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Art History of the 21st Century Essay

… Art History & the 21st Century

French writer Charles Peguy commented in 1913 that, "the world has changed less since the time of Jesus Christ than it has in the last thirty years"

.This was the beginning of modernism, a time of significant change in the world that was illustrated at the World's Fairs, "those festivals of high machine-age capitalism in which nation after nation showed off its industrial strength and the breadth of its colonial resources"

In 1889, the Eiffel Tower was the magnificent construction of the World's Fair in Paris -- designed by an engineer rather than an architect, a decision that was frowned upon by the Beaux-Arts architects; but engineer Gustave Eiffel, created an iconic piece of functional art inspired by the…. [read more]


Art History and Contemporary Essay

… Perhaps this is the genesis of the very nature for humans that we need to continuously explore and explain the unknown. And, different cultures in time and location find different approaches and solutions to this -- but in similar ways that lead us to believe that there is perhaps more to this myth and realization of myth through art than simple repetitions of archetypal themes. In a sense, then, it is necessary for us to continually recraft the past so that we may acculturate towards the future. Art then, in its many forms, serves as the catalyst for this journey.

We can certainly understand this if we look at the global oral tradition that turns into folk art as an expression of culture -- with…. [read more]


Art Analysis: ART21 After Reviewing Essay

… The title of this work states: this is no time for dreaming. For whatever feelings or opportunities dreaming provides us, this is no time for that now. This logic begs the question, if it is not time for dreaming, what is it time for then? Tossing papers about in an empty room might be the perfect time for dreaming because the reality of the situation is not fun.

Forever is a series of installations where the primary source material is bicycles. Weiwei used approximately 1,200 bicycles to construct his exhibit. Weiwei is an artist that often expresses messages that are aware of the 21st century Chinese reality, condition and culture. His work is very connected and heavily themed around the diversity of meaning of the…. [read more]


Art of Colonial Latin America Research Paper

… Art of Colonial Latin America

In her essay, "Art of Colonial America," Bailey provides a timely overview of 330-year period of Latin American colonial art to the 21st century. The first point made by Bailey is that at no time in history has Latin American art been as relevant and important as today and goes on to support these assertions with several examples to demonstrate why. Another important point made by Bailey concerns the creativity of these artworks irrespective of the artists' origins, a point once again supported with examples from the historical record. To determine how other curators have interpreted these two primary issues through the exhibition of colonial Latin American works, this paper provides a review of Painting a New World: Mexican Art…. [read more]


Investigating Art of the Past With a Time Machine Research Paper

… We will then move to Claude Monet's garden at Giverny, where we will attempt to catch him completing his 1897-8 "Nympheas" (one of his famous paintings of water lilies, now in the LA County Museum of Art). Monet is a textbook Impressionist painter, but we will interrogate him as to whether his problems with his own eyesight (he developed cataracts) had any influence on his signature style.

In the first half of the twentieth century, we will investigate Surrealism. We will locate Meret Oppenheim in 1936, as she completes her notorious "Object" -- frequently known as "the fur teacup" or "the furry breakfast." Oppenheim's work is perhaps the most memorable example of Surrealism in sculpture -- but we can ask her if the dream-like associations…. [read more]


Art in South America and the Pacific Term Paper

… Art in South America and the Pacific

Aboriginal Creation Myths and Art

The Aborigines have existed for approximately 40,000 years in parts of Australia. They boast one of the most ancient cultures in the world that is as varied as the people themselves throughout different regions of this continent. Due to the length of time that this civilization has existed, one would think that its traditions, cosmology and art would have a significant impact on the world. However, largely due to the fact that the Aborigines are a non-Westernized group of people and have never fully embraced technology, which is one of the principle Western markers of the "progress" of a civilization, most of its cultural manifestations are largely ignored by the outside world. As…. [read more]


Modern Art of the Twenty First Century Thesis

… Modern Art of the 21st Century

Throughout the course of history, artists have used a number of different techniques in illustrating their ideas and thoughts about particular images. This is because various tactics utilized in the past were often incorporated into contemporary thinking. In the 21st century, these views are being used to tell a unique story by embracing these and other attributes. (Rathus) According to Robertson (2012), different beliefs have been utilized to create new ways of expression. (Roberson)

Evidence of this can be seen with her saying, "21st century art is a burgeoning field of practice, research, and publication, making it an incredibly dynamic field of study. Many important topics have been resonating in the new century and inspiring new thinking and scholarly…. [read more]


Managers Earning Organisations 21st Century Essay

… While no manger can be fluent in every language and every culture, he or she must be aware of the potential benefits of diversity. "A diverse employee base can better understand and communicate with different types of customers and thus better serve their diverse needs; a team composed of diverse members has the advantage of more information, richer perspectives, and a greater number of approaches to solving problems than a team composed of the same type of people" (Knouse 2012). Diverse teams are able to pool their collective problem-solving resources and are thus more innovative in generating new ideas for 'best practices.'

