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Art of War by Sun Research Paper

… g. 60:40, 70:30, or 80:20), then mastering the terrain and exploiting the advantages conferred by the weather can become very important in tilting the odds. In other words, if the general of a smaller army is able to use the terrain and weather to his advantage, he can definitely increase his odds of winning against a larger army.

Clearly, the United States cleverly exploited the weather, terrain and people factors (tian shi di li ren he? ) to their maximum advantage. Similarly, in business, it is extremely difficult for a small firm to take on a large corporation if they are both selling the same product. In general, a large company enjoys many advantages, including economies of scale. It is therefore not surprising to find…. [read more]


Art Culture: Public Space Term Paper

… This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According to Habermaes, public art gained popularity in the 18th century, since the public was subject to political decisions and interests. In that era, the public sphere was marked by a close link between church, state, public, and private sectors, under a feudal system. In this system, the power relations and levels of power saw political authority hold the highest levels of power (Habermaes 52). At this high level of power, politicians and rulers represented their ideals and state inform of symbols in the public sphere,…. [read more]


Art Therapy Research Paper

… History Of Art Therapy

Art Therapy

The Different Ages and the Overview of the Periods

History of Art Therapy

What is Art Therapy?

History of Art Therapy

Classical Period - 1940s to 1970s

Middle Year Period - 1970s to 1980s

Contemporary Period - 1980s to Present

Psychodynamic Approaches

Humanistic Approaches

Development and Learning Approaches

Family Therapies along with other Approaches

History of Art Therapy

In this paper, a brief introduction of Art therapy is given so that the reader can get an idea of the term. The paper proceeds with a summarized history of this term in such a way that everyone can find the details by the jargons being used.

The history of art therapy is then distributed into three periods, which are related…. [read more]


Art Historical Throughout the History Research Paper

… Art Historical

Throughout the history of art, there are those individuals who had an impact on the how everyone looked at the world around them. This is because these basic ideas gave them a new way of understanding a host of different events. One of the best artists that were able to achieve the objectives was Michael Angelo through: the paintings and sculptures that he created. This is significant, because this allowed him to be able to redefine Renaissance art and how these techniques would be applied in the future. To determine the impact of this require looking at three different scholarly journals on the subject. Once this occurs, is when we can be able to offer specific insights that will help everyone to see…. [read more]


Art History Roy Lichtenstein Term Paper

… They are totally formed by the way their culture has defined them. Even the title Stepping Out implies a falseness. They are dressing up and moving outside their true reality into a night life culture which they have been programmed to crave.

Stepping Out like the bulk of Lichtenstein's work stands in the center of the Pop Art era. As quoted in Art News in November of 1963, Roy Lichtenstein said: "Pop Art is an involvement with what I think to be the most brazen and threatening characteristics of our culture, things we hate, but which are also powerful in their impingement on us" (www.artcyclopedia.com/artists/lichtenstein_roy.html). Other artists like Andy Warhol, with his repetitive advertising industry images as seen in 32 Capmbell's Soup Cans (1961-62) and…. [read more]


Art After 1980 Term Paper

… Whereas McCarthy focuses his attention on the perversion of the world underlying the clean veneer of mythology, Kruger is far more concerned with the iconography of popular culture and the detrimental effect it has on humanity. The thesis of Kruger's work is that the modern era is so consumed with popular culture, that we have relinquished and claim to real culture. In her book Remote Control: Power, Cultures, and the World of Appearances, Kruger said, "To those who understand how pictures and words shape consensus, we are unmoving targets waiting to be turned on and off by the relentless seductions of remote control. We are demi-living proof that the video camera has replaced the mirror as the reflection of choice" (5). For Kruger, there is…. [read more]


Outsider Art Term Paper

… Outsider Art

It is called "Outsider Art," because it stands outside the realm of "fine" art. It is painted by patients in asylums. It is created by prisoners in their cells. It is made up by untrained artists and thus considered self-taught. It also goes by other names: na f, naive, Art Brut, to list the most common. Tattoos were once worn by a select group of Americans, but now adorn all ages and backgrounds. Computer nerds or geek were once laughed at and singled out, but now receive top billing in television commercials. Outsider Art once only hung on the walls of a select few who saw the energy and compassion within its frames. Now it is collected by the most well-known collectors. The…. [read more]


