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Anthropology: The Fundamental Social Science Essay

… Some examples include economics, geography, history, linguistics, political science, psychology, and sociology. Because of its all-encompassing ability to understand the human experience from multiple perspectives, anthropology sets the stage for other Social Science disciplines. It allows linguistics to study language out of an understanding that humans live in a symbolic world and communicate symbolically (a cultural phenomenon). It allows sociologists to study the (oft Western, American) society as an entity in and of itself (and anthropology understands society as a product of culture, and that product allows for the ability for humanity to continue its existence. Without the ability to cohabitate amicably, humanity would not, most likely, have survived as long or prospered as much). It allows historians to understand the culture and the "ways"…. [read more]

Comparison of the Social Sciences Research Paper

… ¶ … Social Sciences

Background- for centuries, philosophers have puzzled the human condition. Questions abound about why humans act the way they do, why they form groups, what role cultural and social norms have for learning, how societies form, the nature of society, social change, and the way integration and alienation fit in with modern societies. In particular, the changes in urbanization and technology, and access to other cultures, spurred even more study of what it means to be human. Together, these paradigms form a notion of human history in which theories have tried to explain different aspects of human behavior and interaction. We now call the study of society and human behavior social science; a more umbrella term that refers to a number of…. [read more]

Social Theory and Globalization Essay

… In their approach to the topic of globalization, social theorists have explained it through the political, economic, and cultural aspects (Evans, 2011). This is because it's a process of improved density and occurrence of global social interactions in local and national levels (Walby, 2003). Under political globalization, social theorists have explained the significant reformation of political institutions while direct global financial and product markets have dominated economic globalization. Culturally, these theorists have recognized the impact of global migration and communication on national identities. In contemporary social theory, modern analysts link globalization with deterritorialization, development of interconnectedness, velocity of social activity, and its relative long-term process (Scheuerman, 2010). Consequently, this approach has had a broad impact on human existence since it incorporates various philosophical questions.

Conclusion:…. [read more]

Science and Culture Essay

… Science and Culture

According to author Mark Erickson, science is a "multi-faceted object that we can pick up, turn this way and that, peer inside and scrutinize; but science also has its own agency" (Erickson, 2005, 15). His meaning is clear -- science is not one thing all the time. It can take on different aspects, different things for different people. Most of all, it is a fluid process -- one that is a method of inquiry more than simply a discipline. For example, if we take almost any field, the fundamental base is knowledge -- or inquiry; how do we find out things we do not know and what do we do with that information? Without a formal method of inquiry, we are left…. [read more]

Social Science Social Change Situations Keep Discussion Chapter

… Social Science

Social Change

Situations keep on evolving, making different aspects of culture to change as well. The human social life has been faced with immense development, and still on the verge of change to accommodate posterity needs. The ancient generations evidently presented human beings as a pre-literate and conservative population. In addition, the existence in the ancient society mainly dwelt on nature's resources and complex aspects of their culture. However, increased competition and need to advance increased the rate at which social change was taking. Customs and traditions started to erode and replaced by new practices. These practices were driven by many discoveries, inventions and culture diffusion and perspective thinking and evaluation of ideas and ideologies.

Discovery and Invention

Discovery is a mutual human…. [read more]

Anthropological Thought Essay

… Anthropology

Historical Foundations of Anthropology

How do the methods of 19th Century Evolutionists explain the development of marriage, family, political organization, and religion?

The development of the evolutionary theory of societal development arose from the precept that all cultures arose in a uniform manner. Early theorists believed that various cultures represented different stages along the path to development. Evolutionary anthropology arose from encounters with cultures that were different Theorists such as Tylor and Morgan developed opposing viewpoints on the development of society.

