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Architecture and Behavior Essay

… Critics in particular focus on how New Urbanism tends to be used in new developments as opposed to in revitalized downtown areas that are suffering from blight and economic struggles -- which is yet another sense of advocacy for what it has to offer.


Commercial and residential developments are each feeling these movements in different ways. Often times commercial sites are seen as extensions of efforts geared toward encouraging the flow of people into a site (such as a mall or an amusement park, for example) or perhaps to reduce crime and privacy. Studies done on controlling prison populations have had direct implications for this and have been complimented by the ways in which natural lighting, clear visible see-through, public gathering…. [read more]

Architecture's Response to Nature Term Paper

… Architecture's Response To Nature

Architecture as an art form is far more than merely the design and building of houses that conform to a specific artistic ideal. Although this is indeed a big part of the process, architecture also serves as a platform for the development of new forms and designs, and combining these with the more traditional. Exemplifying these important paradigms are Red House, designed by William Morris and Philip Webb, and the Robie House, designed by Frank Lloyd Wright for his client Frederick C. Robie. Both homes connect not only with the design paradigms of their respective time periods, but also with an element of innovation and development, inspired specifically by the contemporary artistic and environmental elements surrounding them at the time. When…. [read more]

20th Century Architecture Essay

… In conclusion, it can be said that the 20th century was quite significant in regards to the field of architecture and gave birth to ideas that define the 'modern architecture' seen in homes, schools, offices, etc. To this date. For it is true that architecture needs no theory or definition; it has no limits. It simply comes from the need of the people, the need of the society and most importantly, from imagination and the aesthetic emotions that build inside one's heart.


Alofsin, Anthony. "Broadacre City: The Reception of a Modernist Vision, 1932-1988." Center: A Journal of Architecture in America. 5:(1989).

Casey, Dennis, and Frank L. Wright. Stained Glass Window Designs of Frank Lloyd Wright. Mineola, N.Y: Dover, 1997. Print.

Fishman, Robert. Urban Utopias…. [read more]

Architecture and Urban Transformation: Revisioning Thesis

… (Kaan, et al., 2011)

The boundary that exists between architecture and urbanism is such that is "constantly being exceeded in both directions." (Kaan, et al., 2011)

The work entitled "The Experience City and Challenges for Architects and Urban Designers" states "Modern city life is more than the simple reproduction of the workforce, about light, health and welfare. As mentioned, city life also increasingly has to do with procuring experiences and entertainment. The cities are therefore in the process of establishing themselves as stages for culture and city life that call for new architectural typologies, new types of urban spaces, and an urban planning that supports the novelties that are afoot." (Nordisk Arkitekturforskning, 2008)

Findings of the Initial Research

There are many considerations that must necessarily…. [read more]

Architecture Is at a Curious Crossroads Essay

… Architecture is at a curious crossroads. According to Kenneth Frampton, the current role and goal of architecture is "to remove itself from both the optimization of advanced technology and the ever-present tendency to regress into nostalgic historicism or the glibly decorative," ("Towards a Critical Regionalism," Part 3). Universal techniques, materials, technologies, and cultural concepts of spaces and places have emerged, in the face of globalization and concurrent homogenization. On the other hand, there is a studied backlash against globalization and homogenization that permits a "resistant, identity-giving culture" unique to each place and space (Frampton, Part 3). To honor localized forms, it is important to resist what Frampton refers to as "Populism or sentimental Regionalism," (Part 3). Frampton calls this approach to architecture arriere-garde, as opposed…. [read more]

Architecture Modernism Dissertation

… Architecture

Modernism in architecture came about in the 20th century as it introduced completely innovative ways of thinking. The way that "designers, architects and engineers conceptualized, fabricated, and evaluated these environments has been the subject of very intense debate" (Doordan 2003, p x). The maxim created by Louis Sullivan, "form follows function," was one of the most central points of debate and will be contemplated in Chapter One of this paper.

