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Animal Testing There Are Individuals and Organizations Research Paper

… Animal Testing

There are individuals and organizations that say using animals in test laboratories for biomedical research or for product research is unethical no matter what the purpose. Others argue that using animals is vitally important for research that could possibly resolve human health issues. Both sides have valid points and this paper delves into issue using positions from several sides of the animal testing issue.

Defining animal experimentation

Roman Kolar with the Animal Welfare Academy in Neubiberg, Germany explains that any experimental procedure carried out "…on an organism from the zoological (taxonomic) category Animalia" is an animal experiment (Kolar, 2006, p. 113). That said, in Germany and other nations there are restrictions on the use of vertebrate animals for "historic reasons," Kolar explains. It…. [read more]


Animals and Society Essay

… Animal Rights

The roles of animals in the society are explored by highlighting the facts highlighted by a number of authors. The interaction of human beings with the animals is an important part of the society. These roles are highlighted by the articles highlighted in the paper.

'Animal liberation' is an important book written by Peter Singer. The main fact highlighted by the author in the book is the importance of launching the animal rights movement. It was published in 1975 when animal rights movement gained toll in an industrialized world. The organization named as People for Ethical Treatment of Animals, PETA, has heavily criticized the book by Peter Singer, but the realities that have been highlighted by Peter are more important. The rights that…. [read more]


Animal Testing There Has Been Heated Debates Essay

… Animal Testing

There has been heated debates over the years on the use of animals for experimental purposes, scientist have their argument to support their use while, at the same time, animal lobby groups have their argument against the use of animal for experimental purposes. In Britain alone, more than 3 million animals have been experimented on in their laboratories, this does not include those which their body parts are harvested for experiment purposes and those that did not meet the required standards for experimental purposes. With such increase in animal use, the question which arises is, is it ethically right to use animals for experimental purposes, yet they have life just like humans Simon Festing, 2007 ()

Scholars have described the use of live…. [read more]


Animal Rights Introduction Right, Properly Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Introduction right, properly understood, is a claim, or potential claim, that one party may exercise against another' (Roger, 2003), the rights are granted and are ought to be respected towards the grieved party, and other party towards which the actions are performed. In general, when we talk about rights, we concentrate on the human rights, but the terminology right itself has different perspective associated with it, and has different interpretations, and on the basis of those interpretations it can be understood that which of the elements and groups can be included and treated within the domain of the rights. The Animal Rights is the rights of animals which should be respected, obeyed and practiced by the human beings in true spirit. The Animals…. [read more]


What Information Can Be Learned From Nonhuman Animal Studies Research Paper

… ¶ … Nonhuman Animal Studies?

Animal testing represents an important subject for debate and confrontation between those that support the medical testing on animals especially from the point-of-view of the added value it brings and those that argue the rights of animals as beings with rights and in need of equal treatment as humans. There are numerous arguments suggesting that medical testing on animals has produced results that today are essential for the well-being of the human race such as treatments for HIV / AIDS, cancer, or birth defects. On the other hand, those arguing for the interdiction of animal testing suggest that animals, such as any other being on Earth, have the same rights and status as human beings. These types of arguments however…. [read more]


Animal Rights Essay

… Animal Rights

Over the past several decades, the media and pro-animal groups have paid increasing attention to what Singer called in his 1983 book the "animal liberation movement."

The issue of animal rights has been argued from both sides for some time. Singer and similar activists advocate for the continued well being of all sentient beings that are conscious and feel pain. Otherwise, they consider it speciesism. Similarly, MacIntyre adds that animals are arbitrarily divided into "human" and "nonhuman" without any further consideration given to the fact that intelligent mammals have a lot more in common with humans than they do with reptiles and worms. He states that the simplicity of this human and animal dualism tends to obscure the extent and importance of the…. [read more]


