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Arafat's Images Examined Arafat's Origins and Early Essay

… Arafat's Images Examined

Arafat's Origins and Early Life

Oslo

Clinton Camp David Summit and the "Clinton Parameters"

Arafat's Death and Legacy

Yasser Arafat has been described throughout his career, both by many detractors and supporters, as the "father of the Palestinian people." The view in Colin Shindler's A History of Modern Israel provides a more pro-Israel approach and accurately describes Arafat in all of his duplicitous glory. In this essay, the author strives to provide additional support with other portrayals of Yasser Arafat in an attempt to enhance Shindler's portrayal of the deceased leader of the PLO, Fatah and the Palestinian Authority (PA).

This admirable study faithfully retells Israel's national story, Shindler mostly concentrates on how the Jewish Commonwealth has been historically unable to fulfill…. [read more]


Hamas and Fatah: Palestinian Territories Term Paper

… ¶ … Politics [Foreign Policy Questions and Answers

Both Hamas and Fatah continue in their struggle for political control of the Palestinian Territories and economic control of the support that comes from outside. This has led to open fighting along factional lines. What impact do you think this will have on the region and on the efforts to find peace with Israel?

The present Hamas vs. Fatah political and other factionalism in Palestine clearly will not and cannot help the peace process. Palestinians must be united and sincere in a desire for peace; and (at least in my own opinion) this has not ever happened and is clearly not happening now. There has been much more (albeit always-evaporated, at least so far) hope for peace…. [read more]


Feud Between Israel's Ariel Sharon Term Paper

… Palestine considers Sharon a war criminal because of this. However, their history really goes back to 1948, and the creation of Israel, when both men were quite young. Sharon was a military leader in charge of seeking out Arab terrorists, and Arafat was creating his first terrorist group while fighting Israel during the Suez War in 1956. It seems the two men have always been at odds. Therefore, the history between the two men is long and volatile, and it shows no signs of abating as tensions continue to flare in the Middle East.

The peace process in the Middle East has stalled so many times; it is difficult to see how the two sides can ever come together. Israel refuses to allow Palestinian settlements…. [read more]


Israeli Palestinian Conflict and the Middle East Term Paper

… International Politics

The Threat of Terrorism the Context of International Relations between the U.S. And the Middle East

The threat of terrorism in the U.S. is inextricably linked to the events in the Middle East and the perceived role of the U.S. many of those events; especially in the Israeli/Palestinian disputes. The U.S. is a major power and the country has not been afraid to use that power in international relations. It is the way that the power has been used, often for the support of Israel, to the detriment of Arabic nations.

To appreciate this one can look at the way in which the U.S. has supported Israel, this was seen with the 'friendship' formed between Kennedy and David Ben-Gurion (Bass 2). Building ion…. [read more]


Third Party Intervention Term Paper

… BBC reporter Kathryn Westcott reports a chilling trend among young teens who emulate their elders and perform suicide bombings. The military action in the West Bank has had the effect that 600,000 children have been unable to attend school. Television propaganda enrages the children and they are now beginning to take part in the violence. We must remember that children learn more by our actions than our words and we can only blame ourselves when a 14-year-old runs into a crowded mall of other school children and pulls the pin on the grenade. Some so-called "Freedom Fighters" are even recruiting children to do their dirty work.

The Jerusalem Post echoes the same inability of the leaders to come to an agreement. Ariel Sharon now reports…. [read more]


International Terrorism Violence in the Middle East Essay

… International Terrorism

Violence in the Middle East:

The principle cause of perpetual violence in the Middle East is the extremist attitudes prevailing amongst Palestinian Arabs and other Arab states and militant groups toward the nation of Israel. Still today, large Arab nations like Iran and militant Islamic

organizations in positions of power throughout the Palestinian territories maintain formal

declarations of their intention to destroy Israel by any means necessary and refuse ever to acknowledge the right of Israel to exist as a nation. While extremist groups like the Moshe Amon exist in Israel too, the principal difference is that extremist influences neither reflect the predominant view of the Israeli populace nor do they dictate national policy. In Israel, anti-Arab extremist acts of violence are defined…. [read more]