Form follows function is often credited as the main principle of modern architecture; however, there are a slew of modern architects who would disagree with this tenet, one of those architects was Frank Lloyd Wright, a former assistant of Sullivan. Adolf Loos is another important designer of the 20th century who spoke passionately about…. [read more]

Architecture Farnsworth House Mies Van Term Paper

… (See Robert Silman's sidebar) This was the time when a surprise crack was noticed which formed the plastic hinge over a cantilever beam exactly on the face of pier (Feldman, 2002)

The evaluation of design was done by pre-structured models. It is necessary to keep on refining the models for which external post-tensioning is performed in order to determine the effects of forces applied on the current structure along with the newly revealed "hinge." The end product of this culmination process is the final design of structures (Feldman, 2002).

The design of the structure becomes more complicated due to the addition of hinge discovered. However, an external post-tensioning system is used but it is necessary that the post-tensioning force applied also fulfils the requirements of…. [read more]

Human Response to Physical Structure Essay

… There are two main purposes of commercial design which are the efficient operation for its users through easy access to goods and the provision of opportunities for social interactions, security, and privacy.

On the contrary, residential design buildings are aimed at developing buildings that support the best possible adaptation and operations in more private residential confines. Some of the major considerations in residential design include the need to differentiate between place and space. While place basically deals with the physiological and psychological foundations that people associate with space, space basically focuses on the physical factors of a building. These considerations serve as important aspects for combining the environmental framework and needs of the individual.

The main environmental psychological implication for both commercial and residential designs…. [read more]

Environment and Islamic Architecture Research Paper

… Environment and Islamic Architecture

As the term implies, "Islamic architecture" is an architectural style that is characterized by functional elements and forms that are inspired by the Islamic religion, and which serves as a framework in which Islamic tenets can be implemented, celebrated and sustained over time. Graceful arabesques, Romanesque horseshoe arches and domes all typify many Islamic architectural styles, but the range and types of buildings that have been included under the umbrella term Islamic architecture in recent years also includes some nontraditional and neo-Islamic architecture as well. Beyond these trends, there has also been a move towards incorporating environmentally friendly elements into Islamic architecture in recent years as well, making a review of these issues a timely and valuable enterprise. To this end,…. [read more]

Poetics of Light in Architecture Tadao Term Paper

… ¶ … Poetics of Light in Architecture: Tadao Ando

Art is an expression of the human spirit. It is a way of describing elements, which lie in the sublime, the world that is just out of reach of the present reality. Architecture is a means for humanity to connect with the finite nature of existence. The edifices that we build in our lifetime will stand long after we are gone as a testimony to our very existence. Buildings are more them concrete and walls to serve a functional purpose. Buildings are a reflection of the humans that built them and their search for a place in the universe. It is for this reason that we study architecture and its various forms. The following will explore…. [read more]

Scandinavian Architecture: The Evolution Thesis

… It was a challenge to the designers to create buildings for the function of dwelling of individuals while also keeping the aesthetic value (Mills). Bjarke is of the opinion that their style is the pragmatic utopian culture. This is a link between the boring, normal style and an adoption of the adventurous approach.


In conclusion, design is a critical factor in buildings. There are many factors that influence the designing of buildings. Most of them do not involve aesthetic value and they are just to serve the purpose. However, the Scandinavian culture brought a lot of modifications to this development. This culture started out with the use of modernism in their work. Considering that this region has many countries, it would be hard to…. [read more]

Architecture of Teotihuacan the City Term Paper

… ¶ … Architecture of Teotihuacan

The city of Teotihuacan is situated in the Valley of Mexico, about 50 kilometers to the north-east of modern Mexico City. It began its growth between 200 and 100 B.C. And by around 150 a.D. It had become one of the largest urban centers in the world, with an estimated population of over 125,000 people and covering an area of more than 20 square kilometers. The surviving evidence for the city reveals a planned metropolis, with extensive and wide streets and avenues, very large buildings, and regions of religious, administrative and industrial constructions as well as extensive housing. Teotihuacan reached its peak of size and power between circa 150 a.D. And 700 a.D., the "Classic" period of Mesoamerican civilization during…. [read more]

RFP Response Greater Jamaica Development Essay

… The RFP response must include demonstration of sufficient financial resources to complete the project and the ability to complete the project as described in the final proposal. This section will include a biography of all team members and how they will function in relationship to the proposal and the completion of the project. It must include resumes of each team member as well as a list of projects and past experiences for team member. It will include contact information of those who are authorized to act on behalf of the company, as well as a primary point of contact.

