignity, which is referred to as karamah, and respect, which is referred to as ihtiram. (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25) The demands of the protestors included the following:

The authorities shall respect the rights of the individuals as a citizen of the country and shall not infantilize them and must not treat them as their subordinates. (Moadde and Young-Demarco et al., 2012, pp. 1-25)

Individual citizens shall be provided with a life of dignity and respect rather than a life in which they are humiliated by the public authorities and coerced by the security forces. (Moadde…. [read more]

Muslims and Arabs Essay

… ¶ … Muslims and Arabs has remained a source of confusion as well as discrimination. In this paper we explore the difference between Muslim and Arabs with a special focus on Pan-Arabism. Saddam Hussein and Nasser's roles in Pan-Arabism are also explored. The differences between Muslims and Arabs are illustrated by means of elaborate examples and scenarios.

The term Arab is defined by the Oxford Dictionaries (2011) as a member of the Semitic people who originated from the Arab Peninsula as well as the neighboring territories in the Middle East as well as North America. The term could also be used to refer to an Arabian horse.

According to Ibn Taymiyyah (2004) the term 'Arab' was used for individuals of three main groups. The first…. [read more]

Kuwait Museum the Kuwait National Essay

… Materials were packed in crates in Bagdad and shipped back to Kuwait, and some of those crates are still waiting to be opened. The Saudi Aramco World article reports that there were about 40,000 items to be processed and shipped back to the museum where they belong. About eighty percent of the original collection (before Iraq invaded and stole items) is expected to be restored.

Future Plans

Once the museum buildings were cleared of the rubble (from the destruction the Iraqis perpetrated) the new construction was able to be done in classy style. The future includes continuing to find and display ancient artifacts from the Island and from other sites in Kuwait.

In conclusion, the tragedy of the Iraqi invasion is long over with and…. [read more]

Syria I Am Osmane Arslanian Term Paper

… Consequently in May 2004, President Bush decided that Syria failed to meet these conditions and, as sanctions, prohibited exports to Syria of items in the U.S. Munitions list and Commerce Control list, of U.S. products except food and medicines and the landing or take-off of Syrian government-owned aircraft in the U.S. The U.S. Department of Treasury also intended to order American financial institutions to cut off correspondent accounts with the Commercial Bank of Syria on money-laundering reasons and pursuant to section 311 of the U.S.A. Patriot Act (Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs 2004). And using his international emergency economic powers under the International Emergency Economic Powers Act or IEEPA, President Bush also authorized the Secretary of the Treasury to freeze the assets of certain Syrian…. [read more]

American Foreign Policy Analysis of the Middle East From the President's Perspective Essay

… American foreign policy as it manifests itself in the Middle East has long been a struggle. The last few decades have demonstrated America's attempts at finding allies and the challenges of controlling the area. After a tremendous amount of analysis and assessment, the best methods to be taken in this particular area are ones of strategic humanitarian action and development. As this paper will demonstrate, much of the discord of the area is directly connected to the fact that it's so impoverished and disadvantaged. Helping the Middle East and building where other governments would blow up, is the best way to develop the area. Such actions not only help develop the global economy, but they help to stabilize America' footing in the rest of the…. [read more]

People First Settled in Villages? Essay

… ¶ … people first settled in villages?

People settled in villages for several reasons. First, they were mostly related in blood to the other people in the village. Then, similar looks, customs, ways of dressing, speaking and cooking kept familiar people living near each other. As families grew, so did the village. Families lived in huts close by so that they could help each other. Women helped other women with childrearing; cooking, gathering firewood, growing crops, and tending to the sick, aged and their husbands. The men banded together in groups to hunt, make weapons, defend the women and children, build homes and make decisions about the future with others. Growing crops made the families live in the same area for many years, until the…. [read more]

Hatshepsut King and Queen Research Paper

… And while there has never been any direct evidence to indicate that there was any kind of sexual relationship between the two, some historians conclude that there must have been something between them, while others claim no.