Military Development of Hezbollah Dissertation

… Terrorists, politicians, social reformers, paramilitary, liberators; Hezbollah has worn many hats. The most striking feature of this organization though is the incredible evolution the world has witnessed since its inception in 1982 (Kalibi, 1988). Initially, Hezbollah emerged as a liberation minded militia following the Israeli occupation of Lebanon. Though the organization merely hundreds strong flew under a banner of peace and rightful restoration of national sovereignty in fact it was Hezbollah which first utilized suicide bombers as strategic military ordinances in an effort to affect the outcome sought. This initial violence and bloodshed though begot a multifaceted organization which has actually taken a stand not against militia action against "imperialist or Zionist" forces per se but against the unnecessary loss of civilian life (Ajami, 1986).…. [read more]


European Union's Policy Term Paper

… Any attempt by the EU to keep its policy independent from the one adopted by the U.S. As seen as a sign of Gaullist intransigence by an increasingly assertive U.S..

Current Status of the Policy

The underlying theme of the European Union's Middle East policy is an evenhanded approach towards Israel and the Palestinians. While it recognizes Israel's "irrevocable right to live in peace and security within internationally recognized borders," it also "recognizes the need for the establishment of a democratic, viable and peaceful sovereign Palestinian State on the basis of the 1967 borders, with the possibility of minor adjustments through land swaps, Jerusalem as a shared capital, and a just and acceptable solution to refugee issue." (Ibid. "EU General Position..")

Moreover, The European Union…. [read more]


Pilgrimage the Hajj: Islamic Research Paper

… The Pilgrimage has allowed the royal family to maintain absolute power through a financial and political patronage system and a powerful police state. It's allies in the Arab Peninsula and beyond, whether they be local Emirs or Western Presidents, have seen the Saudi royal family as an important stabilizer in the Arab world, and therefore the family is propped up externally as well as internally through various machinations of the state.

One negative feature of the Hajj or Pilgrimage is the exclusion of non-Muslims into the city of Mecca. This exclusion is a result of extremely conservative politics in Saudi Arabia, and is not necessarily a requirement of Islam that Muslims only can visit the city of Mecca. This action removes the majority of the…. [read more]


Pope John Paul II Essay

… In his leadership as Pope, John Paul II's most significant strength was his supreme confidence, not only in himself, but also in his faith and his God (The Tablet, 2011). He believed absolutely in following Christ's example in his relationships with others. The pope did, however, have his critics.

He was, for example, criticized for being "out of step" with the times due to his teaching on sexual morality. He preached consistently against abortion and contraception. He also insisted on maintaining the requirement for celibacy for Catholic priests and was against the ordaining of women as priests. He was also criticized for his centralized leadership style. Furthermore, many of Pope John Paul II's critics felt that he occasionally either intervened too much or not enough,…. [read more]


Lebanon's Politics Today Term Paper

… The court system is based on the Napoleonic Code, and they do not use juries. There are three levels within the courts, courts of first instance, courts of appeal, and the court of cassation. Finally, there are religious courts that rule over personal matters in communities, like divorce, marriage and other personal matters.

The current election laws were created in 1960, and they are badly outdated. Parliament attempted to overhaul the laws in late 2008, but many of the measures did not pass, including lowering the voting age and allowing emigrants to vote from overseas locations. However, certain laws were passed, such as holding elections all on the same day, but they did not approve allowing Lebanese military members to vote ("Election Guide"). In Lebanon,…. [read more]


Conflict Resolution in the Middle Term Paper

… The pro-Israel camp has its own lobbies, organizations, think tanks, magazines, support groups, Internet user groups, etc. that strives hard to establish that the Arabs are wrong and they are right. The Israelis pose to be more outstanding in morality than the Arabs. Similarly the lobbies, organizations, think tanks, magazines, support groups, Internet user groups, etc. existing in the side of pro-Arab camps strives hard to establish that the Israelis are wrong and they are right. They also announce in similar fashion that they are morally more upstanding in comparison to the Israelis. Both of the groups are accusing each other labeling allegation that the other is morally deficient, the other is not acting nicely and because of the other that they are not arriving…. [read more]