Tylor disagreed that groups, such as the Native American population, were a degenerated culture (Tylor, cited in Anthropological Theory, 1871:30). He felt that culture from simple to complex and that it progressed through three distinct stages. Tylor argued that civilization progressed from savagery…. [read more]

Anthropology, in the Broadest Sense Term Paper

… If the human being possesses an immaterial soul, they argue, it is reasonable to place him in a class of his own -- separate from other animals -- based upon this characteristic. However, problems exist even when attempting to identify where an object ends and another begins. Separating the physical world from the mental world requires that the physical world have boundaries, and in particular, that objects end somewhere.

It is possible, for instance, to measure an apple. We can see what its volume and density are and we can say that the apple ends where the air around it begins. Yet, every measurement we make upon this apple is only an approximation; we cannot know exactly how big it is. This limitation is not…. [read more]

Marxist Anthropology and American Materialism Term Paper

… ¶ … Marxist Anthropology and American Materialism in the Science of Anthropology

Centering on the study of culture and human life, anthropology as a field of study in the social sciences looks at how people, as social actors, make use of artifacts and practice traditions and values that reflects the distinctive feature that characterizes the culture. With its inception in the 19th century through Sir Edward Tylor, who is also considered the father of anthropology, the science of studying cultures in various countries and societies have developed to include numerous theories that offer a different perspective or paradigm to explain a particular cultural phenomenon and feature.

Culture is reflected in all aspects of human life, be it through the study of religion, art, literature, and…. [read more]

Social Theory Term Paper

… However, answering what this means should also be done in a historical context. The seven widely accepted features of what is considered to be the phenomenological approach have already been noted above by Wilson (2002). Phenomenology, however, began in the various philosophical reflections of an individual named Edmund Husserl back in the 1890s in Germany (Embree, 1997). Because of this, phenomenology to over 100 years old.

It began to spread before the First World War and had already made its way to Russia, Japan, and Spain by that time (Embree, 1997). In addition to this, it moved out of philosophy to a certain extent and into the realm of psychiatry (Embree, 1997). In the 1920s it began to spread rapidly and moved to France, Australia,…. [read more]

Turnbull Ethno Colin Turnbull's Ethnography Book Review

… Turnbull Ethno

Colin Turnbull's Ethnography of the Mbuti

Based on the pretense that clinical and laboratory observations are often distorted by the false nature of the setting, field observation promotes the notion that to consider the subject's behavior in a natural setting will be likelier to yield meaningful information. In particular, there are specific observational opportunities that may only be experienced in this natural setting and cannot otherwise be effectively recreated in a more empirically driven or controlled setting. To this extent, our research identifies the ethnography as "a branch of cultural anthropology." (Garson, 1) The indicates that in some regard, the social behaviors exhibited by subjects are in their own degree manifested by the controlled parameters of the group selected for observation. Thus, in…. [read more]

Rethinking Popular Culture Essay

… ¶ … travel in another country has no doubt had the experience of realizing that other people in other places see things very differently. Travel allows us -- and forces us -- to engage ourselves with one of the most fundamental questions in the social sciences: Can we ever so thoroughly immerse ourselves in another culture deeply enough so that we come to see the world as "the natives" do? Can we ever become absolutely bilingual so that not only do we have no problem getting our verbs to line up nicely but we also know which foods to bring to a wake, or how to flirt with someone of both the same sex and opposite sex, and how to bargain (or not) when buying…. [read more]

Globalization Risks Essay

… Again, this has a lot to do with the design of the system.

The fact that so many problems with globalization can be traced to design and implementation rightly draws people to evaluate whether globalization has any merit at all. Technological advances would have happened anyway, albeit at a slower pace. A slower pace might have given us time to get it right. A slower pace would have allowed many of these problems to be identified, and solutions found. More interests could have been heard at the bargaining table; instead only those who seized the opportunity and moved quickly have their interest recognized. Is there a better system? Closed systems stifled the sort of growth that improves quality of lives -- that was most of…. [read more]