Animal Rights Introduction Glance Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Introduction glance at the news is enough to reveal that few people are genuinely concerned about the welfare and plight of animals in the United Stated and in the world. For example, PETA Org recently launched a campaign against a large company for extreme animal abuse. There are numerous examples that occur daily of personal, corporate as well as institutionalized violence and cruelty afflicted against animals. This lack of concern forms the central crux of this paper. The question that this poses is why do people, who are normally caring and considerate, tolerate or even ignore cruelty and abuse of animals. How can this uncaring attitude exist in normal society? Does this cast a shadow on the idea that our society is normal…. [read more]


Animal Welfare Assurance Organizations Research Paper

… The ASPCA does not oppose the use of animals in entertainment, "provided that all of the animals' physiological and behavioral needs are fully met and that no cruel practices are used in raising, training and maintaining the animals, including when their period of useful service is over' (ASPCA Position statement 5.16).

The ASPCA also stresses the need for consideration of the environment and for nature, keeping with its concerns about the ethical treatment of wild animals. It does not oppose animal control of wildlife in all instances, but stresses that, like all forms of euthanasia, it should only be practiced as a last resort (ASPCA Position statement 6.1). The ASPCA is not a conservation group such as, for example, Greenpeace, but sees its support of…. [read more]


Animal Research Following the Precedent Established Term Paper

… Animal Research

Following the precedent established for the past hundred years of using sentient beings for laboratory modeling, animals should continue to be used in biomedical research because the scientific knowledge gained far outweighs any ethical and moral considerations.

Animal research has always been a contentious subject, but within the past few decades the debate has risen to critical levels, leading to sides being drawn up for and against both with seemingly irreconcilable demands. Shortly after the end of World War II, the 1940's saw an incredible increase in the use of animal research. Government research in biomedical technologies was blooming and the GI bill during that time period provided many incentives for students to pursue techniques for in-vivo (animal) research. (Spun 21) Animal research…. [read more]


Animal Cruelty Persuasive Argument Term Paper

… Of 39 women who had suffered domestic abuse by their partners 61% stated that their partners had "threatened, injured of killed"

their pets. Of those interviewed, 58% of sexual homicide perpetrators who suffered from being abused sexually as children were able to recall cruelty to animals as children.

Symptoms and Signs of Animal Abuse:

If an animal does not have access to food and to water as well as shelter, and if the animal does not have a clear area or has untreated injuries then abuse should be reported. Other signs of abuse are over-aggressive behavior or extremely timid behavior on the part of the animal. Abandonment of an animal is also considered abuse.

Actions when Witnessing the Abuse of an Animal:

Local authorities are…. [read more]


Animal Cruelty Term Paper

… The cages that Harlow subjected his experiments to would also need to be appropriate for the experiment and the information that is hoped to be derived from it.

3. Give a recent instance where primates were used for research experiments (please cite your study) then explain the ethical consideration with the choice of primates?

A relatively controversial research experiment with primates occurred with the Silver Spring Monkeys between from 1981 until 1991. This experiment, arguable more than Harlow's created horrific living conditions for the primates. This experiment also subjected them to what many believe torture and inhumane activities. The benefits derived from the experiment however, have had implications for human society in multiple facets.

In summary, 17 monkeys had been used as research subjects by…. [read more]


Zoo Animals Human Beings Research Paper

… Therefore, it cannot be assumed that successful breeding programs necessarily mean an increase in animal welfare, but rather that there are more animals of any given species, who may or may not be treated well depending on the specific zoo.

The idea that successful breeding programs necessarily mean an increase in animal welfare is so pervasive precisely because it feels so intuitive; the assumption is that if animals are reproducing, then they must have at least some minimal level of comfort. In a similar way, the idea that long-lived animals necessarily connote high standards of animal welfare is extremely popular, because it is easy to assume that long-lived animals must have led a comfortable life, or else they would not survive for so long. This…. [read more]


Animal Conservation Importance to Human Term Paper

… We were not put here to ruin our surrounding for those who follow after us, we were put here to live in harmony with the world around us, and one way we can do that is to make sure that we conserve endangered animals, and do not endanger any more.