Workers from diverse backgrounds can give firsthand knowledge of how to do business abroad and suit the needs of different populations. A Japanese-American…. [read more]


Art Therapy Research Paper

… History Of Art Therapy

Art Therapy

The Different Ages and the Overview of the Periods

History of Art Therapy

What is Art Therapy?

History of Art Therapy

Classical Period - 1940s to 1970s

Middle Year Period - 1970s to 1980s

Contemporary Period - 1980s to Present

Psychodynamic Approaches

Humanistic Approaches

Development and Learning Approaches

Family Therapies along with other Approaches

History of Art Therapy

In this paper, a brief introduction of Art therapy is given so that the reader can get an idea of the term. The paper proceeds with a summarized history of this term in such a way that everyone can find the details by the jargons being used.

The history of art therapy is then distributed into three periods, which are related…. [read more]


Museum Comparison Art Museums Term Paper

… It is particularly focused upon its educational mission to teach children about the natural world.[footnoteRef:9] Although the Museum itself is rather new, it reflects the mission of the original natural history conglomerate of museums at Harvard in the way it addresses "cutting-edge research, addresses contemporary issues, and offers creative educational experience in a unique, intimate setting."[footnoteRef:10] As well as offering school visits and educational programs on the weekend, this Harvard-funded museum also offers educational expeditions to the general public (which also offers an additional source of revenue). The Museum primarily receives funding through Harvard University. Although Harvard has experienced some financial difficulties in recent years, thanks to the economic downturn,[footnoteRef:11] overall its solvency has been superior to those of other universities and university museums. This…. [read more]


History of Cambodia, Including the Pol Pot Term Paper

… ¶ … history of Cambodia, including the Pol Pot Regime and Angkor Wat. Cambodia is an Asian country located between Vietnam and Thailand with a coastline on the Gulf of Thailand. In the 1860s, it became a colony of France, and it became a free nation in 1953. Cambodia's modern history revolves around the notorious Pol Pot Regime in the 1970s, and tourism and textiles today.

Cambodia may be most known for the horrendous Pol Pot Regime of the Khmer Rouge in the 1970s, a period when at least 1.7 million Cambodians were systematically executed by the Regime. However, Cambodia's history goes back centuries, to a land that supported bands of hunter-gatherers who eventually settled in areas and began farming the rich lands. The first…. [read more]


Ancient Egyptian Art Term Paper

… Visual Arts of Africa and the African Diaspora From Ancient Egyptian Art to Contemporary Times

Thutmosis III wearing the Atef crown.

From the Temple of Amun at Deir el-Bahri (mid-15th c. B.C.)

Toussaint l'Overture Series 1937 by Jacob Lawrence

From Rhapsodies in Black)

First, in response to the questions concerning the rules of creating a Works Cited list and its function in academic writing, as well as what an Annotated Bibliography and its value is:

What is an Annotated Bibliography and what is its value in academic writing?

Annotated Bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform…. [read more]


Ancient Studies Laura Auricchio Essay

… Auricchio thinks that one reason why there were mixed feelings from audiences is because the painting is very complicated and ambiguous. In this way, it makes sense that there would be mixed feelings toward a piece of art that is ambiguous. Ambiguous art can be some of the most effective art because there is no one simple answer for the audience. The ambiguous art stays in the minds of the audience because they cannot decided how they feel about it or agree definitively what the art means or says. If this is true for this painting by Adelaide, then she is a successful artist back then and today.

Another aspect of the painting that Auricchio focuses on is the use and style of clothing in…. [read more]


David Notable Religious Events Research Paper

… His version of the statue is a masterpiece because it is an amalgamation of his four strengths. Had he not be a Renaissance man of many talents, perhaps the statue would have reached the heights, fame, and adoration that it still enjoys in the modern period. David was not his final work by the least, but certain it was one of his greatest achievements and greatest exemplars of what Renaissance art & achievement overall.

Michelangelo's David proves to be quite innovative from the other statues and from other forms of Renaissance art.

For Michelangelo David proved to be a defining moment in his artistic career…Michelangelo was only twenty-six years old when he won the contract for David. He began work on Monday September 13th 1501…. [read more]


Venus in Art Term Paper

… This painting indeed conveys to the viewer feelings of delight and joy.

Another artist who produced works that depicted the birth of Aphrodite was the French painter JA.D. Ingres. Ingres' work is considered more classical in form that Boucher's version and is part of the artistic movement known as Neoclassicism. In addition, Ingres' work draws inspiration from the past as he depicted her as she emerges from the sea.

