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Animal Rights Essay

… Animal Rights

Over the past several decades, the media and pro-animal groups have paid increasing attention to what Singer called in his 1983 book the "animal liberation movement."

The issue of animal rights has been argued from both sides for some time. Singer and similar activists advocate for the continued well being of all sentient beings that are conscious and feel pain. Otherwise, they consider it speciesism. Similarly, MacIntyre adds that animals are arbitrarily divided into "human" and "nonhuman" without any further consideration given to the fact that intelligent mammals have a lot more in common with humans than they do with reptiles and worms. He states that the simplicity of this human and animal dualism tends to obscure the extent and importance of the…. [read more]

Animal Rights Introduction Right, Properly Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Introduction right, properly understood, is a claim, or potential claim, that one party may exercise against another' (Roger, 2003), the rights are granted and are ought to be respected towards the grieved party, and other party towards which the actions are performed. In general, when we talk about rights, we concentrate on the human rights, but the terminology right itself has different perspective associated with it, and has different interpretations, and on the basis of those interpretations it can be understood that which of the elements and groups can be included and treated within the domain of the rights. The Animal Rights is the rights of animals which should be respected, obeyed and practiced by the human beings in true spirit. The Animals…. [read more]

Animal Rights Introduction Glance Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Introduction glance at the news is enough to reveal that few people are genuinely concerned about the welfare and plight of animals in the United Stated and in the world. For example, PETA Org recently launched a campaign against a large company for extreme animal abuse. There are numerous examples that occur daily of personal, corporate as well as institutionalized violence and cruelty afflicted against animals. This lack of concern forms the central crux of this paper. The question that this poses is why do people, who are normally caring and considerate, tolerate or even ignore cruelty and abuse of animals. How can this uncaring attitude exist in normal society? Does this cast a shadow on the idea that our society is normal…. [read more]

Animal Rights Ethics and Morality Term Paper

… Animal Rights

Ethics and morality have consistently been topics of concern in our society. Concerns about ethics and morality also extend to matters associated with the treatment of animals. The purpose of this discussion is to summarize and critique several different theories associated with the ethical treatment of animals. The discussion will focus on the treatment of animals as it relates to hunting and trapping animals, eating animals, using animals for research, and the manner in which domestic and wild animals are treated. The research will summarize and critique several theories including anthropocentrism, Animal liberation, Strong Animal Rights Theory, Weak (er) animal rights theory, Two-factor egalitarianism, biocentric egalitarianism, ecocentric views.


Anthropocentrism views human being as the center of the universe and regards the world…. [read more]

Personal Experience With Animal Consciousness Term Paper

… ¶ … Personal Experience With Animal Consciousness

All my life I have had pets -- both dogs and cats. Through my interactions with them I have learned a lot about them and a lot about myself. One of the most important things that I have learned is that I do believe that animals think, but not quite in the same way that humans think. When human beings think, there are many thought processes that they must go through and there are many issues that they often consider, sometimes subconsciously. However, animals do not think of things in the same way. They seem to take a more direct route and think about immediate concerns such as food, as opposed to the long-term concerns that humans might…. [read more]

How Should a Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species? Essay

… ¶ … Human Behave Toward the Members of Another Species

The question "How should a human behave toward the members of other species" challenges the conduct and behaviours of human beings towards nature. The question appears four times in the essay, and the author is continually referring to the question and linking human beings and other animals. Through the question, the author seeks to understand why human beings kill innocent species. David framed the question both as attitudinal and in behavioural terms. By placing the question throughout the easy, David stresses on the need to conserve nature. However, his essay suggests that the concept of nature conservation depends on an individual's moral standing. While the question challenges the conduct of human beings as well as…. [read more]

Mastery Over Nature Term Paper

… " (1995 citing Zuckerman, 1979) By the late seventeenth century 'menageries' became popular.

Menageries were quite simply caged animals kept in private collections as a status symbol for the owners. Louis XIV is known to have had such a collection know as the Versailles menageries in which a botanical garden was arrange with an enclosure for elephants and lions around his house. The collection of Louis XIV was moved in 1804 to Paris and kept in a zoological garden called Jardin des Plantes in what was a public exhibit of the animals. The animals were kept in Paris and were adherent to "scientific formulations about non-human nature that supported practices of animal confinement." (Anderson, 1995)

It is reported that legitimacy to the concept of the…. [read more]

Animal Cruelty Term Paper

… ¶ … cruelty, and thereafter apply the meaning to animals, and the ways in which cruelty is meted out to them by scientists and researchers. The history of using animals for experimentation will be analyzed, and then, the British Cruelty to Animals Act in 1876 will be explained. A conclusion will be made, about why it is unethical to use animals for experimentation, and why the trend must be halted.