Three Dimensional Art Term Paper

… Art

Woman Addressing the Public

Joan Mir, a Spanish artist who lived from 1893-1983, painted this work. He sculpted this work, "Woman Addressing the Public: Project for a Monument" in 1980-81, only two years before his death, in the late 1620s, in a very modernistic, surrealistic style. It is sculpted in bronze, sized 12 ft. 2-1/2 in. x 8 ft. (372.1 x 243.8 cm). The Kimbell Art Museum acquired the piece in 1996, and it stands at the entrance to the museum.

This arresting three-dimensional sculpture is a modernistic figure of a woman with her arms outstretched, supposedly addressing a crowd of onlookers. It also looks as if she were going to embrace them. Her massive "feet" and legs dominate the piece, and it is…. [read more]


Illustrators Who Influenced Society Research Proposal

… Influential Illustrators 1980-1990

Elaine Duillo (1928- )

Elaine Duillo was a German born illustrator who later moved to the United States and began a very successful and long career as an illustrator primarily for publishing. Duillo, like many of her contemporaries, studied art at the School of Art and Music in New York City. She began her career illustrating covers for murder mystery, gothic, western, and suspense novels producing amazingly realistic images with very active content. Duillo later found great fame in the niche of Romance novels. Since beginning illustrating for Romance novels, she has produced an immense amount of high quality work. She has worked with famous publishers, including Bantam, Avon, Warner, and St. Martin's Press, (Solinder 2009). Also Working with various writers, such…. [read more]


Politics and Art Term Paper

… Politics and art have gone hand-in-hand from the earliest times. Politics has had an impact on art, and artists have made an impact on political structure. During times of unrest, especially, art becomes a political message as a motivational or propaganda tool. The decades prior to and immediately after the Russian Revolution, for example, shows how art relates to the social circumstances visa versa. Artist's works played a critical role at this time in order to provide more information on the changing philosophy and create a new society.

Artists such as Ivan Kramskoy, for example, were involved with the ideological structure that represented Russian realism in the 1860s, a decade of reform and renovation. This liberal stage of the movement, reflecting the intelligentsia's efforts to…. [read more]


To Assess the Roles of Tradition Convention Changing Fashions and Originality in Byzantine Art Term Paper

… ¶ … Roles of Tradition, Convention, Changing Fashions and Byzantine Art

The time period that is referred to as the one from which Byzantine art sprang is the period in Eastern Rome from the 5th Century until the Fall of Constantinople in 1453.

Historical accounts relate that Robert of Clari, a French crusader said to have witnessed the pillage of the city in 1204in his description of Constantinople stated that:

Not since the world was made was there ever seen or won so great a treasure, or so noble or so rich, nor in the time of Alexander, nor in the time of Charlemagne, nor before, nor after, nor do I think myself that in the forty richest cities of the world had there been…. [read more]


Ancient Egyptian Art Term Paper

… Visual Arts of Africa and the African Diaspora From Ancient Egyptian Art to Contemporary Times

Thutmosis III wearing the Atef crown.

From the Temple of Amun at Deir el-Bahri (mid-15th c. B.C.)

Toussaint l'Overture Series 1937 by Jacob Lawrence

From Rhapsodies in Black)

First, in response to the questions concerning the rules of creating a Works Cited list and its function in academic writing, as well as what an Annotated Bibliography and its value is:

What is an Annotated Bibliography and what is its value in academic writing?

Annotated Bibliography is a list of citations to books, articles, and documents. Each citation is followed by a brief (usually about 150 words) descriptive and evaluative paragraph, the annotation. The purpose of the annotation is to inform…. [read more]


Art and Influences of African-American Term Paper

… She was not allowed to join the group of black artists called "Spiral," because she was a woman, so she faced her own set of prejudices in addition to her color. She has said that she began reading the literature of black writers like James Baldwin and Alain Locke, to find out more about herself, and her art. She also studied African art, and it influenced her choice of mediums. (Farris).

