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History of Architecture Essay

… Art Nouveau: Art, Architecture and Its Effect on Daily Life

In all of its interpretations, Art Nouveau constituted a movement in the arts and architecture that marked a clear departure from the Victorian style popular at the tail-end of the 19th century. What follows is a brief outline of the many ways in which Art Nouveau separated itself from past styles, and how the practitioners of the movement attempted to define their art, progress their art, and change the fabric of daily life by taking a totalitarian approach to architecture, and a richly decorative and sometimes direct philosophy to the fine arts. The practitioners of the movement desired to be original, and many of the architects designed each part of a building on which they…. [read more]

Arts and Crafts Movement Term Paper

… ¶ … Arts and Crafts Movement, beginning in 1860, was a movement pioneered by William Morris and Charles Voysey. The movement came in response to the industrial turn of the century. It was a way to rebel against the mechanical way of manufacturing in order to bring back traditional crafts as a decorative and valuable form rather than the requirement it had been previously. The Arts and Crafts Movement or the "anti-industrial movement" founded by Morris and Voysey was immensely successful, although the industrial revolution pressed on as technology progressed.

The movement gained traction due to its challenge of not just manufacturing, but also challenging Victorian era tastes. These attitudes stemmed from social reform concerns of thinkers such as John Ruskin and Walter Crane who,…. [read more]

Cubism -- How it Shapes the Art Term Paper

… Cubism -- How it shapes the art of today, how it creates the shape of my art today

According to the popular Internet art encyclopedia, 'Artcyclopedia,' the Cubist movement in art developed between the years of 1908 and 1912, amongst a small colony of European artists. The early Cubist's main influences were said to have been Tribal Art, as prefigured in the works of the post-impressionist Paul Cezanne. (Artcyclopedia, 2005) Unlike these earlier artist's works, however, which still had recognizable, realistic forms, in Cubist paintings the subject matter was broken up, analyzed by the painter, and then reassembled in an abstracted form of shapes and stark designs.

There are two distinct Cubist styles. The first movement in Cubism was known as Analytical Cubism. Analytical Cubism…. [read more]

Henri Matisse Still Life Research Paper

… " (Matisse Picasso Website, 2002)

VI. Concept of Visual Equilibrium

Matisse writes that if he were to paint upon a white canvas "some sensations of blue, of green, or red, each new stroke diminish the importance of the preceding ones." (1908) The concept of visual equilibrium is addressed in the work of Matisse who states as follows on painting an interior:

"I have before me a cupboard; it gives me a sensation of vivid red, and I put down a red which satisfies me. A relation is established between this red and the white of the canvas. Let me put a green near the red, and make the floor yellow; and again there will be relationships between the green or yellow and the white of…. [read more]

19th Century Art Term Paper


In Europe, the nineteenth century was an age of radical change during which the modern world took shape. In a world that was experiencing a population explosion of unparalleled magnitude, revolution followed revolution, a pattern punctuated by counter-revolution and conservative reaction. In thought as well as in science, the nineteenth century was an era of grand new theories through which visionary thinkers attempted to unify whole bodies of knowledge into precise, well-ordered systems.

Artist in the nineteenth century were also confronted with new innovations and their individual artistic styles and works changed with the times. These artists found themselves using the elements of line, shape and color to represent their private world, the realm…. [read more]

Bauhaus After World War I Term Paper

… Poet and critic Vincent Katz, who wrote about the school, stressed that Rice envisioned an educational collective run by its teachers with input from the students instead of directives from a governing board. Students at the deliberately nonaccredited school took the courses they wanted and, when they felt ready to graduate, requested an examination to be administered by someone outside the college.

Black Mountain was not planned as an art school -- courses were always offered in science and mathematics -- but Rice believed the arts held a central place in a liberal arts education. The courses included painting, writing, drawing, constructions and assemblages, weaving, music, drama, architecture, photography, typography dance and design. Like the Bauhaus, Black Mountain College was a center for cultural production.…. [read more]

How Were Catalan Modernista Painters Influenced by French Art? Term Paper

… French Influence Upon Catalan Modernists

It is difficult to imagine the art world without a French influence. It seems that throughout history much of art has been based out of French culture and social ideas. The central location for such artistic creation has primarily been that of Paris, France. It seems that many artists have journeyed there for education or intellectual freedom of expression. It is a special place, a place that thrives on the energy art represents to the world. Even today, it is the place to be an artist. There is a certain allure and safety as if an artist's identity automatically fits with Paris. Maybe the draw can be attributed too much of its pulse is generated by art and the museums…. [read more]

David Notable Religious Events Research Paper

… His version of the statue is a masterpiece because it is an amalgamation of his four strengths. Had he not be a Renaissance man of many talents, perhaps the statue would have reached the heights, fame, and adoration that it still enjoys in the modern period. David was not his final work by the least, but certain it was one of his greatest achievements and greatest exemplars of what Renaissance art & achievement overall.