The RF P. response must also include completed response questionnaires for the entire team. It must also include the enclosed project financing questionnaire and pro-forma statements…. [read more]

De Botton's Text Essay

… ¶ … Architecture of Happiness: Why Ideals Change

Alain de Botton asks the very apt question in his text, the Architecture of Happiness, why it is that society constantly has shifting values about what it finds beautiful, positing this question, very simply: "Why do we change our minds about what we find beautiful?" (154) This is an important question as De Botton demonstrates that what we consider to be aesthetically pleasing swings from polarities which are difficult to predict, and which are subject to the influences of time: "Precedent forces us to suppose that later generations will one day walk around our houses with the same attitude of horror and amusement with which we now consider many of the possessions of the dead. They will…. [read more]

Architecture H-Project Dome of Florence Cathedral Research Paper

… Architecture


Dome of Florence Cathedral (1420 -- 1436)

The Dome of Florence Cathedral (a.D. 1420-36) has been described as a "miracle" of design which is in essence a blend of Renaissance and Gothic architectural building aspects. The dome itself covers an octagonal apartment which is 138 ft. 6 ins, in diameter, and is raised on a drum, with circular windows to light the interior. (Italian Renaissance -- Florence)

It is pointed in form and consists of an inner and outer shell.

The original designer of the building was Arnolfi di Cambio. However, the architect who became renowned for the construction of the dome of the cathedral was Filippo Brunelleschi. His importance is also ascribed to the fact that he was the "... first to…. [read more]

History and Architecture of Public Museums Term Paper

… ¶ … Architecture: Public Museums

The 1939 building of the Museum of Modern Art (MoMA) was not only representative of architecture during its time, it was also an important turning point in museum architecture. When the Museum commissioned its own building for the first time during 1939, it was viewed as important not to provide only a building that served the function of housing various works of modern art. In addition, the aim was to concretize an understanding of the modern artistic paradigm in the building itself. As such, this goal focuses on a combination of the museum's accomplishes of the past and its goals for the future.

According to the Curator's Address (MoMA, 2004) cites Le Corbusier's 1923 modernist manifesto, Towards a New Architecture…. [read more]

Architecture Remarkably Similar in Their Appearance Research Paper

… Architecture

Remarkably similar in their appearance, the Temple of Aphaia on the Greek island of Aegina, and the Temple of Portunus in Rome reveal continuity in Greco-Roman architectural aesthetics and their corresponding cultural contexts. The Temple of Aphaia predates the Temple of Portunus by several centuries, suggesting that most mimicry would have been one-directional; the Roman design and function of the Temple of Portunus deriving directly from the Greek predecessor. The World Monument Fund refers to the Temple of Portunus as " a rare survivor of Roman Republican architecture and a reminder of the magnificence of the Forum Boarium in Antiquity," and the Temple of Aphaia represents the " completion of the setting down of the basic tenets of the Doric order of Greek architecture,"…. [read more]

Architecture and People (Tiesdel Essay

… The Le Corbusier modernist development at Pessac shows need for personalization even while creating collective identity

Security -- perceived need for sanctuary; mutual protection, defensible space

Too much privacy can lead to loneliness, isolation; so privacy can mean controlling environment to avoid unwanted interaction

Architects- professional manipulator of the environment

Deal with contradictions of aesthetics and the practical needs of user. [read more]

Green Architecture in Japan Term Paper

… Buddhism reached Japan

12. Paul Watt, Shinto & Buddhism:Wellsprings of Japanese Spirituality. Asia Society's

Focus on Asian Studies, Vol. II, No. 1, Asian Religions, pp. 21-23, Fall 1982. Copyright AskAsia, 1996. (October2002).