Animals have been used for the purpose of experimentation for several years, and today although several animal rights activists and others have been actively campaigning for this cruel and completely unethical practice to stop, there have been no signs of this practice ever coming to a real stop, wherein animals would be able to lead…. [read more]

Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion Thesis

… Environmental Settings of the Cambrian Explosion

The objective of this work is to examine the development of natural environments alongside the evolution of life throughout the Cambrian explosion. This work will focus on beginnings of life, their natural environments and their evolution in changing environments from the beginning to the end of the Cambrian explosion. The key theme of this essay is the history of life during the Cambrian explosion. This work will attempt to deduce patterns of evolution alongside the development of natural environments.

The Cambrian explosion has the appearance of being a dramatic and sudden appearance of various complex animals approximately 540 million years ago however; it is know that this was not the origin of complex life forms. (Morris, 1985) There are…. [read more]

Spider Life Is Sacred Essay

… ¶ … Spider


Life is sacred no matter whose life. However, there are two informal groups of people that have different opinions and orientation towards the sacredness and worth of life. To the first group or class of people, life of human beings is only honorable enough to be protected. To them, rest of the species simply maintain the balance of food chain and these species can be harmed or even killed if there is a slightest chance that they will hurt human beings. Mosquitoes, bees, scorpions, snakes and spiders are few such target species to these people of first kind. On the other, there are people like the author of "The Face of the Spider." To such people, every living organism has the…. [read more]

Fur From China Against Essay

… Since glimmers of hope is evidence, let each and everybody take action. For us to dismantle this fur trade as fast as possible, we should begin by showing it in our habits. Pledge never to buy fur from China, as well as encouraging the friends and family you have to take the same action. Majority of people are truly not heartless and they care for others and are willing to do the right thing. However most of these people are not aware of the cruelty behind the fur trim on their gloves or coats, while most of them tend to be misled by false labeling and fairy tales over fur farms, (Chiara Feddeck, 2012).

In case you have decided to stop, you should stop, there…. [read more]

Are Animals Conscious? Term Paper

… ¶ … Animals Conscious?

Evaluating Animal Consciousness

Before taking a position on the longstanding, controversial issue as to whether or not animals truly possess consciousness and whether or not this concept even applies to them, it first becomes necessary to examine both contemporary and historical models addressing this topic. Prior to the 20th century, it was fairly common for scientists, psychologists and other academics to conduct empirical studies regarding the nature and merits of consciousness, most of which revolved about the idea that consciousness indicated an organizational complexity for representatives of a particular species. Around the turn of the century, however, consciousness was greatly devalued as a component for individuals and regarded as a somewhat useless by-product of normal brain activity. Historic notions of consciousness…. [read more]

Wildland Recreation Management Trends Term Paper

… Recreation and Leisure

Forest health and restoration

There is a plethora of evidence from studies on environmental research to suggest that healthy forests are of vital importance to the balance in nature and ultimately for human existence. Forests not only provide clean water but also " livelihoods, shelter wildlife and help maintain a stable climate" (Fire and Conservation). The last mentioned aspect, the maintenance of a stable climate, has in recent years become a central focus of ecological and environmental concerns in the light of global warming.

However, while forests are undeniably important in terms of the larger environment they are also at risk from various natural and manmade phenomena. A good example is the continual threat of fire. On the other hand forests depend…. [read more]

Human or Animal Behavior Essay

… ¶ … human or animal behavior you would like to study experimentally. Develop a hypothesis and describe the variables you want to study. How would you assign the subject to the various groups, manipulate the independent variable or variables, control extraneous variables and minimize forms of bias?

People assume that a researcher who has graduated from an Ivy League institution of higher learning is more competent and credible than a researcher who has not graduated from an Ivy League School.

Researchers who have gone to more prestigious vs. less prestigious institutions of higher education

Experiment design: Three groups of people would be given the same research study, one of which would state that it was conducted by Harvard University graduates. A second group would be…. [read more]

Is it Ethical to Raise Animals for Human Consumption? Thesis

… ¶ … ethical to raise animals for human consumption? That question can have many different answers, depending first upon one's concept of ethics and morality. Moreover, answers will depend upon in what period of history one has lived, where one lives, what culture a person is part of, and what food is available for consumption. In the interest of a thorough examination, this paper will approach the question from a purely ethical standpoint, and from the perspective of ethics and morals employed through the process of raising animals for human consumption. The second question to be addressed: When animals are indeed raised for human consumption, what ethical considerations should come into play?