Game Theory of the Israel Palestine War Essay

… Game theory: How the irrational behavior in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict might be explained by the 'rational' analysis of game theory

Game theory is based upon the presumption that international actors are rational 'black boxes' that carefully calculate their options and move as homogeneous units in the chess game of global politics. The messy, multifaceted nature of Middle Eastern politics would seem to belie such an assumption. However, according to Robert Wright's 2002 Salon.com article "Both sides now" many devoted game theorists steadfastly insist upon the application of game theory to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Game theory, according to its adherents, can be helpful in predicting the complex interplay of state and non-state actors, by demonstrating why seemingly irrational behaviors have a rational basis, depending on the…. [read more]


Resolution of the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict Term Paper

… But they simply cannot walk away from the territories, not in their aroused state, without guarantees they will be safe within their own borders." (The Washington Post, 2002)

Recent UN Resolution

The resolution that was put up recently in the UN Security Council was also welcomed by both Israel and Arafat, the former calling it 'balanced' and the latter 'a step forward.' But the problems to be tackled in this are:

What will be the borders between Israel and the proposed Palestine state,

What will be the fate of the Palestinian refugees who have been sanctioned the right to return to their homes which are now in Israel proper,

What will be the future of the Jewish settlements Israel has been building in the West…. [read more]


Intifada 1987-1993 Term Paper

… ¶ … Intifada

On December 9, 1987, 1.5 million Palestinian Arabs living in areas conquered and occupied by Israel after the Six-Day war in 1967 began an uprising (Goell, 1989). Called the "intifada," and later the "first intifada," the unrest was focused on the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, and Jerusalem (Bligh, 1999). While Israel and Jews living in Israel were the original targets, eventually, various splinter movements within the Intifada developed strong antagonisms between each other. By the end of the first intifada in 1993, very often it was Palestinians who were killed, often quite cruelly (Goell, 1989). This aspect of the intifada emphasizes that while people tend to think of the Palestinians as one group, in fact they make up a group of…. [read more]


Oslo Peace Accords Thesis

… Oslo Peace Accords Impact on Middle East Negotiations

Today, the State of Israel continues to be faced with some fundamental challenges and obstacles to its goals of resolving the longstanding conflict between the Palestinian Liberation Organization and neighboring Middle Eastern countries in the region. In spite of the Oslo Peace Accords of 1993, these constraints to progress continue to characterize the negotiation process between Israel and their Middle East neighbors in general and the Palestinians in particular, and it would seem neither side is willing to comprise to the extent that is needed to achieve a lasting peace. To determine what these obstacles and challenges to peace are today, this paper provides a description and analysis of the Oslo Peace Accords of 1993 and the…. [read more]


Hamas Organization Is the Most Influential Islamism Term Paper

… Hamas organization is the most influential Islamism movement on Palestinian territories. The word "hamas" means zeal and the name of the organization is acronym for Harakat al-Mugawima al-Islamiyya. The organization is also known as the Islamic Resistance Movement.

The organization has its origins in the Muslim Brotherhood and was actually created as the armed wing of this religious organization in 1987. The Muslim Brotherhood was an Egyptian organization with branches in many Arab countries and Hamas grew out of the Islamic Centre created in Gaza by Sheikh Ahmed Yassin to coordinate the political activities of the Brotherhood in Gaza.