Various representations of Aphrodite became popular especially during the 19th century. Not all of the paintings, however, attempted to communicate a serious, intellectual purpose. One example of this trend is Adolphe Bouguereau's Birth of Venus. The work itself is more dynamic than the formal, classical-feeling Venus Anadyomene of Ingres but with a much lighter feel.

The…. [read more]


Dynamics Between Art and Technology Essay

… There are buildings in Japan that withstand earthquakes while sustaining minimal damage compared to buildings which are not constructed by the same methods. That is an example of advancement in architecture. Sculptors have a greater range of materials to choose from because of the kinds of tools that exist now as well as the materials that they may not have had access to before commercial airlines, the Internet, and other technologies.

Art and technology of the 20th century were additionally influenced by increased contact and communication among the international communities and the rising strength of feminism in the latter part of the 20th century. Many of the most celebrated art forms of the 20th century came from within specific cultural groups such as Jazz, Rock…. [read more]


Body and Nudity in the Nineteenth Century Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Body in 19th Century Art

Throughout the course of the 19th century, representations of the body - particularly the nude body - shifted considerably. As we will see in this paper through an examination of three paintings from different periods, the 19th century witnessed a remarkably fast transition, from the neoclassicism of Ingres to the realism of Courbet, and on to the modernism of Picasso. Through tracing the evolution of the way in which the nude female body was portrayed during this key period in the history of art, we will show how each artist under scrutiny responded to the innovations of earlier eras in rendering their own signature innovations.

We will begin with an examination of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres's La Grande…. [read more]


Raphael / Michelangelo / Donatello Essay

… That is because the physical perfection of the statue -- with it bulging and rippling musculature -- makes this David look like a super-hero or erotic fantasy.

In terms of my own taste and assessment, however, I would take the position that probably the least number of actual art historians would take: my favorite of these three is Verrocchio's. Michelangelo's David, while impressive, has stopped being about what it is meant to represent: we feel like the art here is not glorifying a religious referent, but rather itself. And Donatello's David is frankly bizarre, even if it is arresting as art. What is interesting about Verrocchio is that he occupies a crucial, if perhaps underappreciated, niche between Donatello and Michelangelo. In some sense, Verrocchio may…. [read more]


Diller Scofidio + Renfro: MOMA Expansion Research Paper

… Not all will fit. But the building enshrines the desire to comprehend as an American freedom" (Muschamp 1). The private art of folk art is being crowded out by more conventional images of modern art in some eyes: which is highly ironic, given the extent to which Picasso, Miro, and so many of the artists preserved within the walls of the current MoMA were considered outsiders long ago.

Yet AFAM was originally conceptualized as a modernist project as well to some degree and a merging of folk art and modernism in a way that was not ultimately successful. A positive review in the New York Times of AFAM noted: "The architects have acknowledged that the form created by the triangle atop the window is an…. [read more]


Art Fashion Essay

… These artists had talent and with use of originality they both introduced new trends. The last collection by McQueen was so close to death and portrayed his obsession with afterlife. He mainly made use of red, gold and silver colors with detailed embroidery and people were amazed to see his last 16 pieces. He will always be remembered for his uniqueness and individuality.

Both Alexander McQueen and Hussein Chalayan were keen on employing new and innovative ideas in their designing and presentation and these two factors turned out to be important for their success. Additionally, both artists were able to implement and conduct narrative, powerful and memorable catwalk shows which were most often presented as art performances. These two renowned artists managed to earn constant…. [read more]


Classical Model of the Public Art Museum Term Paper

… Museums

Hamburger Bahnhof and the "Classical Model" of the Public Art Museum

What has come to be known as the "classic model" of the public art museum is rooted in the evolution of art museums in Europe throughout the last few centuries. The classical model has, over time, served not merely a philanthropical purpose, but also a political one. The work of McClellan has emphasized the role of the museum as a proponent of national ideologies:

Public art museums in the West serve the cause of nations in two ways. First, they foster feelings of collective belonging by providing a space dedicated to shared enjoyment of treasures in the public domain and in which equality of access renders citizenship transparent. Second, through their contents and…. [read more]


21st Century, Many People in Their 40 Term Paper

… ¶ … 21st century, many people in their 40's, 50's, and 60's, the so-called "Baby Boomers," look back, in some ways fondly, in other ways not so fondly, on the early "70's": the time of their childhood, adolescence, or younger adulthood. The year 1973 in particular was a distinctive year, in which many memorably good events took place, but also some bad ones, including the Arab Oil embargo, which severely restricted gasoline for cars available to the American public, created huge gas station lines, and sent gas prices skyrocketing, and the run-up to the Watergate impeachment hearings and Richard Nixon's impeachment in 1974. In his 1859 novel of the French Revolution, A Tale of Two Cities, Charles Dickens writes, at the beginning:

It was the…. [read more]


Influence of Photography in Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Photography in Art

The first thing that the mind conjures is the meaning of art. Art can be defined as any human creativity, skill, any craft or profession or its ideals, an assemblage of things having form and beauty within any discipline of creative work. Hence art is any endeavor which attempts to articulate or convey anything about the author, or to impact anything within the audience. This brings us to the question of the availability of a good art. Perhaps good art is that which conveys in a successful manner, the feelings of the artist, or conveys to, or makes an influence to the person observing it to some extent. The basic forms of measuring the value of some artistic work is…. [read more]


Impressionism, Symbolism, and Expressionism Research Paper

… This is classic impressionism.