Any discussion of ethics and morals with reference to the relationship between animals…. [read more]

Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and Anxiety in the Canine Term Paper

… Pharmacologic Treatment of Fear and Anxiety in the Canine

Anyone who has ever owned a dog that was scared of certain events, objects or people can readily testify to how profound the fear can be in various breeds of canines. In fact, more than half of Americans own dogs today, and the number continues to increase. The symptoms of such fear and anxiety can range the entire spectrum from mild to life-threatening conditions, and pet owners, military and police dog handlers, veterinarians and others concerned about the welfare of their animals will need all of the help they can get when confronted with these types of conditions in their household dogs and other canines. To this end, this paper provides an overview of the problem…. [read more]

American Pit Bull Terrier Term Paper

… However, of late, this poor and loyal beast has been severely castigated and penalized for being a man-killer, a vicious beats, and a dog that must be banished from within the city limits, or land his owners into trouble, meaning arrest and fines. In truth, this is a perfect example of somebody being punished without giving them a very basic chance of proving themselves not guilty or innocent of the crime that they are being accused of. A Pit Bull is now seen as a very derogatory term that describes this breed of dog that would supposedly attack and kill a man. Breeders of these animals today are generally classified into several different groups: one group encompasses those people who are conscientious breeders who have…. [read more]

Young Goodman Imagines Himself Term Paper

… Goodman's perception of evil in his fellow men is also excessive, for he does not doubt the devil in the slightest when that solemn fellow pronounces "Evil is the nature of mankind... The communion of your race." Goodman believes everything which he sees and hears of his fellow men, and is even ready to believe that his beautiful and loyal Faith (whom he heard calling out for help!) is evil, for afterwards "he shrank from the bosom of Faith..." Not only is he eager to believe ill of all people, he also seems to have a very active imagination as to what sorts of evil exists in the hearts of men. Assuming, as one might well do, that his dream is indeed a product of…. [read more]

US Endangered Species Act Research Proposal

… Endangered Species Act

US Endangered Species Act: An Annotated Bibliography

Preserving our biological heritage in an important issue for all of humanity. For various reasons many species of plants and animals are in danger of extinction (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SEC 2, 1973). These plants and animals serve many purposes in our world. They are important for the beauty that they add to our world, are of ecological purpose. They are educational, historical, recreational, and many are of scientific value (U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, SEC 2, 1973). The plants and animals that inhabit the landscape are of national and global importance. Therefore, the U.S., along with other nations through the use of treaties, has pledged to attempt to preserve the species that are,…. [read more]

Primates Are More Cognitively Advanced Term Paper

… Vocalizations of apes contain semantic detail about social relations as well as external threats. Chimpanzees give food-calls in the wild that attract others; in captivity they can lead others to hidden food, and convey its quality. Apes deliberately deceive others, concealing both food and sex and even fake facial expressions or erections. The capacities to give or withhold information and to be aware of others' intentions may be pre-requisites for the capacity to form ideas (ibid).

The most primitive hominids had a brain size of 400 to 600, much less than was previously expected. Hominids from two million years ago shared food between the sexes and ages, had a sexual division of labor, and a family main unit. Men hunted and scavenged meat.

In 2001,…. [read more]

Wes Sechrest and Thomas M Term Paper

… Special care is taken to accurately approximate values that the fossil record or point molecular estimates do not clearly identify. They write, "Date estimates were available for a majority of nodes in both trees. Nodes without times of divergence were dated by interpolation using a pure birth model, whereby a clade's age is proportional to the logarithm of the number of species it contains." (Sechrest and Brooks 2002). In other words, they take advantage of the exponential growth characteristics of speciation to derive data that is probably close to correct. More uniform outcomes are simulated by computers in order to weigh the actual global distribution of species to the null hypothesis.

The remaining bulk of Sechrest and Brooks' article is devoted to the results of…. [read more]

Popol Vuh Term Paper

… Hunahpu and Humbatz certainly appear to be two of the most human deities; indeed they open the door for human creation. Still, many of the other gods represent things that seem almost wholly unrelated to one another. Quetzalcoatl seems to be both a snake and a bird, at the same time that he is the creator of civilization, the god of water, and the god of the south wind. Xquic is doubtlessly the god of pregnancy and weaving, but she also possesses the destructive properties of water. Out of these many contrasts, and the way much of the world was constructed out of the gods' attempts at creating man, the reader gets the undeniable impression that the underlying philosophy of the Maya was that existence…. [read more]

New Earth, Chapter 1: The Flowering of Human Consciousness Book Report

… ¶ … spiritual author Eckhart Tolle's latest book, "A New Earth," Tolle elaborates on the ideas he developed in the spiritual classic, "The Power of Now." The key theme is that you are not your mind. You are something much greater than your mind. The mind is merely an instrument of your body that you falsely identify with, believing your mind's activity to be "you." This process of mind-identification results in a false sense of self, referred to as the ego.