Hatshepsut died in early February 1482 BC, and several years later her successor, Thutmose III, began a program of erasing his aunt's memory. "Her inscriptions were erased, her obelisks surrounded by a wall, and her monuments forgotten. Her name does not appear in later annals." (Ray 1994) And for a long time her mummy was lost to history, along with the secrets of her death. But in 2007 an attempt was made to locate the actual mummy of Hatshepsut which resulted in success. ("Teeth clue" 2007) By using…. [read more]

Corruption, Political Stability and Development Research Paper

… Egypt holds a vast range of natural resources like petroleum, manganese, talc, natural gas, iron ore, zinc, phosphate, limestone, gypsum, lead and asbestos. They also pride themselves of vast agricultural land and weather that enables them to engage in cotton, wheat, rice, corn, fruits, beans, vegetables, cattle, water sheep, buffalo, fish and goats farming. Egypt therefore has a potential export of crude oil, raw cotton, metal products cotton yarn, textiles and chemical petroleum products and engage USA, Japan and Europe in its trade among others (Think Quest, 2011).

Politically, the current Egypt is a product of a long revolution and historically dynamic Egypt that was under Pharaohs in the ancient of day and much later on in the hands of people like Gamal Abdul Nasser…. [read more]

Islam Muslims Term Paper

… ¶ … Baghdad Without a Map and Other Misadventures in Arabia" by Tony Horwitz, and "Nine Parts of Desire: The Hidden World of Islamic Women" by Geraldine Brooks. Specifically, it will critically review the books and tie them into the modern world's view of the Middle East. These two books indicate the great gap between eastern and western culture and beliefs. Reading these books opens the eyes to the many differences between the western world and the Arab world, but more than that, these books open the readers' eyes to things that would never happen in American society. The Middle East often suffers in the eyes of the world, and after reading these books, it is easy to see why.

Women are viewed differently in…. [read more]

Future Wars of the Middle East Will Result Over Water Shortages Term Paper

… Water in the Middle East

Governments around the world have a primary concern over water availability and the Middle East and North Africa are no exception. The thesis evaluates the possibility of future wars throughout the Middle East and North Africa due to water scarcity and limited water resources presently being experienced in that region.

The paper starts by revealing the gravity of the situation by showing the present statistics surrounding the problem of water scarcity throughout the world. Thereafter, the paper highlights the importance of water in the national economy. From then on, the paper briefly discusses the present situation of water scarcity in the Middle East by noting down the present available resources of water in the Middle East. Lastly, the paper briefly…. [read more]

Social Effects Did the Early Arab Conquests Essay

… ¶ … social effects did the Early Arab Conquests towards Byzantine (632-750) has on Byzantine and Arab society?

Civilization is a process that takes time to reach the point of becoming a norm in the recipient society. From the inception and establishment of the world, it is clear there are several changes that took place. These changes resulted in the creation of the vast continuum of culture and beliefs evident in the society. The propagation of these changes comes in diverse forms, some of which are peaceful whereas others take a struggle to take root. In the ancient worlds, most of the civilizations happened by means of invasions and bloody struggles. As a result, these interactions, took a long period to adopt, and effect to…. [read more]

Politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco Term Paper

… ¶ … politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco

Introduction broader perspective view into the forms of monarchy prevalent in the present day world in general defines the common peculiarities of the modern monarchies. Some of the monarchies are in operation since long and most are of recent origin, however, have been reformulated to a great extent to be adaptable to the needs of the nation state. The Islamic type of Monarchy is not particularly unique irrespective of the fact that the convention from which it hails clearly is mixing Arab tribal custom charismatic leadership and the Persian convention of quasi-divine kingship in its earlier manifestations. (the Myth of Monarchy in the Arab World)

In these circumstances the legitimating of the candidate or successor…. [read more]

Forgotten Refuges the Conflict Between Arabs Term Paper

… Forgotten Refuges

The conflict between Arabs and Jews is a long and intractable issue. The central features of the conflict have revolved around the rights of Arabs in Palestine to a homeland. There is however another face of the issue that has received very little attention from the media and is not factored into the assessment of the problem. That factor is the refugee status of hundreds of thousands of Jews who were dispossessed by Arabs. The forgotten refuges throw light on a missing conversation in the dialogue between Jews and the international community. The Jews who lived in North Africa and in other Middle Eastern countries were unfairly expelled during the 1940s.