Rapid Innovations in Technology Thesis

… For example, Hurrell and Woods emphasize that, "Within weak states globalization and widening inequality are eroding the capacity of governments to deal with an increasing set of social, economic, and political conflicts" (1999: 2). At the regional level, the inequalities being generated by globalization are creating instability and the further marginalization of the already impoverished (Blank 2007). At the global level, the implications of the inequalities being caused by globalization are even more severe. In this regard, Hurrell and Woods add that, "As globalization creates sharper and more urgent problems for states and international institutions, increasing inequality reduces their capacity to manage these problems effectively. In this context, it is unsurprising that the sense of unease about globalization has increased and that political and media…. [read more]

Malinowski's Functional Theory Term Paper

… Anthropology

Bronislaw Malinowski is one of the twentieth century's most prominent and influential anthropologists. He is highly regarded for his pioneering work in the field of ethnographic fieldwork, giving a major contribution to the study of Melanesia and of reciprocity. Malinowski's work can best be described as operating from a functionalist approach to society.

The majority of Malinowski's work occurred in the field, studying the cultures of numerous indigenous peoples. Early in his career, he traveled to what is now Papua New Guinea in order to study the local people. When World War One broke out, Malinowski found himself stranded on the island and, being forced out of loneliness, decided to participate in the Trobrainders society. During this time, he learned the native language and…. [read more]

Do Human Rights Following a Cultural Relativism Approach Depend on International Regimes for Their Implementation? Term Paper

… Enforcement of Non-Universal Human Rights

There are some practices that are so abhorrent and degrading that they simply cannot be justified -- ever.

Genocide will never be successfully defended with a human rights argument.

Rape cannot be justified on free-speech grounds"

Sullivan 2006 ¶ 17).

Contemporary Human Rights Considerations

Throughout history, the outcry, "Never again!" against despicable human rights violations echoes, may reflect well-meaning intentions, however, in reality, frequently constitutes words without power. In the journal article, "The protection of human rights under international law: will the U.N. Human Rights Council and the emerging new norm "responsibility to protect" make a difference?," Ved P. Nanda (2007) recounts historical accounts that he contends have contributed to positive changes relating to the international community's focus regarding global…. [read more]

African Studies and Multiculturalism Term Paper

… African Studies and Multiculturalism

An article by Mineke Schipper, titled "Knowledge is like an ocean: insiders, outsiders, and the academy," has as its focus the discussion the "unequal power relations that persist" between Africa and the Western world. The piece, published in Research in African Literatures, also points to the fact that African scholars who wish to participate in the discussion vis-a-vis those "power relations" are for the most part shut out due to "a continued marginalization and inequality in access to information and dialogue."

Schipper uses several analogies to make the point that "various kinds of people" have been kept out of sciences and also kept "outside the boundaries of 'civilized mankind.'" And in the process of making the point that Africans, in particular,…. [read more]

Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Dissertation

… ¶ … Multiculturalism in Europe With Special Reference to Germany

The issue of multiculturalism has been the focus to the political concerns of European nations since nineteen forty five. The problem of multiculturalism covers numerous issues, which predominates differ with different political situations. Multiculturalism mirrors concerns regarding immigration and the manner in which immigrants settled in Western Europe between 1950s and 1960s. Following the break-up of communism in nineteen eight nine, and the rebellion of ethnic nationalism in the Eastern Europe, the problem of multiculturalism centered around devolution of power from central national governments to regionally sub-national groups and the probabilities of power-sharing at the centre. Multiculturalism was also linked to the developing numbers of political refugees, and in the wake of terrorists attacks in…. [read more]

End Game of Globalization "Nothing Book Report

… The systemic eradication and assimilation of world cultures is an objective of American imperialism as demonstrated over the course of, according to Smith, approximately half of the country's history/existence. Therefore, those who consume American cultures without consideration, sustain the continuation of affects that globalization has upon the world in ways of which many people are peripherally aware.