A in the eighth centuries AD and migrated into Japan through Korea and China. Other religions have existed in Japan in varying degrees at varying times, but it is Shinto and Buddhism, that have form the main basis for Japanese philosophy and culture.

Shinto was the first and oldest religion in Japan. It was the primary religion in Japan from approximately the 500 BC to 700 AD. At this time Japan began to fall under the influences of continental civilization that resembled a mix of shamanism, nature worship, fertility ceremonies, and divination…. [read more]

Maori Response to Gothic Architecture - Summary Book Report

… ¶ … Maori Response to Gothic Architecture" - summary

Deidre Brown's journal article "The Maori Response to Gothic Architecture" deals with a series of ideas meant to explain how Maori tribes adapted to change provoked by Western influences pervading their culture and to how their architecture came to be shaped by Gothic elements. The Maori apparently expressed interest in Western ideas ever since their early interactions with the Church Missionary Society. Maori leaders actually supported the CMS in installing their programs in New Zealand and in being able to promote their thinking to Maori tribes.

While the Maori accepted a series of Western influences, they did not hesitate to get involved in the affairs of the CMS in order to emphasize the importance of their…. [read more]

Classicism in Nazi Architecture and Classicism in Le Corbusier Term Paper

… Architecture

Classicism in Nazi Architecture and Classicism in Le Corbusier

Architectural styles say a great deal about a people's values and aspirations. From the soaring spires of the gothic cathedrals of medieval Europe to the glass and concrete office buildings of today, the outward appearance of buildings helps to shape cultures and cultural attitudes. The gothic cathedral represents the religious and mystical yearnings of humankind, reaching ever upward, tapering off in the sublime vastness of the skies. The modern office building depicts the triumph of commerce and industry, a structure built of industrial age materials that frees itself from traditional constraints of location and mass. As such, architecture is often shaped by the religious, commercial, political, or artistic doctrines of specific groups or individuals. In…. [read more]

Fear of the Return of Totalitarian Architecture Due to Technological Advancements Research Paper

… Actually, his footnotes to this statement show the goal of the attack: both Ruskin's Stones of Venice and Geoffrey Scott's The Architecture of Humanism are against this Wittkower's paradigm because it supports a totalitarian regime and the building of architecture structure that ushers in the totalitarianism type of buildings. Specifically, Wittkower has a problem with anyone that shares the following ideology: a hedonist explanation of architecture that privileges the sensuous aesthetic response by the viewer and projects it back upon the architect's purpose."[footnoteRef:6] [6: -- . "The Alphabet and the Algorithm." Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data. The MIT Press, 7 May 1995.]

Wittkower actually thought that these architecture building brought in some kind of religious theme.

Beyond this close-fitting relationship among art and science, perhaps…. [read more]

Function in Architecture Research Paper

… Function in Architecture

The Arts and Crafts movements had a great influence on 20th century infrastructure. Architects thought of structural design as a form of art and expression -- a form of expression that also inspired functionality in a building. Two successful architects that adopted such principals were Frank Lloyd Wright and Peter Behrens. There was a certain spiritual connection between environment and home that both architects attempted to achieve; this connection could be achieved through both natural and manmade means. The Craftsman style of architecture came straight out of the Arts and Crafts Movement. Frank Wright's Prairie homes were another product of this movement, designed to blend in with the prairie landscape. Like Wright, Behrens's work inspired emotion.

The Robie House and the Coonley…. [read more]

Culture vs. Architecture Essay

… ¶ … Architecture

There are certainly several periods throughout and even before current human civilization that represent quintessential examples of the greatness that existed at least at that time but even if one is looking at the entire amalgamation of architecture over the years including from the ancient pyramids of Egypt up through the newer structures of today such as the Hoover Dam, the new World Trade Center and so on. While other periods deserve the compare and contrast of this report, the 19th century certainly represents a period that deserves to be looked at on its own and in its own right.