Numerous wildlife organizations promote the conservation of animals, and well-known actors and personalities support many of them. For example, the "World Wide Fund for Nature" (WWF) is a worldwide organization that attempts to conserve endangered wildlife of all sorts, including animals, marine life, world forestation to support animal life, and other conservation efforts. One of the celebrities involved in the organization is His Royal Highness The Duke of Edinburgh. Other animal conservation groups include the…. [read more]


Animal Advocacy Organizations Thesis

… The ASPCA is less interested in publicity events like PETA pulls off and is more interested in activities like education; this is not to say that PETA does not educate the public, but the ASPCA is known more for helping citizens identify, for example, signs that pets are not being treated kindly. The ASPCA has a list of signs that pets are being abused; a few of those signs include: a) when a collar is too tight a dog suffers; b) evidence of "multiple healed wounds" or open sores that are untreated; c) a dog that is infested with fleas, ticks, or signs of "inadequate grooming… overgrown nails or a dirty coat"; d) seeing an owner strike the animal or leaving a dog on a…. [read more]


Animal Liberation: A Triangular Affair Article Review

… This focus on domesticated animals at the expense of the larger biosphere ultimately demonstrates the unviable nature of animal liberation philosophy and practice, because "animal liberation, if pursued at the practical as well as the rhetorical level, would have ruinous consequences on plants, soils and waters," as well as the various forms of life which depend on these resources for their well-being. Furthermore, the animal liberation movement contains a simplistic understanding of the food web, such that unsustainably sourced vegetarian foods are valued over meat taken in a reasonable, sustainable way from a single animal. In short, the animal liberation movement, though nobly committed to lessening the suffering of animals, is ultimately naive, unrealistic, and actually fairly damaging to the overall well-being of life on…. [read more]


Animal Testing. The Writer Argues Essay

… And, sadly, the animals do not simply lie down and pass quietly away (Philips, 1998). They die painfully and distressingly (Philips, 1998). " But if the alternative is going to be that humans suffer and die because the treatment cannot be tried on an animal the price becomes to high (Philips, 1998).

Activists will argue that the testing of cosmetics on animals is not going to save lives and therefore should be halted but they are wrong. Each year thousands of victims are severely disfigured because of fires, surgeries, chemical burns or other problems (Philips, 1998). They hide away in their homes afraid to let the world see their faces. They cannot work, they withdraw socially and they stop being productive contributors to society (Philips,…. [read more]


Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence Human Beings Essay

… Anthropomorphism and Animal Violence

Human beings and animals exist in a state of uncomfortable cohabitation. We have historically been outliers to an ecological system that depends on a great many hierarchical rules. In our independence from this ecology, we have not only placed ourselves at the top of the food chain through any number of technological artifices, but we have also channeled our understanding of animals through our needs and our experiences.

The work by Stephen Jay Gould (1982) demonstrates man's need to contextualize all things according to his own experiences, offering an illustration in the way that we characterize the behaviors of animals. While a certain degree of scientific understanding tells us that the impulses and motives for animals are inherently driven by survival,…. [read more]


Animals for Testing Term Paper

… Clearly, using animals for testing saves lives, money, and makes sense. Using humans, or even cadavers for the same testing would not only be more expensive monetarily, it would be incredibly expensive in human lives. The entire premise of testing is based on creating new treatments which might be harmful or even deadly until their components are understood and managed. Using humans to test potentially deadly compounds would be unconscionable. Using animals, especially those that are bred in the lab specifically for medical research is not only cost effective, it is morally the correct thing to do. Some animal activists point to research done by cosmetic firms as a use of animals in testing that should be banned. One expert notes, "Rights thought dictates that…. [read more]


Animal Rights Ethics and Morality Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Ethics and morality have consistently been topics of concern in our society. Concerns about ethics and morality also extend to matters associated with the treatment of animals. The purpose of this discussion is to summarize and critique several different theories associated with the ethical treatment of animals. The discussion will focus on the treatment of animals as it relates to hunting and trapping animals, eating animals, using animals for research, and the manner in which domestic and wild animals are treated. The research will summarize and critique several theories including anthropocentrism, Animal liberation, Strong Animal Rights Theory, Weak (er) animal rights theory, Two-factor egalitarianism, biocentric egalitarianism, ecocentric views.