The impacts of globalization via the imperialism of the United States upon forms of indigenous cultures around the world can range from a spectacularly positive, to political and/or social upheaval. The great shift and changes experience by global cultures is a direct result of the advent and distribution of a variety of new technologies including mobile devices, the Internet, and smartphones. The world is able to communicate with…. [read more]

Swarovski and Luxury Fashion Experiential Literature Review

… Swarovski has extended a cordial relationship with its customers over time. When it adopted experiential marketing, it showed its commitment to its customers since it appeared to be willing to go an extra mile and give its customer a chance to experience Swarovski lifestyle. This is the reason why every showroom of Swarovski, its own website and presence on social media shows that Swarovski is a brand which should be the first choice of crystal lovers. Through a luminous experience offered by it, it has managed to attract a mass of customers globally. It appears that Swarovski knows that attracting customers is easy but it's difficult to retain them. It appears to exploit the emotional attachment of its customers to its fullest. It has not…. [read more]

Team Leadership in Multicultural Groups Research Paper

… Leadership in Multicultural Groups

To what extent does the larger context (i.e. A business setting, an educational setting) affect the dynamics of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How do gender and ethnicity interact in the context of the leadership of a multicultural group?

How significant is each group member's definitions of culture and cultural salience?

In investigating the dynamics of the leadership of multicultural groups, an important starting point is with the individual. This may seem counterintuitive given that the subject that is being focused on is the group. But while a group is certainly more than simply the sum of its parts, it is also its parts. A group must be investigated as its whole, but it must also must be examined in…. [read more]

Impact of American Popular Culture Overseas Term Paper

… Popular Culture

According to a senior intellectual the collapse of the Nation is based on the failure of the intellectual, cultural, political and economic policies of the state, it is important to understand that the dominance of cultural and social features lead towards the economic and political aspirations, and therefore it has been observed that many countries in Africa and Asia have adhered by the cultural and social practices of European and North American to nullify the might and support towards the authoritarian regime (David, 2002). The democratic principles of the European and North American countries have always fascinated the local population of the Asian and African countries. Apart from democratic principles, the quality of the living standards has turn the local population of the…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Psychology Essay

… Cross Cultural Psychology

Universality in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Is there truly a universal element to human psychology? Many great minds within the practice have debated whether cultural norms within the human mind are culture specific or more universal. Within cultural psychology, the basic concept is that psychology is heavily dependent on the individual culture in which the person is raised. However, within the construct of cross-cultural, researchers posit the idea that although each individual is heavily influenced by the world around them, there're basic patterns that appear within isolated groups that present the argument there must be some true universals.

In opposed to cross-cultural psychology, cultural psychology relies heavily on the notion that psychological development is dependent on the culture each individual is raised within. According…. [read more]

Spotlighting Samplings 4 Qualitative Research Research Paper

… Magilvy and Thomas (2009) explain that "qualitative research data are usually text data, narratives, and stories told by people about their experiences recorded digitally, on tape, on film, or in photographs, or in notes taken by the researcher" (¶ 4). After being analyzed, described and explained, the ensuring retrieved data may offer a detailed account of the experience "as lived."

As explained earlier in the study, research design illustrates the entire research process from the first notion of the research problem, to creating the data, analyzing and explaining the findings and ultimately publishing the results. In addition to the phenomenology method, the survey method, the ethnography method, and the case study method, the methods the current study examines, research designs also include, however, may not…. [read more]

Ethnographic Films Capturing Their Souls When Polaroid Essay

… Ethnographic Films

Capturing Their Souls

When Polaroid discontinued its instant film in 2008, one of the most disappointed constituencies was police agencies. Crime scene investigators had for years depended on Polaroids to document what had happened for court cases because Polaroids could not be manipulated. In an age of Photoshop, in which everything in every other kinds of photographs had to be considered to be fungible, Polaroids provided a picture of what was true. Just the (visual) facts, as it were.