Analysis, Compare and Contrast

The one type of structure that perhaps comes to mind for many much sooner and often right off…. [read more]

Museum Architecture Term Paper

… Museum Architecture

The New Museum of Contemporary Art is located in New York City, and was designed by Kazuyo Sejima and Ryue Nishizawa of SANAA in Tokyo. The seven-story building is one of its kind in terms of being the first ever art museum ever built in downtown Manhattan. "The New Museum" title indeed fits not only the building, but also its purpose and connections with its surroundings, New York City, and its citizens. The art entailed in the architecture of the building itself reflects its mission, attitude, and displays within the walls of the building. The New Museum of Contemporary Art is representative of the society in which it exists, as well as being a product that incorporates elements of the past in an…. [read more]

Older and Modern Plan for a College Campus Term Paper

… Architecture

Way of Life in Search of an Architecture"

Cistercian architecture reflected the identity of a group of monks who wanted to reform the excesses of the church, which they regarded as inhibiting the spiritual life. They sought to establish a way of life that was simple and humble and devoid of distractions. These monks believed that elaborate architecture and highly embellished designs would distract from worship. They believed it was important to avoid distraction because it would lead to pride. Cistercians put down their roots in aesceticism which demanded withdrawal from the world, poverty, and discipline. Their communities called for an self-sufficient agrarian life in an isolated area. They renounced cash because business dealings would lead to contact with the outside world. They rearranged…. [read more]

Roman Architecture. Ancient Romans Introduced Many Modern Term Paper

… ¶ … Roman architecture. Ancient Romans introduced many modern and sophisticated techniques in architectural design and were the first people to use concrete in their buildings. This is one reason why most of their buildings have managed to withstand the test of time.


Roman architecture is considered one of the greatest accomplishments of the Roman Empire because of the lasting impact of its magnificent buildings and sheer grandeur of the architectural designs. Roman architecture finds its roots in the Etruscan architecture of 12 B.C. And was markedly influenced by Greek architectural designs too. But Roman architects brilliantly added and subtracted on the architecture of preceding eras to introduce new unique techniques and established their name firmly in this field. They left an indelible…. [read more]

Stahl and Neutra: Mid-Century Modern Houses Term Paper

… I noticed that the small rooms in the house were all kind of prearranged around a staircase that appears to be open and that also has "serious, incorporated furniture, all they all were in tones that were very neutral.

It has been mentioned that the "house's strength came from its chronological characteristic: Light, air and water were meant to encourage a life that is wholesome."

The home became Neutra's third payment in the United States and then was constructed four years later after the Lovell Health House in Los Feliz.

The Research House then eventually became the emphasis of a group of ten Neutra- planned momes on Argent Place that is really overseeing the Silver more--> [read more]

Architecture the Advent of Modernity Term Paper

… Their idealism and rationalism led to creating new factories and apartments that were designed more for comfortable living and working conditions rather than for purely aesthetic concerns.

For the members of the Bauhaus School, this translated to structures composed of flat-roofed blocks. Manufacturing industries were ready sources of cheaper glass, which the Bauhaus architects fashioned into curtain glass walls (Kuipers). Elements such as shape and glass walls were often the only adornments, in contrast to the elaborate facades of more classical architectural structures.

Other inventions and materials further fueled the functionalist ethic. The availability of steel and concrete as well as the invention of the elevator led Chicago architects to design taller buildings. The need to reconstruct the city after the devastating fire in 1871…. [read more]

American Architectural Identity Article Review

… Laugier

What is Laugier's justification for speaking about architecture as a non-specialist? What do you find convincing or unconvincing about his argument?

Laugier's justification for speaking about architecture as a non-specialist is that tools that knowledge provides are available for everyone and since even great men falter in their theories and ideas, there is no reason that he should be barred from commenting on a specialist subject. I find this argument only partly convincing. Laugier may comment on aesthetics of architecture as a non-specialist but essentially this view would be a superficial one. Ultimately it is the specialist who must decide the merits of certain architectural design.

Why does Laugier think the column, entablature and pediment are the only "natural" elements of the classical vocabulary?…. [read more]

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