Viewing papers 1-15 of 15 for anticipatory AND self defense AND in AND international AND law

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Anticipatory Self-Defense in International Law Term Paper

… Anticipatory Self Defence in International Law

The concept of anticipatory self defence in international law has become more prominent and has grown to be a dominant topic of discussion in recent years. The attacks on American soil on September 11, 2001 can be said as the primary reason behind the growing importance of anticipatory self defence. The event saw the passenger airlines being hijacked and used to target the destruction of important and strategic New York and Washington buildings i.e. The World Trade Center and the Pentagon. It wasn't a surprise that the U.S. reacted with aggression and force by initiating the war on terror under the reign of President Bush. This war was launched against the territories and nations that were known to have…. [read more]

Business Law Which Type of Contract Term Paper

… Business Law

Which type of contract, bilateral or unilateral, is more common in business? Why? Under what circumstance would someone prefer one or the other? What are the advantages of each type for the offeror? For the offeree?

A bilateral contract is one wherein each party who has promised something has a duty to perform the same. For instance, in case of a contract of a sale an article, one party has the duty to deliver the article he is selling and the other has the duty to pay money for the article for performance of the contract. However in case of unilateral contract, one party has made a promise anticipating in return for something other than a returned promise. In case of these types…. [read more]

Gay and Lesbian Torture in Iraq and the International Human Rights Violations Term Paper

… Torture and Abuse of Gays and Lesbians in U.S. Occupied Iraq

The United States has always presented itself as a model of fairness and equality. A champion of human rights around the world, the American government is a signatory to wide range of treaties that guarantee equal protection and treatment for persons of diverse races, religions, creeds, and ethnic groups. The American government condemns gender bias, age discrimination, and prejudice against the physically and mentally disabled. So, when George W. Bush's original justification for the invasion of Iraq i.e. "anticipatory self-defense" collapsed, the President quickly substituted the idea of human rights. Yet, the new Iraq that is emerging after five years of often bloody U.S. occupation can hardly be described as a humanitarian paradise. Numerous…. [read more]

Politics International Trade-Offs Term Paper

… Liberals might also argue that rogue states are more likely to be reformed if they are not decimated by invasions and other aggression. Constructivism would take a similar point, arguing against a single state blindly trying to force its political structure on all other nations in the name of freedom. A constructivist would be especially horrified at the way in which current American policy does not take into much consideration the native culture and sociology of the nations it is preemptively attacking. Rather than suggest acting unilaterally to wipe out theoretical enemies in a search for supreme power, constructivism would likely suggest attempting to understand the enemy culture, and work out the boundaries and relationships that can be had between the cultures.

If, as might…. [read more]

Post War Iraq: A Paradox Term Paper

… This event gave real evidence to the insignificant role played by the United Nations in the Korean War. 10

2. Self-defense (Falklands)

Self-defense is one of the most contentious spheres of the exercise of force, and many instances abound which possibly depict a predicament with finding what are the conventions, and what about enforcing them. Since it prohibits the exercise of force, the U.N deed certainly identifies two scenarios wherein the application of force is allowed. International Law has recognized years ago that each state possesses the prerogative to protect itself, if required through force. This prerogative of self-defense is established in the U.N. charter: Article 51 states that the charter in no manner damages the "inbuilt" privilege of self-protection during an organized assault. The…. [read more]

Is the Preemptive Use of Force Against Terrorism Lawful? Essay


The objective of this work is to examine the issues of terrorism and whether the use of pre-emptive force against terrorism is lawful in nature. Toward this end this work will review an extensive base of literature which examines pre-emptive use of force against Terrorism and will examine this issue on an international basis.

The work of Narelle Thomas (2004) entitled: "The Use of Force and Pre-Emption: A Legitimate Practice Under the UN Charter?" states that Article 2(4) of the United Nations Charter has been described as "an unequivocal prohibition on the use of force. Pre-emptive use of force, therefore, would also seem to be prohibited." Thomas goes on to state that pre-emption "...brings theorists to…. [read more]

Force and Wars on Terrorism Essay

… Gravity of the threat has traditionally been considered important to the proportionality prong of self-defense analysis but it now may be appropriate to consider it also as a threshold requirement to justify the application of a more relaxed standard with respect to the imminence criteria." The events of September 11, 2001 "has made manifest the necessity of relaxing ICJ standards" relating to vicarious culpability." (2004) In the present world environment where groups that are sub-national in nature have the capacity to engage in what are "devastating transnational attacks, states can no longer be held responsible only when they actively promote the criminal enterprise." (Lietzau, 2004) However, state responsibility law is such that "can no longer permit passivity with respect to international terrorists." (Lietzau, 2004) Intervention…. [read more]

Humanitarian Action in a Dangerous Term Paper

… [Author Unknown, A Gibbs Editorial, 2/24/03]

On September 20, 2002 the U.S. Administration unveiled its new National Security Strategy. This document addresses the new realities of our age, particularly the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and terrorist networks armed with the agendas of fanatics. The Strategy claims that these new threats are so novel and so dangerous that USA should "not hesitate to act alone, if necessary, to exercise its right of self-defense by acting preemptively." But in the discussion over the past few months about Iraq, the U.S. Administration often uses the terms "pre-emptive" and "preventive" interchangeably. In the realm of international relations, these two terms have long had very different meanings. Traditionally, "pre-emptive" action refers to times when states react to an…. [read more]

War on Terror Essay

… With Saddam Hussein no longer in power, terrorist organizations have one less eager financier waiting with bated breath for the next opportunity to stick it to America. While Hussein is not directly connected to the 9/11 attacks on America, he has all the qualities and characteristics of a tyrant (genocide on the Kurds, invaded a sovereign nation, actively sought WMDs). Additionally, since we've occupied both Iraq and Afghanistan we've kept the war on their soil, not ours.