Anthropocentrism

Anthropocentrism views human being as the center of the universe and regards the world…. [read more]


Why Animals Should Have Rights Term Paper

… ¶ … animal cruelty and animal rights have been a several theme in recent media and public sentiments, few people really understand what it means to give animals the rights that they deserve. Instead, we are harming animals both directly and indirectly on a daily basis to satisfy our basic needs. This implies that human beings still look to animals as if they have no righs whatsoever, and more than that, it is completely legitimate to kill, maim and destroy their livelihood at will. Animals are not only treated with complete disregard, but humanity has deemed them fit to be genetically altered, manipulated and changed. All of these actions seem to fit the portfolio of God, rather than our own human species. In the following…. [read more]


Society's Views of the Aging Term Paper

… 10).

References

Imagine a Perfect World; Is Our Society Obsessed with Beauty and Perfection? Three of Our Year 9 Girls Offer Their Perspectives. (2011, November 1). Daily Examiner (Grafton, Australia), p. NA. Retrieved July 13, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5051575671

Mcguire, S.L. (1993). Promoting Positive Attitudes toward Aging: Literature for Young Children. Childhood Education, 69(4), 204+. Retrieved July 14, 2012, from Questia database: http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=5002192697

Redburn, D.E., & McNamara, R.P. (1998). Social Gerontology. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group Inc. Retrieved July 14, 2012 from http://books.google.com.pk/books?id=RrnMQIyF4aEC&printsec=frontcover&dq=social+gerontology&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ayUBUJ2pH4nZiget7IGbCA&ved=0CDYQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=social%20gerontology&f=false

The Quest for Beauty; from Nose Jobs to Tummy Tucks, More and More People Are Going to Extreme Lengths to Achieve the So-Called Perfect Look. Karen Price Discovers How Photographer Zed Nelson Captured the Worrying Trend for His New Exhibition. (2010,…. [read more]


Scientific Research With Animals Thesis

… ¶ … scientific research with animals, and the scientific purpose of the research. Scientific research with animals has been controversial for decades. Animal rights activists violently oppose it in any form, believing it is cruel to the animals and unnecessary. Scientists and others, such as psychologists, believe it is necessary in many cases, and that animal research can prevent human suffering. In fact, they have developed guidelines for ethical conduct when using animals in scientific research, and one of the areas of those guidelines is to increase understanding or benefit the welfare of humans and other animals. Thus, animal research has a place in the scientific world, at least for the near future.

Many people, including many psychologists, believe animal research is a necessary "evil."…. [read more]


Toulmin-Based Argument in Support Essay

… To this end, there appears to be a direct connection between income level and pet-adoption preferences that indicate public awareness campaigns may be effective in promoting animal adoptions from shelters and reducing euthanasia levels. For instance, pet adoption rates have been shown to differ significantly according to ZIP codes. In this regard, Fine reports that, "Pet-keeping practices vary with neighborhood and community. A study of residents in Salt Lake County revealed that residents' ZIP code areas were highly predictive of the sources of pets residents used in acquiring their pets. Certain ZIP code areas showed high levels of pet adoptions from shelters, while other neighborhoods favored purebred animals, and feral cats were adopted in other areas" (2006, p. 77).

In addition, the Humane Society has…. [read more]


Service Animals (Guide Dogs Term Paper

… Moira Shea, a blind policy expert, attempted to take Beau onto the Senate floor to speak with Senator Wyden, her boss, during a debate. She was refused admittance, because there was an "unwritten rule" against dogs on the Senate floor. Shea challenged the decision, and finally, after debate and complaint, the Senate issued a proclamation allowing service dogs on the floor. Seven years after the Congress passed the ADA, they still could not adhere to its practices ("A Dog's Life"). Clearly, if the nation's own Congressional leaders have problems interpreting the ADA, and the discrimination of service animals, others will have problems as well.