Hamas was created in 1987 after the eruption of the first intifada, which is a Palestinian uprising against the Israeli control of the West Bank and…. [read more]


Course Is Comparative Politics Term Paper

… ¶ … Israel's Security Policies Relating to the Building of the Wall

The problem is terrorism or rather in general terms, the lack of security for the state of Israel. Since its inception in 1948, the Jewish state has been subjected to numerous attacks from its Arab neighbors, each of which has, as its stated aim, the destruction of the state of Israel. Winning independence in 1948, after a bitter fight, it would be forced time and again to fight for its existence. Israel's reaction to the security problem over the years has been to build a series of fixed structures or walls to keep its enemies out. These structures have done more to increase the security of the State of Israel, than any other…. [read more]


Politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco Term Paper

… ¶ … politics of Monarchical Survival in Jordan and Morocco

Introduction broader perspective view into the forms of monarchy prevalent in the present day world in general defines the common peculiarities of the modern monarchies. Some of the monarchies are in operation since long and most are of recent origin, however, have been reformulated to a great extent to be adaptable to the needs of the nation state. The Islamic type of Monarchy is not particularly unique irrespective of the fact that the convention from which it hails clearly is mixing Arab tribal custom charismatic leadership and the Persian convention of quasi-divine kingship in its earlier manifestations. (the Myth of Monarchy in the Arab World)

In these circumstances the legitimating of the candidate or successor…. [read more]


Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East Term Paper

… Foreign Policy Towards the Middle East

The Administration's New Middle Eastern Policy

Peace, the promise of a new United States image in the region, and greater independence from the nations that would harm us. These must be the goals of future U.S. Middle Eastern policy. Thus, the three main goals of the next administration should and must be to begin to bring the current conflict in Iraq to a successful or at least manageable political and diplomatic solution rather than a military conclusion, to facilitate new negotiations between the Israelis and Palestinians, and finally to reduce U.S. dependence on Middle Eastern oil.

Political scientist Richard Haas warns: "Iraq, traditionally a center of Arab power, will remain messy for years to come, with a weak central…. [read more]


World War II Term Paper

… While Israel had shown a willingness and desire, even, to negotiate for peace and normalized relations in the region, its neighboring aggressors were focused simply on the annihilation of the Jewish state. American sympathy to the Zionist cause, then, was regarded with disgust by Arab authorities. It incited hostility that was greatly exacerbated when, following the humiliating six day defeat of Egyptian, Jordanian and Syrian troops at the hands of the powerful Israeli army in 1967, Arab shame bubbled over into speculation that American assistance had been a substantial factor in Israeli victory.

It was true that, at this juncture in history, America began to provide a great deal more financial support to Israel. And as illustrated by the aforementioned circumstances of the 1973 War,…. [read more]


Israel International PoliticsTerrorism Case Study

… ISRAEL

Locked in a history of persecution, religious discrimination, and national consciousness, the Jewish people were granted their own land when, following World War II, the British withdrew from Palestine and the United Nations divided the war-torn land into two separate states. The UN created an Arab state and a Jewish state, Israel, against tremendous rejection by the Arabs, who felt that what was once their land was being redistributed without their approval. The 1947 UN Partition created a very small state in the area of Tel Aviv, and, through a series of wars, Israel ambitiously expanded its borders. The Jews and the Arabs, both inextricably psychologically tied to this holy land, continue to mar the narrowly defined lines of the nation of Israel, Medinat…. [read more]


Chomsky the Linguist Noam Chomsky Views Term Paper

… Chomsky

The linguist Noam Chomsky views the government of the United States as a terrorist state for a number of reasons. According to the author, the only difference between a coercive diplomacy and terrorism is the power of the entity threatening force (Chomsky, 9-11, 13). In his book, 9-11, Chomsky furthermore defines an act of terrorism from the point-of-view of the United States as an activity that (a) involves a violent act or an act dangerous to human life that is a violation of the criminal laws of the United States or any State, or that would be a criminal violation if committed within the jurisdiction of the United States or of any State; and (B) appears to be intended (i) to intimidate or coerce…. [read more]


History of Events Term Paper

… The United States has a stake in the region. The protection of South Korea and Japan, both of whom would be drawn into a nuclear conflict, is important. From a strategic standpoint, the U.S. military presence in the region is important because it can keep an eye on the Chinese.