This forensic fondness for Polaroids is understandable, and if any of us were the victim of a crime we would probably be pleased if the police had access to an accurate and reliable method for collecting and preserving evidence. But the argument about why…. [read more]

Presumption, Often Promulgated by Scholars and Politicians Essay

… ¶ … presumption, often promulgated by scholars and politicians in the developed world, that social, political and cultural development are synonymous with a move towards modernization. In fact, modernization theory is also sometimes referred to as the developmental doctrine, a paradigm spurred on particularly after World War II when the United States formed its Cold War policy and understood that it had obligations to the developing world (e.g. unindustrialized or newly independent post-colonial nations). Modernization can thus be an evolutionary movement of technological progress or a reaction to the past and a new template for the future. However, we must understand that it is both a continuous, and open-ended, process. It is not the type of social change in which there is a clear beginning,…. [read more]

Medical Anthropology Cultural Conflicts Hierarchy and Problems of Mental Health at the Workplace Term Paper

… Workplace Diversity

Cultural Diversity in the Workplace

It is a widely embraced certainty that harmony, civility and amicable cooperation in the workplace are highly desirable goals for any company in any industry. And albeit those goals are difficult to achieve even in the best of circumstances - where the bulk of employees share cultural values and language - they present an enormous challenge when the workplace is multicultural. Moreover, given that profit margins in an increasingly competitive global marketplace are directly linked to the presence of - or dearth of - efficient management and motivated employees, understanding how to best utilize the skills of individuals reflecting a diversity of cultures and communication skills is paramount to corporate success.

There are generalized approaches to the challenges…. [read more]

Business Skills -- Personal Evaluation Capstone Project

… Typically, lay audiences require more extensive introductory sections than expert audiences.

• The objective evidence available to support these conclusions includes my successful completion of Tab C-1, English 101 Essay and of Tab C-2, U.S. Army Contracting Recommendation Slides.

Outcome 2 -- Demonstrate introductory college-level proficiency in one or more of the subject areas in mathematics and/or natural sciences.

• I have learned how to use the scientific method to engage in problem-solving in a process that can deduce logical answers to questions about the natural world. For example, in the scientific disciplines, I have learned how to apply the scientific method to formulate testable hypotheses consisting of multiple variables in a systematic problem-solving process. That includes understanding the difference between independent and dependent variables.…. [read more]

Politics of Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes Lysistrata Term Paper

… Gender and Sexuality

New Criticism: Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes' Lysistrata

Aristophanes' Lysistrata is one of the eleven plays penned by the playwright that has survived over time. The original performance of this production occurred in classical Athens reportedly in 411 BC

Lysistrata is considered a comedy; an account of one woman's unique goal and desire to end the Peloponnesian War. During the course of the play, Lysistrata is able to persuade the women of Greece to withhold any form of sexual satisfaction from their lovers and husbands as a tool designed to force the men to negotiate peace

This suggested strategy, however, incites the battle between the men and women. Because of the use of sex, issues raised with regard to gender, and addressing…. [read more]

Art Violence and Social Engagement in Colombia Research Proposal

… ¶ … Colombia is the third-largest recipient of military aid from the United States and is at a critical juncture in its turbulent history. More than three million people have been displaced in Colombia during the past decade alone, and violent deaths and kidnappings remain alarmingly high. While violence is nothing new to the people of Colombia, their response to its sources and causes have been portrayed in the visual arts in various ways, with one of the most recent manifestations of this being portrayal such as the "The Skin of Memory," developed by the anthropologist Pilar Riano-Alcala and the artist Suzanne Lacy in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team in Colombia. Because art must also serve a social function and civic responsibility, this thesis evaluates…. [read more]

Ethnomethodology Theory Term Paper

… Ethnomethodology

The social science of sociology is continually changing, due to the ongoing evolution of the society that it is studying. Although different methodologies, such as functionalisms, Marxism and symbolic interactionism have significant differences, they all are based on the premise that the social world is essentially orderly and that patterns of societal behavior and interaction are regular and systematic rather instead of haphazard and chaotic. A recent sociological perspective called ethnomethodology, theorized by Harold Garfinkel in the 1967 Studies in Ethnomethodology studies the ways in which people make sense of their potentially chaotic social world.

When Garfinkel first released his new concept, it made a strong and immediate impact on the field of sociology. However, this early interest and faded, sometimes even replaced by…. [read more]

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