In the 1970s, she became a feminist, partly because she was having trouble exhibiting her works in museums and galleries. Black women artists simply could not show their work in any major collection. Even white women artists fought against showing the black artist's work. She helped found a group, Women Students and Artists for…. [read more]


Baroque Period Annotated Bibliography Chaffee Term Paper

… The naturalism and dramatic impact of Caravaggio's work, coupled with his insistent realism, are what made his artwork so famous.

Martin, John Rupert. Baroque. New York: Harper & Row, 1977.

This is an introductory book for understanding Baroque artists and their tremendous variety. Martin defines the Baroque characteristics and how powerful naturalism and the acceptance of sensual experience dominated the art of the era. Martin also emphasizes the modern balance between the secular and the religious in the Baroque era and addresses the spiritual or mystical qualities that were characterized in most paintings of the Baroque period.

Norberg-Schulz, Christian. "The art of persuasion. (Baroque art in Central

Europe)."UNESCO Courier 21 n1 (1987):4.

In "The art of persuasion," Norberg-Schulz addresses the art of the early eighteenth…. [read more]


Butoh Dance Butoh Is a Japanese Art Term Paper

… butoh DANCE

Butoh is a Japanese art form that emerged in 1959 as a response to western oppression. Western political dominance had a serious impact on aesthetic sense of dancer Tatsumi Hijikata who developed a new form of dance that comprises strange body movements, gestures and jerks. West was viewed as an oppressive force with technological and political dominance to effectively curtail powers rested in other nations. The U.S.-Japan Mutual Defense Treaty of 1959-1960 is in many ways responsible for the creation of Ankoku Butoh that expressed deep resentment over western domination, power and authority (Klein, 1988). Butoh means ancient dance in Japanese and it is an intense and extremely rebellious avant-garde art form that was described by Bonnie Sue Stein as "shocking, provocative, physical,…. [read more]


Jenny Holzer Many Artists Seek Essay

… Clearly this work was designed to shock but in perhaps more of a subtle way than some of her truisms. This is what she had in mind when she wrote truisms like these: a) "Abuse of Power Comes As No Surprise"; b) "The Breakdown Comes When You Stop Controlling Yourself And Want The Release Of A Bloodbath"; c) "You Are Caught Thinking About Killing Anyone You Want"; and d) "Animalism Is Perfectly Healthy" (Art History Archive). In 1982 Holzer cleverly and carefully married art and technology. She used nine of her truisms on the huge electronic signboard in Times Square, which was an L.E.D. machine that flashed each individual truism at "…forty-second intervals" (Art History). She was thus able to reach a large audience by…. [read more]


Van Gogh's "Self-Portrait Essay

… Van Gogh's gaze is surrounded by the swirling and violent-seeming yellows, and his face is lined with streaks of white, gray, yellow, and orange. He is clearly thin, as though from some sort of religious fasting, and the bright straw hat may even symbolize a kind of artistic halo, newly won during his time in the art capital of the world.

Yet, here in his self-portrait, one may clearly see that Van Gogh's spirit was now alive with an intensity that was as bright and fervent as his religious soul had been a decade earlier. He had adopted a way to communicate what he had always felt -- an impression about life. Now that he had it, he could look back to those parts of…. [read more]


Leo Tolstoy to Leon Tolstoy Recently Happened Term Paper

… Leo Tolstoy

To Leon Tolstoy recently happened to come across your celebrated work entitled What is Art?, and I think that the ideas about art as expressed there do not offer a complete understanding of what art is or what it should be. Sure enough, as you yourself observe, this a very controversial question, that has been tackled by all of the best and most renowned philosophers or artists. According to you, art is neither the manifestation of an abstract and absolute idea such as beauty, or the spirit, or God, nor simply something created to give pleasure, as it was generally purported by most of the thinkers and philosophers so far. Instead it should be something intimately connected with the religions of every age…. [read more]


