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Art Culture: Public Space Term Paper

… This is because the 20th century public sphere constitutes organized individuals that exert their influence over public debate and sphere institutionally. This public cannot appreciate the placement of public art in the public sphere, unlike the 18th century public. According to Habermaes, public art gained popularity in the 18th century, since the public was subject to political decisions and interests. In that era, the public sphere was marked by a close link between church, state, public, and private sectors, under a feudal system. In this system, the power relations and levels of power saw political authority hold the highest levels of power (Habermaes 52). At this high level of power, politicians and rulers represented their ideals and state inform of symbols in the public sphere,…. [read more]


Art Consumption Essay

… Art

Consumption is one of the most challenging themes in contemporary art, because of art's centrality as a consumer object while art may simultaneously critique its own function as commodity. In the PBS series Art21, season one addresses the theme of consumption in an episode featuring Barabra Kruger, Michael Ray Charles, Matthew Barney, Andrea Zittel, and Mel Chin. The film starts with tennis superstar John McEnroe talking about his relationship with art as a tennis player who, ironically, has been described as being an "artist" on the court. McEnroe discusses the way both tennis and art are associated with bourgeois social strata, "out of the reach" of most people because of financial barriers, in spite of the fact that both tennis and art have no…. [read more]


American Arts Term Paper

… Art

Pop Art: An aesthetic and historical overview

An image of Marilyn Monroe, Elizabeth Taylor -- or simply the Campbell's Soup can. Repeated over and over again. Andy Warhol argued that through the witnessing of such repetition, which replicated yet heightened the sensation of seeing and consuming such works in daily life, over and over again, 'the better and emptier you feel.' But how can encouraging such sensations of emptiness be equated with art? Before the evolution of the Pop Art movement, headed by Andy Warhol, few critics would see such images of celebrities and commercial artifacts as worthy of hanging in a museum. But Pop Art changed not simply the look of modern art, but also what was said to constitute great or high…. [read more]


Art and Society Term Paper

… Art and Society

An Analysis and Discussion of Gender Construction in the Toilet of Venus (1647-51) by Diego Velasquez

While women in the United States and the United Kingdom have enjoyed the right to vote for several decades now, things were very different at the turn of the 20th century when the suffragettes emerged to challenge the male-dominated status quo of Western society. One of the events that highlighted this period in history was Mary Richardson's attack on Velasquez's "The Rokeby Venus," an event which has since assumed its place in the historical record as one of the most important such events in women's struggle for equal rights. This paper provides an overview, an analysis of Velasquez's "The Rokeby Venus," including a description of the…. [read more]


Joan Saab Book Essay

… One of its primary branches of support in fostering this new sense of artistic, democratic, and modern mores was New York's Museum of Modern Art, whose director Alfred Barr went out of his way to make sure the institute addressed the contemporary regard for art that the museum was named for. During the 1930's, the museum had a number of exhibits that championed the cause of ordinary American people, and which allowed for informed consumption within the national marketplace. This sort of sentiment was further propagated near the end of the decade as World War II surfaced with the 1939-1940 New York's World Fairs. These events were planned during the Depression for similar reasons that the Federal Arts Project were, and provided a platform for…. [read more]


Arts Management the Evolution Essay

… Arts Management

The Evolution of Arts and Cultural Districts

For decades now the process know as gentrification is often the end result of the creation of Cultural districts created b artist willing to live in substandard conditions as they work on an promote their art. Galligan reviews the process of creating and cultivating cultural districts in an attempt to understand and revitalize the process as well as circumvent the eventual gentrification of the area that is seen resulting, "… in a loss of the very quality of life that artists bring to an area." (Galligan 140) She cites from several authors on the subject and creates a well-rounded history and project development overview in the creation of cultural districts and compounds with the view of…. [read more]


Revolution Movies Marketing Workers Protection Essay

… Maintenance of the audience requires critical analysis of the group that consumes the product in the market or the industry. This analysis offers advantageous in attempts to keep the current audience as well as attracting the new ones. There are several approaches or ways through which community arts organization can maintain their audience.

The first way through which community arts organization can maintain their audience is through the creation of a positive experience. The audience or consumer group ensures this during the first or initial visit. This approach entails acknowledging the presence of the audience to make them feel part of the project. Community arts organization can create the first impression or positive experience by encouraging the audience as artists leave the concert or promotion.…. [read more]


Communication and Culture Essay

… ¶ … Reproduction of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." In the first part of the paper, the explanation will be provided and in the second part, arguments given by the other authors will be provided.