Another case indicates how even the most discerning and understanding individual can misinterpret the law, and service animals' functions. This family…. [read more]


Animal Communication Research Paper

… Analysis suggests that meaningful information is being conveyed by these behaviors, but it is disputed whether this phenomenon is truly language. Sign language and computer keyboards are used in primate language research because non-human primates lack vocal cords and other human speech organs. However, primates do possess the manual dexterity required for keyboard operation ("Great Ape Language").

Bottle-nosed dolphins dominate many marine acts because of their intelligence and researchers believe much of the dolphin's brain is used for communication. While it is not known if dolphins have a formal language, they do communicate with a signature whistle to identify themselves. Dolphins lack vocal cords but use a complicated system of whistles, squeaks, moans, trills and clicks produced by sphincter muscles within the blow hole to…. [read more]


Animal Behavior Term Paper

… NRA Uses Propaganda to Promote Lies about Condors & Lead Poisoning

Those who want to help the recovery program for the endangered California Condor are up against the powerful National Rifle Association (NRA, 2011), and the fight to preserve and restore the species is not going to be won easily because of the propaganda put out by the NRA. The main issue is lead poisoning. Condors "are highly susceptible to lead toxicity," according to the Ventana Wildlife Society. Many other respected wildlife and conservation organizations concur that even small fragments of lead bullets, or shotgun pellets, can kill a condor, depending on how long the lead is in the bird's digestive system. Condors are relatives of the vulture and unlike raptors, the California Condor feeds…. [read more]


Psychological Research on Animals Is it Ethical Essay

… Psychological Research on Animals

Is it ethical to use animals in psychological research? The answer is yes, but that answer comes with a qualification: if the psychological research is conducted in an ethical way, in accordance with the guidelines from the American Psychological Association, and federal law, and does no harm to the animal, it then should be considered ethical.

Ethical Psychological Research on Animals is Federal Law

The American Psychological Association (APA) has published guidelines for those that have the authority in their university labs or elsewhere to conduct psychological experiments on animals. The APA insists that there be: a) "a clear scientific purpose" to the experiment; b) a reasonable expectation that the experiment will "increase knowledge of the processes underlying the evolution, development,…. [read more]


Guns: Artistotle's History of Animals Term Paper

… This practice enabled Aristotle to describe phenomena such as the embryological development of a chick, to distinguish dolphins from fish and to describe the chambered stomachs of ruminants. He was also able to examine the social organization of bees, and he noticed that some sharks give birth to live young.

Indeed, Aristotle's keen interest in sea life led him to his extensive studies of dolphins, which he classified as mammals after observing their reproduction practices. Aristotle's successors however were slow to accept this fact, and it was only two thousand years later that biologists began to confirm Aristotle's observations of the dolphin. Another observation of sea life is the fact that the torpedo fish stuns its prey. Knowledge at the time was too limited for…. [read more]


Endangered Animals Essay

… ¶ … Judy Braddy

Hunter May

Not Everything is Worth Saving

"Since the Endangered Species Act was passed by the government in 1973, people have come to realize that they must change their ways if other species besides humans are to survive. The Endangered Species Act accomplishes this goal; however, it is biting off more than it can chew. While this act is trying to save species from becoming extinct, it's efforts have resulted in large sums of money loss to the government. An example? In 2011, the construction of a hospital was delayed due to a sighting of an endangered species of fly around the construction area of the unfinished hospital. To make a story short, the rare species of fly flew away, never…. [read more]


Life on Earth Term Paper

… This is one of the best manifestations of the information age. Human beings are beginning to think about deeper issues than their own material prosperity. Our concern with the future and the preservation of all forms of life for future generations has come to the forefront of society today. Animal welfare groups have thus grown strong enough to be a significant voice in legislation.

The Animal Welfare Act was passed in 1966. Through this Act legal standards were set for all laboratory animals except mice and rats. These standards extended to both treatment and care. Further standards are that research facilities were to register with the government while being subjected to random inspections (Current Events special report). Furthermore these facilities were required to administer pain…. [read more]

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