Art Violence and Social Engagement in Colombia Research Proposal

… ¶ … Colombia is the third-largest recipient of military aid from the United States and is at a critical juncture in its turbulent history. More than three million people have been displaced in Colombia during the past decade alone, and violent deaths and kidnappings remain alarmingly high. While violence is nothing new to the people of Colombia, their response to its sources and causes have been portrayed in the visual arts in various ways, with one of the most recent manifestations of this being portrayal such as the "The Skin of Memory," developed by the anthropologist Pilar Riano-Alcala and the artist Suzanne Lacy in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team in Colombia. Because art must also serve a social function and civic responsibility, this thesis evaluates…. [read more]


Vincent Van Gogh, Frank Lloyd Term Paper

… Iron and Steel were used in order to open up the interior of buildings to an unprecedented scale. Architect Arthur Heygate Mackmurdo was one of the first to implement Oriental aspects into designs, using black and white, asymmetry and plant forms (Weisberg).

Nancy, which was located in Paris, was the premiere Art Nouveau school. It developed strong bonds with the East. Japanese decorative art offered Art Nouveau new forms and decorations that were used to renew the objects d'art. Painter Hokkai Takashima, for example, lived at Nancy from 1885 to 1888 and formed bonds of friendship with creators Emile Galle and Camille Martin, thus influencing their work.

When writing about Japonisme, some historians stop at the artists and collectors of the day and then have…. [read more]


Orient West Minoan and Romantic Research Paper

… 3. Analyze the relationship between the historical art periods.

a. Explain similarities or differences between the historical art periods.

Upon reflection of Minoan Art and Romantic Art, a similarity in scale bodies forth. In both instances, a miniature movement rich in content positions parallel discussion in the realm of everyday life, and in beauty. Intransience against an aesthetic lexicon of 'authority' as it was in Ancient Egypt and would later become during the nationalist period, artists working in Knossos and in the studios dedicated to a culture of feminine expression shared a whimsy in their work and their dedication to a light and cheerful disposition in creation.

Encompassing a diverse range of human activities, Art is a deliberation of the senses. It is said that…. [read more]


Martial Arts Capstone Project

… " It mainly includes various practices that may be deadly in some situations. It includes various different techniques. There are many factors that are focused upon in jujutsu such as; rolls, grappling, locks and throws. As compared to the other kinds of martial arts which have a lot of different rules, this is the kind in which anything and everything is fair. Student that start their training for jujutsu are taught poking, gouging and biting which can prove to be very deadly when they are used along with some of the other standard practices (Mol, 2001).

Various instructors introduced different styles and were able to create their own school. Various forms of martial arts such as aikido, bartitsu and hapkido came into existence through jujutsu.…. [read more]


Illustrators Who Influenced the U.S. Society Term Paper

… Illustrators Influenced U.S. Society

1910 Art

The Red Rose Girls: Jessie Willcox Smith (1863-1935), Elizabeth Shippen Green (1871-

1954), and Violet Oakley (1874-1961)

Smith, Green and Oakley met at the Pennsylvania Academy of Fine Arts in the late 1800s. The three then went on to study with Howard Pyle at Philadelphia's Drexel Institute. In 1900, the three women -- and one other female friend who served as a caretaker -- established a country home and studio called the Red Rose Inn. Pyle was the one who dubbed them "the Red Rose Girls" (NPR 2010). Over the course of the next eight years, the three artists lived and created beautiful art in their idyllic surroundings. They became very financially successful and they were able to captivate…. [read more]


American Illustrators Term Paper

… ¶ … Illustrators

Today, with the high-tech electronic communication and the ease of using computers to conceive of, draw, or refine artwork, it is difficult to conceive of an environment where there were few visuals and all had to be done by hand one-by-one. The creativity that existed through this artwork has been "illustrious," where each designer uses an "illustration" or an image to enhance or make communication more attractive. "Illustration is a communicative tool, clarifying and defining our understanding of the world" (National museum of American illustration). Because it is used in commercial, military and political applications, illustration also acts as a means to trace social and cultural history. It is a significant and lasting art form that provides an actual visual record of…. [read more]


History of Graphic Design Technology Term Paper

… History Of Graphic Design Technology

In today's world, everything seems to be easily done with the use of computers. From writing stuffs, to presentation and even communication, computers really paved the way. One of the latest movements in computer technology use is the introduction of graphic designs.