Explanation of the argument

"The authenticity of a thing is the essence of all that is transmissible from its beginning, ranging from its substantive duration to its testimony to the history which it has experienced." Since the historical testimony rests on the authenticity, the former, too, is jeopardized by reproduction when substantive duration ceases to matter. And what is really jeopardized when the historical testimony is affected is the authority of the object. One might subsume the eliminated element in the term "aura" and go on to say:…. [read more]


Graffiti: An Anthropological Analysis Research Paper

… Some graffiti on signs has a very specific political purpose, of course, such as graffiti defacing signs promoting a particular politician or cause. In the 'No Parking' case, the intentions behind the creator's actions are ambiguous. Sometimes the meaning of graffiti is intentionally elusive, though, and designed to communicate only to some people, not everyone who looks at the image. A good example of this is gang-related graffiti, which is often used to communicate to rival gangs. In Los Angeles, for example, the 'Bloods' and the 'Crips' street gangs were famous for their use of rival graffiti: "Gang graffiti in Los Angeles serves as an important text to understanding these groups, as the graffiti delineates space, and reemphasizes existing territory. It also serves as a…. [read more]


Funding or Defunding in the Arts Term Paper

… Funding or Defunding the Arts

Recommendations on a Proposal to Defund the Arts

This report considers the recent proposal in the House of Representatives to eradicate federal funding for the arts. This proposal cannot be taken lightly, considering that such a move would drastically alter the face of art as we know it in America today. With this in mind, I have presented in this report a thorough consideration of all sides of the issue, including academic theory about the nature and consequences of public art, its functions in the capitalist marketplace and its role in the lives of its creators and its consumers. I also examine recent public opinion about the arts, the role of government in national culture, and the value of public…. [read more]


Boundary of Art Andy Warhol Term Paper

… The Boundary of Art: Andy Warhol
In the middle part of the 20th century, Abstract Expressionism rules
the visual arts scene with a sense of serious experimentation that was in
its own way very constraining. The next generation of artists would appeal
to the media of popular culture as a way to simultaneously be liberated
from the prejudices of Expression and to broaden the palette of commercial
art. Turning concepts such as mass consumerism, the commoditization of
mankind and general materialism into a pointed philosophical statement, the
so-called 'Pop Art' movement would change significantly the both the visual
presentation and intended statement of the work dominating the scene in the
late 1950s and early 1960s. As our research shows, this would be a genuine
transition,…. [read more]


Indigenous Art Term Paper

… ¶ … False Claims of Cultural Ownership

Speaking from the perspective of a native Maori, I protest political efforts being made by some individuals to return Maori artwork currently in the possession of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. Consider the Poutoknmanawa post figure, purportedly produced around 1840. Certainly, it is a remarkably piece of my own cultural heritage -- but does that mean that it should be requisitioned by the government of New Zealand? Or even by the tribal leaders of the Maori people? In fact, when we consider the provenance of the piece, it becomes apparent that the Maori people can no longer lay singular claim to its cultural significance. Even if we could, an attempt to rigidly hold on to material relics of…. [read more]


Consumption, Society and Culture Cultural Essay

… When you observe the behaviour of a social club of consumers, you will find them obsessed with searching appeasement and joys in materialistic things that are attractive. Their irritation and alienation from social circle further pushes them to consumption (Foucault, 1984).

If you look at the TV commercials and advertisement, you will find the hidden message that if you want that particular happiness, you can get it with this product or service. In the best possible soft words, commercials are a handy tool for capitalist mindset to capture a non-political and less active mind even in its pastime (Foucault, 1984).

In his book "Culture Industry Reconsidered," Adorno describes the phenomenon as 'people can't be held responsible for measuring the culture, the philosophy of the culture…. [read more]


Art Essay

… The archaeological records shows that the Chinese character for tea did not emerge until the second or third century CE, suggesting that tea as it is known today was first developed around the second century CE in China. However, brewed herbal beverages were mentioned during the time of Confucius in the sixth and fifth centuries BCE. There are no absolute dates or circumstances under which tea was first produced and dried for mass consumption. Methods of preparing tea changed dramatically over the centuries. Trends in tea drinking also changed, according to the political leadership of China (United Kingdom Tea Council, 2013). Dried leaves and powder were both used. The main reason why tea is one of the most important of all Chinese inventions is the…. [read more]


Warholrothko Andy Warhol's Iconic Images Research Paper

… This accessibility to all may perhaps be the only commonality between these paintings, although in one way if Warhol was consciously departing from and confronting 'high art' which by the 1960s Rothko had largely become, having traveled the world with MOMA and other shows, in some cases representing the U.S. In the interest of the most privileged elites, even allegedly employed abroad as a propaganda tool by the CIA (Cockroft 86-7). By then, then Rothko was part of the established norm Warhol pushed against. On the other hand we all know who won the local-national brand war in the early 'sixties, because we live surrounded by such advertising on a scale probably unimaginable in Madison Avenue's wildest fantasies, in no small measure perhaps owed to…. [read more]


Maus 1, Maus Art Speigelman Term Paper

… He is doing this to be closer, to act out some kind of relationship even if it is made-up. He does this also with the Funny Animals Art and using the mouse as an animal fable through the comics. Art yearns for the relationship that such stories preclude but instead provokes a repeated story-telling of events and experiences that are anything but for children and bedtime. It is his apprehension, his inability to fully tell the story contributes to the audience's empathy but this happens only because he cannot reveal his feelings to his father. This indeed creates an endless cycle of emotional upheaval.