In A New Earth, Tolle expands the scope of the original book. In A New Earth, Tolle's aim is not only to help individuals correct their own spiritual deficiencies, but to explain the world's major problems as outgrowths of this deep-set spiritual deficiencies. He…. [read more]

Lorax Probably the Most Ideological Thesis

… Older people remembered the poverty and deprivation of the Great Depression when the majority of people were poor, hungry and unemployed. Only the big revival of industrial capitalism during the Second World War and Cold War had provided them with jobs, cars, houses and a bonanza of consumer goods. They were mystified by the behavior of the mystics, hippies and counterculture dropouts of the 1960s, who seemed to reject suburbia, materialism and the values of the Affluent Society in events like the first Earth Day in 1970. At the time at least, it seemed that this generation would bring about radical changes when it finally came into power, since so many of them claimed to have values similar to the Lorax rather than the Once-ler.…. [read more]

What Is it Like to Be a Bat? Term Paper

… ¶ … animals think?" Thomas Nagel poses the question, "what is it like to be a bat?" In his discussion of conscious thought and perception. Clearly, humans, in their human form, cannot experience what it is to be a bat or any other animal, because we cannot shed our own forms and take on the characteristics of another species. Yet, these animals do have physical and mental experiences. They cannot understand our physical and mental experiences any more than we can understand theirs. However, simply because we do not understand the reality and nuances of their experience, does not mean they do not think and have thought processes. To truly understand what it is like to be a bat, we would have to transform ourselves…. [read more]

Hog Harley Davidson Case Study

… For Harley, the risks of any celebrity endorsement outweigh the benefits. The brand's strong, stable personality transcends time and generations in a way that no celebrity can trump. Celebrities use hogs to enhance their image, not the other way around.


For this assignment, I asked ten people what sort of smartphone they last bought. The results are summarized in Table A below. The demographics of the survey were college students, ages ranging from 19 to 27. The respondents were 5 males and 5 females. I selected a mix that roughly approximated the demographics of the United States, including different ethnicities and one foreign student.

The respondents illustrate that there are two dominant players in the smartphone market -- Android and Apple. The Android…. [read more]

Can a Machine Be Conscious or Sentient Term Paper

… Artificial Intelligence

Machine Sentience

The differences between thinking, intelligence, and consciousness are difficult to determine, but are important to understand when one wishes to study the subject of Artificial Intelligence. Thinking is simply the action of gathering information and processing thoughts in order to reach a reasoned conclusion. This is an action that is seen from small animals to large, in humans, as well as computers. Intelligence, on the other hand, is the ability to make self-aware decisions in order to advance one's own knowledge. Only human beings hold intelligence at this moment in time. Intelligence is, however, something that many believe will be achievable by machines in the future. Finally, Consciousness is the state of being 'aware', which means understanding one's own place amongst…. [read more]

Psychological Factors in Health Traditional Approaches Essay

… Psychological Factors in Health

Traditional approaches to human medicine have always dealt with diseases and conditions affecting the physical body very differently from those that affect the mind. In some respects, that is perfectly understandable because physical ailments typically present with clearly identifiable causes and consequences whereas psychological ailments are limited to the state and condition of the mind. However, one of the many advances in the modern scientific understanding of human medicine has been the conceptual recognition that while the mind and body are distinct entities in some respects, they are intimately interconnected in others. In fact, contemporary empirical research conclusively documents that myriad conditions defined by physical symptoms are significantly influenced -- even, in the most extreme cases, caused -- by psychological factors…. [read more]

Art Spiegelman's Maus Term Paper

… Maus

Using animals as proxy people in graphic novels and comics is nothing new. Using animals to represent people in a holocaust memoir is, however, has no precedent prior to Art Spiegelman's Maus. The choice of genre reflects Spiegelman's selection of the media he deemed most appropriate for capturing his father's story, as well as the collective story of the Jews during and after the Holocaust. Using the graphic novel as a medium does not necessarily mean that Spiegeman believes it to be the only valid genre for memorializing. Rather, it is the most appropriate art form for telling Spiegelman's story. The genre allows for unlimited flexibility in depicting characters and events. Most importantly with Maus, the graphic novel allows for the use of masks.…. [read more]

Consciousness There Are Numerous Technical Essay

… This indicates that concepts of thinking has the ability to integrate or incorporate aspects of human and machine intelligence to diagnose any critical event or concept of study. Concepts of thinking have the ability to focus on the implementation and assessment of human and machine intelligence. This illustrates that concept of thinking focuses on understanding of natural and artificial intelligence (Jinchang, 2010).

Consciousness is limited to understanding and integration of the natural or human intelligence. Consciousness demonstrates the state of awareness in relation to external and internal events with reference to the operation of the brain. This also relates to the forms of knowledge an individual possess at any given time. It plays minimal role in the assessment of machine intelligence. This is because machines…. [read more]

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