CONCLUSION: For some people the notion of anticipatory self-defense is a hard pill to swallow. For instance, some people debate the use of occupational forces in Iraq due to the tenuous argument that was pitched prior to the invasion, i.e. weapons of mass destruction. This is a contentious…. [read more]

Preemptive Warfare Term Paper

… Preemptive Warfare

The concept of preemptive warfare and the explication of its goals are clearly outlined in a September 2002 White House publication entitled "The National Security Strategy of the United States of America." This seminal neoconservative essay outlines the role of the United States in an age of global terrorism. Trans-national terror networks have replaced the nation-states of the past as America's greatest enemies. The essence of the modern preemptive warfare doctrine is expressed on page 12: "While the United States will constantly strive to enlist the support of the international community, we will not hesitate to act alone, if necessary, to exercise our right of self-defense by acting preemptively against such terrorists, to prevent them from doing harm." Referred to as the Bush…. [read more]

Preemptive and Retaliation Policy Many Nations Term Paper

… Preemptive and Retaliation Policy

Many nations around the world have a preemptive policy when it comes to fighting against terrorism in addition to their retaliation policy. For years, the United States held fast with retaliation policy while never moving into the preemptive arena until recently. Following the events of 9-11 the United States adopted a combination retaliation and preemption policy for countering terrorism. There are several pluses for this decision as well as problems.

Countering terrorism has become a serious topic of debate throughout the United States. While most people support a policy of retaliation there are fewer who support a policy of preemption. In 2002 President George Bush issues the "National Security Strategy of the United States of America ("National Security Strategy"). (1) Expanding…. [read more]

Concise Analysis of Intelligence and National Security Essay

Principle 5: Public Authority Non-Exemption

The above disclosure conditions are to be adhered to by all public bodies, which include the courts, the parliament, overseers, military, security organizations, intelligence organizations, police forces, heads of government and state, and all divisions of the above. Facts cannot be suppressed citing national security reasons on the mere basis that an intergovernmental organization, another country, or a certain public body or division within a body produced or was imparted the information (Byman, 2014; Bush, 2002).

Principle 6: Overseers' Information Accessibility

Every appeal, ombudsman, and supervisory body, which includes tribunals and courts, ought to be provided with the accessibility of all facts, even national security related facts,…. [read more]

Non-Traditional Security Threats Term Paper

… It was a major loss of life in an assault on the continent since 1998, when a bomb smashed a Pan American Flight causing the death of over 250 passengers and in Scotland where the wreckage were strewn across. (Burgess, 2004, p.A13) In remembrance of the Madrid bombings that left several over 170 dead, March 11 was observed as the day of the Victims simultaneously throughout Europe. (Evans-Pritchard, 2004, p.7)

The train bombings on March 11 underlined the flaws in the 25-nation cartel's fight to counter extremism and European Union directed ministers to hasten execution of approved terrorism combating initiatives and better their support. Ever since the Madrid incident; security has been beefed up by individual nations. Europeans are all of a sudden insightful of…. [read more]

Aviation Accidents & Situational Awareness Dissertation

… High Reliability or Normal Accidents: A critical examination of situational awareness and its value in reducing human errors in aviation ground operations


The concept of situational awareness

Level 1 SA -- Perception Of The Elements In The Environment.

Level 2 SA -- Comprehension Of The Current Situation.

Level 3 SA -- Projection Of Future Status.

Situation Awareness Requirements

Theories of Situational Awareness

Three-level model

Interactive sub-systems

The perceptual cycle

Summary of the theories

Preparing for thematic synthesis


Qualitative assessment

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Veterans and Retirees Is Government Research Paper

… $38.9 billion is estimated to be received in FY 08 rather than $36.9 billion.

The 2006-2011 strategic plans for the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) outline the government's commitment to veterans. A goal of the VA is to "deliver world-class service to veterans and their families through effective communication and management of people, technology, business processes, and financial resources" (Department of Veterans Affair, October, 2006).

The VA had significant quality issues until Dr. Kenneth Kizer was appointed Under Secretary for Health in 1994. Dr. Kizer "decentralized the VA's cumbersome health bureaucracy and held original mangers more accountable. Patients records were transferred to a system-wide computer network" (Waller, 2006). The VA has become a healthcar model (Longman, 2005; Waller, 2006).

In 2007, the VA received a…. [read more]

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