Graphic designing is the 'art and profession' of choosing and organizing visual elements to transmit a message. The various types of visual elements involved in this are typography, images, symbols, and colors. Graphic design is also commonly called as "visual communications" which can be attributed to that collaboration of disciplines involved in this method such as the writers' production of words, the photographers' and illustrators' creation of images and the designers' incorporation of all these things into a…. [read more]


Richard Long Term Paper

… Richard Long was in born in Bristol, England on June 2, 1945 (Spector pp). From 1962 to 1965 he studied at West of England College of Art, and by 1964, he was making Earthworks and experimenting with the idea of Impermanence, "a theme that would inform his work throughout his career" (Spector pp). Long studied under Anthony Caro and Phillip King at the St. Martin's School of Art in London from 1966 to 1968, and in 1967, he introduced walking as an art form, followed by his first solo exhibition in 1968 (Spector pp).

Says Long, started working outside using natural materials like grass and water, and this evolved into the idea of making sculpture by walking. Walking itself has a cultural history, from Pilgrims…. [read more]


Pablo Picasso: Guernica Essay

… " (Oppler, p. 80)

Seen in a different context, the animals of El Guernica are considered as having ambiguous symbolic meanings to. From a naturalistic point-of-view, they could well be farm animals since the town was an agricultural centre and it was a market day when the bombing occurred. In addition to this, critics have identified the bull and horse with the Spanish corrida (bullfight) associating the two opposing actors of the bullfight with the two main opponents of the civil war. And when asked about the symbolism behind the bull and the horse, Picasso said: "the bull there represents brutality, the horse the people." (Jerome Secklor, 1945) When interviewed in 1945 by New Masses, Seckler, his interviewer, suggested if the bull was a symbol…. [read more]


Eric Fischl's Works Essay

… Eric Fischl

It comes as no surprise that many of Eric Fischl's paintings focus on suburban life. Born in New York City in 1948, he was raised from a toddler on Long Island, which his parents considered a "safer place to raise a family." Mired in an environment of the alcoholic country club set, which was fixated on image, Fischl created normally unseen views of suburbia. In his first New York show at the Edward Thorp Gallery, he quickly was recognized for his "psycho-sexual suburban dramas." His first radical paintings were clear narratives of domestic bodies, frequently naked with legs spread apart, captured lying listlessly on their king-sized beds or impatiently tanning themselves on crowded beaches. In Sleepwalker (1979), a post-pubescent boy masturbates in a…. [read more]


Vincent Van Gogh Research Paper

… Van Gogh

In Search of Illumination: An Analysis of the Life and Work of Vincent Van Gogh

If, as Richard Williamson (2010) says, art is a skill and that skill is the "expression of the soul," Vincent Van Gogh's artistic productivity (leaping into life in the final decade of his own) may tell us much about the soul of the man. With an oeuvre of over 2000 works Van Gogh's artistic passion matched the intensity of his religious fervor. Religion and art were, essentially, the basis of Van Gogh's life. And the history of his life is, in a way, a history of modern Europe; in another way it is a history of the prelude to 20th century modern art; and in another way it…. [read more]


Nevelson and Bourgeois Term Paper

… Nevelson and Bourgeois

Bourgeois's Spider & Nevelson's Sky Cathedral: A Comparative Analysis

Louise Nevelson. (1899-1988). Sky Cathedral. 1958. Painted wood. Smithsonian American Art Museum

Louise Bourgeois. (1911-). Spider. 1996-1997. Bronze. National Gallery of Art.

In the story of feminism's entanglement with modern art in the United States, two names overshadow many others: they are Louise Bourgeois and Louise Nevelson. Both women have made their mark primarily in the field of sculpture.

Bourgeois was born to France and came to the United States in the late 1930s, where she has lived ever since. Bourgeois's work is known for being heavily symbolic and abstract. The main focus of Bourgeois's work is on relationships - in particular, the relationships of her sculptures to the spaces in which they…. [read more]

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