Question Two: (a) While I am visiting the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City, I will want to visit William Hogarth's "Five Orders of Periwigs" and Hogarth's "The Laughing Audience." Hogarth's father made critical investment mistakes and ended up in prison, but William -- left alone to fend for himself -- got involved in art and eventually used his talent (engravings) to make political and social statements. His "The Laughing Audience" features not just laughter but hideously grotesque faces with teeth missing and sinister expressions, an extraordinary blast of emotions. The "Periwigs" piece is fascinating and may have been intended as a satirical look at styles of dress and fashion. The letter to "Lord Mucklemon" is a sardonic statement…. [read more]


Frank Gohlke Essay

… Gohlke

The Sublime Photographic Art of Frank Gohlke

Frank Gohlke is considered one of the preeminent American landscape photographers of the late 20th and early 21st century. As manifest in "Between 165-05 and 165-09 85th Avenue" (2003), this photographer uses simple, seemingly unremarkable landscapes to evoke a subjective, visceral response in the viewer. Former subjects tackled by Gohlke include the beauty and remoteness of his native Midwest, and the contrast between serenity and turmoil after a natural disaster, such as in his photographs of the aftermath of the eruptions of Mt. St. Helena and tornados (Watkinson 1984, p.260). Gohlke has described his use of the landscape in photography as a kind of still-life "theater" in which the "sublime can be experienced without embarrassment or irony,"…. [read more]


Brief History of the Future Book Review

… ¶ … History of the Future

Strathern, O. (2007). A Brief History of the Future. New York: Carroll and Graf.

At best, futurists are predictors of trends; at worst, speculative commentators. For instance, if we revisit some of the World's Fair exhibitions of the last three decades, we typically find that we have not advanced as far as predicted in some areas (e.g. transportation) and much further in others (e.g. communications). By 2010, for instance, most scholars would have predicted an operating Moon base, and perhaps even one on Mars. Futurists in the 1950s thought we would have mastered solar technology and that "sun houses" would be the common form of above ground housing. Picture phones were in line for the mid-1960s, and yet still…. [read more]


Captain Smith by Pocahontas Antonio Term Paper

… Greenough's sculpture therefore represented the defense of virtue, civilization, progress and white womanhood against the allegedly savage and mindless violence of the Indians. In reality, of course, they were the ones defending themselves from constant attacks and encroachments on their land, culture and way of life, which even the most obtuse and prejudiced white observers at the time must have grasped, but even so, more whites rationalized the destruction of the native peoples are part of the price of progress.

Capellano had based his sculpture on John Smith's own captivity narrative in the General History of Virginia (1624), although he very likely did not understand the cultural and political context any more than Smith had. Perhaps even less so, for Smith was a professional soldier…. [read more]


Architectural Manifesto for the 21st Century Modernist Term Paper

… Architectural Manifesto for the 21st Century

Modernist Architecture encumbers the soul with spiritual fatigue and frustration. Art is life and design is its blood. Transfuse society with architecture that reestablishes humanity's spiritual link with nature. Today's vistas are overwhelmed by perfectly sharp edges; Modernist Architecture visually denies our connection to nature. It is not enough to espouse a "green" building; design must align with nature and bring its comfort into our lives once again. Buchanan points out "the uniform conditions of temperature and humidity throughout the day, which are used in many air conditioning systems, not merely waste energy, but do not contribute to comfort. Most people prefer variation in accordance with the changing conditions outdoors" (p. 425). This paper reviews relevant peer-reviewed and scholarly…. [read more]


Last Supper Research Paper

… Continuing the discussion of the painting's layers and complexities, some art historians reflect upon "The Last Supper" categorizing and identifying various levels upon which the painting operates and communicates.

The truth of the matter is that the painting is a true grand complication…The first level of meaning is the scene itself. Leonardo chose an exact moment in the Gospel narration of the Last Supper. "In truth, I tell you, one of you will betray me…" says Jesus, who is shown in the act of speaking. This revelation surges outwards amongst the Disciples who react, each in his own way, coalescing them into four groups of three. Christ has an expression of resigned sadness and at the same time, an assured and regal poise. He gestures…. [read more]

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