The U.S. press often bandies the India-Pakistan conflict, though because of Afghanistan and Iraq it has not made the news. In the coming future, the region of Indian Kashmir will eventually attain independent statehood. Though it is a political football that will be tossed around for a few more years. The European Union will grow stronger to counter American strength. Though one can safely concur that the EU will be strategic partners. Some of the…. [read more]


Great War for Civilization the Conquest of the Middle East Book Report

… Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East

Nicole Gomez

International Relations of the Middle East

The Great War for Civilisation

Robert Fisk's book, the Great War for Civilisation: The Conquest of the Middle East is a comprehensive description of the Middle East region and its ongoing struggles. Fisk who is an established correspondent for the Independent newspaper in the United Kingdom has covered the vast region and its conflicts since 1976. Fisk has witnessed firsthand numerous wars in Afghanistan, Iraq, Iran, Algeria, Israel, Palestine and Lebanon, and as a child, whose father fought the Great War, seems excessively knowledgeable in his historical accounts.

Robert Fisk commences his book March 1997 outside the Spinghar Hotel in Jalalabad, a town in eastern Afghanistan. Outside…. [read more]


Yom Kippur War Thesis

… Yom Kippur War

The Long-Term Implications of the Yom Kippur War

As forces from Egypt, Syria, Jordan and Iraq massed around Israel's borders in 1967, Israel launched a six-day air campaign which crippled the capacity of its opponents to wage war and which expanded its borders to well beyond the tract originally awarded to Zionists with the independence of 1948. Taking control of the West Bank and the Gaza Strips, Israel now held the fate of the exiled Palestinian people in its hands. In response to this condition, the United Nations Security Council attempted to draft a resolution demanding Israel's immediate withdrawal from its newly occupied territories. Here, the United States introduced that which would epitomize its policy regarding the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by blocking the…. [read more]


Palestinian and Israeli Conflict in International Law Term Paper

… Palestinian and Israeli Conflict in International Law

History by itself and the differing views of history possibly play a very significant role in the conflict between the people of Palestine and Israel. Thus historical accounts and the interpretation of these accounts are made use of in the claims and counter claims of the parties in the dispute. "No two historians ever agree on what happened, and the damn thing is they both think they're telling the truth" (a Brief History of Israel and Palestine and the Conflict)

History of the Conflict from the Time of Creation of Israel

The UN General Assembly agreed to a plan November 29, 1947 for the division of Arab lands into the three parts of Israel Palestine and an internationally-administered…. [read more]


Middle East Economy and Politics Essay

… ¶ … MENA region is home to some of the richest and poorest countries in the world. For example, per capita GNI of Qatar is $80,440. For a poor country like Yemen, the per capita GNI is $1,070. One of the reasons for such differences is the production of and dependency on oil. Ironically dependency is not the main determiner of wealth in MENA as Yemen, Egypt, and Iraq have high to moderate dependency on oil for profit revenue and are the three poorest countries in MENA. This is due to lack of industrialization. Yemen although recently participating in higher oil production, is one of the least industrialized. Other MENA countries dependent on oil favor less industrialization and cultivation of mega-cities. Megacities are commonplace in…. [read more]


Palestine How Would You Feel Term Paper

… However, when they felt that Palestine was not taking this seriously, they reversed their steps which paved way for yet another failed effort (Erin, 143)

The Road Map for Peace was an agreement designed by America, EU, UN and Russia. All the countries agreed for the formation of an independent state of Palestine. It was the first one in which the country would get the status of being a separate state. The planned objectives were for both countries to end violence and live in harmony with each other. Failure of the plan was due to in cooperation from both sides. Out of all the peace accords ever proposed, the road map to peace b [picked up some pace after the death of Yasser Arafat. The…. [read more]


Negotiate or Reason With Terrorists? Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … Negotiate or Reason with Terrorists?

Terrorism is not a new concept. It has been a tool of those who believe random acts of violence will further their personal cause for centuries. However, for Americans, terrorism was a concept that affected other countries, despite events such as the first attack on the World Trade Center and the Oklahoma City bombing, terrorism was something seen on international news feeds, not something to be feared of on American soil. On September 1st, 2001, that arrogance ended.

The new American reality is that terrorism is a very real threat to their homeland; one that cannot be ignored.

The reaction to this threat, to date, has been primarily one of meeting violence with violence, force with force, but…. [read more]

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