The Jewish history in North Africa and the Middle East begins with…. [read more]

Saudi Arabia Geography and Oil Compared Term Paper

… Saudi Arabia


Compared to other geographical regions of the world, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia which stretches from the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea in the west to the Persian Gulf in the east and border the nations of Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait, Bahrain, Qatar, the UAE, Oman and the Republic of Yemen, occupies a unique position, due to two important facts. First, it is extremely limited when it comes to natural resources, such as arable land for crops, lumber for building homes and adequate freshwater resources for its population of just over 17,000,000 people. Second, Saudi Arabia has been blessed with one of the world's largest oil reserves on the planet, a situation which created a gross national product of…. [read more]

Queen of Sheba Makeda Research Paper

… In Addis Ababa, the legend is depicted in street-sold paintings that add elements that are not in the Kebra Negast, and follow a version told in northern Ethiopia - a tyrannical dragon-serpent is killed by Agabos, whose daughter, Makeda, succeeds him (Korotayev). The trip to Jerusalem proceeds, but on the fateful night Solomon also sleeps with Makeda's maid-servant, who also gives birth to a son whose descendants, the Zagwe, usurp the throne between 1137 and 1270, after which the "Solomonic" dynasty of Makeda is restored. Since the Kebra Negast was committed to writing only at the beginning of the 14th century, a few historians view the entire story as a political justification for this "Solomonic" restoration (Hansberry and Johnson 136). But that it is far…. [read more]

Effects of the Somali Civil War on the Population of Somalia Somaliland Term Paper

… ¶ … Somali civil war on the population of Somalia/Somaliland.

Who is considering that having to live with a war happening behind you back, "just around the corner," as an extra to your present condition is an easy task, might just be a bit wrong, if not more.

Somalia is not a 'country' like any other. And in many ways, it is neither 'African' nor 'Arab', although it is located on the African continent and has often been considered 'Arab' in some ways. Somalia is a coastal nation in East Africa, widely known as Horn of Africa. Continentally, it is surrounded by Ethiopia and Djibouti on the north and mid-west, and Kenya on its south-west. The Gulf of Aden is located on its far east.…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the End of the Roman Empire to Today Term Paper

… ¶ … Roman empire to today

The issue of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire is a source of fascination for both the broad public and the scholarly world. From a European perspective, the fall of the Empire can be regarded as the end of the Classical world as it brought about a decline in literacy, urbanism, and generally all the indicators of civilization. Roman civilization is seen as the golden age of art, literature and law, a period of flourishing culture and development. In fact, both European and non-European societies have adopted Roman architectural, sculptural and legal traditions. The founding fathers hoped that America would revive the virtues of ancient Rome, and would reinvent the Roman Empire under a new formula whose…. [read more]

Endanger Culture Term Paper

… Ethiopian Music

Ethiopia is one of the world's most ancient nations, located in Africa. It is a culture that is rich in traditions, customs and music. Between the years 1969 and 1978, Ethiopian music was unknown to the world because the nation was run by the communist dictatorship of Mengitsu. During this time, Mengitsu officially banned all vinyl recordings of music. So, Ethiopian music was lost and unknown to the world. However, during the 1990s, the world discovered Ethiopian music once again. Since then, Ethiopian music is a unique style that can be compared and contrasted to American music. This paper will outline these comparisons and contrasts between the two countries and their styles of music.

Ethiopia is a country located in Eastern Africa. It…. [read more]

Somalia Social Perspective Research Paper

… Somalia- Social Perspective

On the east cost of the African continent lays a strip of ground surrounded by the Indian Ocean, on one side and by exotic lands like Kenya and Ethiopia on the continental side. This is Somalia and, when hearing about it, most of us would be tempted to refer to the present situation and attributes that best describe this part of the Earth- poverty, hunger, illiteracy and its given qualification as a "third world country."

Yet, what one does not know about Somalia is the fact that it is part of one of the oldest cultures in the world, with the presence of humans being attested from around 9000 before our age and with a dynamic history which relates to the existence…. [read more]

Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire Essay

… Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire

Founded by the Turkish House of Ottoman, the Ottoman Empire endured from roughly 1299 to the First World War. For 620 years, the Ottoman Empire was the dominant political, cultural, and military force in the Middle East. At its peak its territory stretched from the edge of Vienna to the Red Sea, from North Africa to the Balkans (Chau, 2007).

Originally the Turks were a nomadic horseman from Central Asia who embraced Islam in the ninth century. Under the Seljuk leader Tugrul they captured Baghdad. The first major victory of the Seljuk Turks over Christians followed in 1071 when a Byzantine army was defeated near Lake Van. Subsequently the Seljuk's established a Sultanate with the capital at Konya…. [read more]

Ottoman Empire Term Paper

… " Unfortunately, the debt grew at an accelerating pace, and in 1881, the Empire had failed to pay the interest on a foreign debt of over 200 million pounds sterling, and as a result, "was forced to permit its creditors to take charge of certain imperial revenues."