In many ways, the cat/mouse metaphor is effective because it acts as a central signifier. First of all, by drawing the…. [read more]


Surrealism During 1930s Essay

… Their aim was to embody the irrational as well as unconscious which was presumed by most of the already existed psychologists to be the women's domain, particularly those women whom the diagnosis showed to be hysterics. Based on their familiarity of the work done by the French physician Jean-Martin Charcot on the published accounts of hysteria bonded their love to the idea of applying hysteria model in their artistic practice. For example, during the year 1928, that was about ten years since the time they left military medical corps, Louis Aragon and Andre Breton decided to publish a homepage to the female hysteric that was to celebrate what they termed as "passionate attitudes" as surrealism's compelling aesthetic models.

Many of the modern psychologists supposed that…. [read more]


Power and the Changing Social Research Paper

… " (Wind, p. 77)

Rationale for Article:

Above all other things, appreciation of this dynamic between the will and the submission to more sweeping artistic currents seems to be the central rational by which Wind takes his approach to the present examination of art. Thus, we might justify Wind's meditation on art as designed to recast the role of the artist and his personal will within this new context. In other words, the thoughts presented here are largely rationalized by the need to redefine the artists in a modern consumer framework.

Intention of Article:

This is to note that where the rationale for this article is the basic understanding that the artistic process has changed in direct concert with the shifting of socioeconomic structures and…. [read more]


Arts and Crafts Movement Term Paper

… ¶ … Arts and Crafts Movement, beginning in 1860, was a movement pioneered by William Morris and Charles Voysey. The movement came in response to the industrial turn of the century. It was a way to rebel against the mechanical way of manufacturing in order to bring back traditional crafts as a decorative and valuable form rather than the requirement it had been previously. The Arts and Crafts Movement or the "anti-industrial movement" founded by Morris and Voysey was immensely successful, although the industrial revolution pressed on as technology progressed.

The movement gained traction due to its challenge of not just manufacturing, but also challenging Victorian era tastes. These attitudes stemmed from social reform concerns of thinkers such as John Ruskin and Walter Crane who,…. [read more]


Accessibility in the Performing Arts Thesis

… Accessibility in the Performing Arts

This study attempts to address the recent decline in arts patronage with an eye towards its underlying factors. While recent research has focused on the mix of economic pressures which have resulted in decreased funding for the arts, this research has frequently failed to investigate the attitudes and perceptions which inform these economic decisions. In order to bridge this critical lacuna, this study examines the different barriers to participation in the arts and determines that the recent decline is the result of practical and perceptual barriers to participation that engage in a vicious cycle wherein misinformed attitudes towards art precipitate decreased public and private support, which then serves perpetuate these attitudes. Stepping outside this cycle in order to reverse the…. [read more]


Russian Constructivism Artistic and Architectural Term Paper

… 11).

The largest peaks for the success of women artists developed in the pre-revolutionary period and during the Constructivist period of the 1920's. As Yablonskaya notes, during the late 1920's and early 1930's, women artists led two contrary developments, "one of an intimate and personal character, as with the art of Antonia Sofronova, and the other more publicly affirmative as with the work of Sarra Lebedeva and Vera Mukhina," (Yablonskaya, p. 12). The woman artist that had a significant influence on the Constructivist movement was Lyubov Papova.

Popova was an influential Russian painter and designer who was born into a wealthy family and trained as a teacher before beginning her artistic studies with Stanislav Zhukovsky and Konstantin Yuon. Inspired by Russian architecture, she developed a…. [read more]


Alcohol Pricing and Consumption Rates Essay

… Normally, the core purpose of the guidelines when applied to products by and large is to contain anticompetitive pricing, consequently shielding minute traders as well as manufacturers from the market power of huge traders like the supermarket chains, as well as facilitating up-to-the-minute entrants into the market. These kinds of prohibitions never lay down a minimum price for an item for consumption, to a certain extent; they forbid the sale of items for consumption at a price lower than the trader's cost of operation or a number of alternative thereof.