The Janissary Corps

The military corps within the Ottomans was the Janissary Corps, which "dated back to the late fourteenth century when Ottoman power was shifting from Asia Minor to the Balkans" (Palmer, 1992). The corps was created by Sultan Murad I, "as a slave bodyguard." And fifty years later, the Devsirme corps was introduced, Palmer explains, and served "as the chief source from which the Janissary Corps was raised." Christian peasant fathers were required once in five…. [read more]

iran and saudi arabia proxy wars Research Paper

… The United States worked with religious leaders to foment a coup, thus planted the seed for the Iranian Revolution of 1979 ('Sunnis and Shia: Islam's Ancient Schism' 1). The Iranian Revolution had one of the biggest and most significant impacts in starting what are now the proxy wars between Iran and Saudi Arabia. Whereas before 1979, the Sunnis enjoyed near-complete control, the Revolution meant that Iran was going to wield power economically and politically, using religion as an important 'tool of power' (Koelbi, Shafy and Zand 1). Strategically forming religious ties with Shia groups scattered throughout the Gulf and other oil-producing regions, Iran started to exacerbate the sectarianism that was growing increasingly evident as wealth disparity grew. Oil fueled sectarianism, as Sunni governments grew fat…. [read more]

Islamic Extremism in Britain Term Paper

… Islamic Extremism in Britain

How Did a Minority of the Current Generation of British Muslims, Mainly Children and Grandchildren of Muslim Asian Immigrants to Britain After World War 2, Turn to Islamic Extremism, and How Much Influence Did the Preachings of the Fundamentalist Cleric Abu Hamza Al-Masri and His Contemporaries, Have on Them?]

"Euro-Islam: A Cultural Phenomenon" states that the Muslim population in Europe "bears many similarities to other immigrant groups. A large proportion of Muslims have withdrawn into isolation, partly because it is imposed upon them and partly as a matter of choice. Many seem to live alongside, rather than constitute part of, European society." (Schwerin, 2004) This fact has led many to have the concern that these communities, closed as they are, might…. [read more]

Africa Thesis

… African Beginnings

Africa was the beginning

Africa was the beginning: Afrocentric and multicultural views


The problematics of the Afrocentric or African orientated approach to an understanding of religious and biblical texts is a cause for concern among many theologians and historians. There is the stance and perception that the Bible and biblical scholarship has been biased by a mainly Eurocentric and 'white' view of biblical history. This view is clearly stated in the following comment; "Afrocentricity, when genuinely understood, is simply the idea that Africa and persons of African descent must be seen as proactive subjects within history rather than as passive objects of Western triumphalism."

Critics of the Eurocentric interpretation of the Bible and religious history also suggest that Afrocentric biblical interpretation is…. [read more]

Roots of Terrorism in the Middle East Term Paper

… Roots of Terrorism in the Middle East

When individuals inhabit the same space, conflicts often occur. But it's only when conflicts degenerate into harsh violence of any sort that the issue truly becomes a problem, threatening the stability of a peaceful cohabitation. A conflict often has its origin in a dispute over resources, over something of great interest for more than one party. Usually conflicts appear when the object of interest cannot be shared in an acceptable way for all parties involved, without any of them feeling left out or treated unequally. it's enough for one party to consider a lack of fairness in a dispute. The birthplace of violence between two "players" is, in most cases, a conflict, an unresolved argument over a source…. [read more]

Terrorism and the Low Numbers Introduction

… The claim of antiquity within this system arises from the legal allowance for the mistreatment and subjugation of women. In the realm of Human Rights in the 21st Century, Islamic Law is certainly exploitive and reminiscent of another era. In countries that have adopted Islamic Law, women are not allowed to drive cars, vote, initiate a divorce, or show their bodies (Douki, et al. 2003). Moreover, terrorist activities in countries using Islamic Law have been shown to be much more frequent than in those Muslim countries that have not accepted this legal system (Douki, et al. 2003).

With their far-reaching political and economic influences and strategic expansion tactics, terrorist groups have certainly been growing globally over the past few decades. Subsequently, terrorist activity has become…. [read more]

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