According to Hastings et al., (2005) it has never been easy to establish study that focuses particularly on the consequences of this kind of ban on alcohol related situations like usage, problems as well as…. [read more]


Contemporary Artist Term Paper

… ¶ … Artist

Barbara Kruger -- a Postmodern Feminist Artist

Brief artist biography

According to the PBS Website Art 21, the contemporary artist Barbara Kruger was born in Newark, New Jersey, in 1945. She studied at Syracuse University's School of Visual Arts and then at Parson's School of Design in New York. There, she worked with the legendary designer and artist Diane Arbus. Kruger did not immediately obtain work as a professional artist, but first as a designer. Kruger's first job was at Conde Nast Publications, working as the head designer for Mademoiselle magazine. The stylistic influences of Mademoiselle, a now-defunct women's magazine that dealt with the fashion, diet, and trend preoccupations of women in their 20s, can be seen in some of the parodic…. [read more]


Counter Culture 1955-1975 Pamphleteering Term Paper

… Counter-Culture (1955-1975) Pamphleteering

Between the mid 50s and mid 70s the western world went through a series of radical changes, which had their epicenter in America. As an answer to the conventional traditions of the late 19th and early 20th century, and all the political and social containment that developed until the decade of the 50s, U.S. went through a social revolution. This resulted from the Cold War conservative repression and other stirring events like the participation of the government in the Vietnam conflict.

The Vietnam War was the root of many protests during the sixties primarily because the information from the war zone was highly accessible to the public. The media would divulge the horrors of the fighting practically on a daily basis, thus…. [read more]


Cubist Decade Term Paper

… ¶ … Jacques Barzun covers the Cubist Decade in the third part of his best known work, "From Dawn to Decadence: 500 Years of Western Cultural Life, 1500 to the Present," dealing with the period from Romanticism to the First World War.

The Cubist Movement is, first of all, defined as a decadent movement. The definition for a decadent culture or a decadent movement (a cultural movement as a subpart of a culture) comes from Jacques Barzun himself: "when people accept futility and the absurd as normal, the culture is decadent." In this sense, decadence, in Barzun's image, is associated with a certain deformation of sensibility with regard to the artwork that is observed. The decadence itself does not become a reality until the absurd…. [read more]


Mona Lisa Leonardo Da Vinci Began Painting Thesis

… Mona Lisa

Leonardo da Vinci began painting his famous masterpiece, Mona Lisa -- or Gioconda -- in 1502, and completed it four years later. Although an extremely versatile artist and one of the major representatives of the Italian Renaissance, it was Mona Lisa that has elevated Leonardo to his current status, and has established him as one of the greatest artists of all time. This relatively small painting created new forms and offered new perspectives, succeeding in crafting an incredibly intense masterpiece into a compact 30" by 20 1/2" frame. As for its technique, the Mona Lisa is an oil painting, and has been restored many times. It is currently located in the Louvre museum, in Paris where curators have started to worry that the…. [read more]


Warhol and Koons Term Paper

… Warhol and Koons:

How does the work of Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons refer to consumerism and a consumer society?

How does the work of Andy Warhol and Jeff Koons refer to consumerism and a consumer society? How does one make use of the verbal language of consumer life, such as an soup advertisement or a cast iron Easter bunny, and deploy such language with irony, rather than with unconscious reverence? Art critics continue to debate Warhol's legacy, life and works, and the value of the artists whom he spawned such as Jeff Koons. Still, viewed in their totality, both artists' life and creations give profound evidence of the ability to subvert the totalizing media gaze of advertising and sentimentality with self-conscious reproduction of images,…. [read more]


Pervasive Video Games as Public Art Research Proposal

… Even though computer games were in their infancy in 1982, Crawford saw the potential of video games even in treatises like Pac-Man, Tempest, Space Invaders, Missile Command and Super Breakout. The latter of that series is screen-captured in the first appendix. However, Crawford asserted that even though the games of that era were crude, he held the view that they were a form of art and that over the years they would become more present and ubiquitous in the lexicon and activities of daily life and artistic expression. Indeed, he was precisely right

Crawford goes on to elucidate and explain that game design is both an artistic process as well as a technical process at the same time. Even while a game programmer tweaks and…. [read more]


Mo Tzu and Fine Arts Term Paper

… Mo Tzu and Fine Arts

The United States has a long proud history of development and imagination. It is among their biggest possessions and exactly what will provide their workforce an edge in a progressively competitive international economic climate. However to do this, they have to prepare the top-of-the-line generation of creators, designers and developers. They acknowledge that this is vital for our schools to be instructing the young students in different ways to think outside the box and to resolve difficulties with innovative options. And policy makers and parents are worried since they see how the existing education system is falling short to offer our kids the devices they require reach their complete capacity (President's Committee, 2010).

Arts education is an option to resolving…. [read more]

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