Michelangelo's David proves to be quite innovative from the other statues and from other forms of Renaissance art.

For Michelangelo David proved to be a defining moment in his artistic career…Michelangelo was only twenty-six years old when he won the contract for David. He began work on Monday September 13th 1501…. [read more]

Vienna Workshop Wiener Werkstatte Term Paper

… Wiener Werkstatte

The Gesamtkunstwerk in the Wiener Werkstatte

The idea of the Gesamtkunstwerk, or "total, integrated work of art," was developed by Richard Wagner to describe what he was trying to do with his opera - that is, blend all of the arts together into a single, unified whole. Artists belonging to the Wiener Werkstatte, inspired by the concept of the Gesamtkunstwerk, took this concept as their ultimate artistic goal. While in the end, due largely to funding problems, the Wiener Werkstatte failed, it nonetheless left an indelible mark on the artistic accomplishments of the Weimar era in Central Europe. In what follows, I will discuss the accomplishments as well as the shortcomings of the Wiener Werkstatte in an effort to determine to what extent…. [read more]

Vasily Kandinsky a True German Expressionist Term Paper

… Vassily Kandinsky: A True German Expressionist

Russian-born abstract expressionist painter Vasily Kandinsky (1866-1944) whose "explorations of the possibilities of abstraction make him one of the most important innovators in modern art the father of abstract expressionism" is considered a leading figure of the German Expressionist movement of the early 20th century

That seems ironic at first: Kandinsky was (1) born in Moscow to Russian parents; (2) spent his first 30 years in Russia; (3) attended university in Moscow; (4) took up law in Moscow as his first profession, and (5) arrived in Munich, as a beginning art student, at age 30

, a late age for a beginning painter, especially one who achieves such fame. Still, Kandinsky is considered one of the most important of…. [read more]

Brenda Mcmahon Term Paper

… Brenad McMahon

The creation of ceramics is a form of art that some describe as an art and some a craft, though how this is applied may depend on the nature of the work under discussion and the degree of artistry with which it has been designed, assuming the distinction needs to be made at all. Barbara McMahon is a noted ceramic artist who works at her studio in Greenwich, New York. She is also noted as a teacher who guides others in how to express themselves through ceramics.

Brenda McMahon is known nationally as a ceramic artist. She owns and operates Blue Moon Clay Studio, located along the Hudson River just east of Saratoga Springs, and there she creates her fine, burnished porcelain vessels…. [read more]

Cubist Ideas and the Modernist Term Paper

… He brought the music, dance, art and style of his Russia to the Parisians in the years before World War One. His collaborations with Stravinsky are perhaps his greatest accomplishments, and one can see in the composer's music how he embraced the clean, angular aesthetic of the cubists as his own. In a book published in 1968 by Stravinsky and his companion Robert Craft, entitled Dialogues and a Diary, the composer goes as far as to suggest that he was responsible for the birth of "cubist" or "neo-classicist" music single-handedly:

I played the Polka (from "Eight Easy Pieces" 1915) to Diahilev and Alfredo Casella in a hotel room in Milan in 1915, and I remember how amazed both men were that the composer of "Le…. [read more]

Vincent Van Gogh Research Proposal


INTRODUCTION had a hard struggle with myself...."

Vincent van Gogh (Van Goh's Letters, 2009)

The Painter

The Painter" sold only one of his paintings, now worth millions of dollars, during his lifetime. "The Painter," Vincent van Gogh, frequently depicted people in hard times, Linda Yoffe (1995) notes in "Vincent, Theo, painting and self-esteem." Today, considered one of the greatest Dutch painters and draftsmen after Rembrandt, van Gogh's art significantly influenced Expressionism in modern art. Van Gogh, born in 1853, began painting seriously in 1880, Arthur Max (2004), an Associated Press writer, reports in "Van Gogh letter refers to family tragedy." Theo, van Gogh's younger brother, supported "The Painter" for much of his life.

Study Design and Significance

As this descriptive qualitative…. [read more]

William Bouguereau Term Paper

… Yet, from the beginning of World War I to the 1980's, the number of people in America and Europe who had ever been exposed to the name of William Bouguereau, much less see his work, was extremely rare (Bartoli pp). In fact, only a handful of people had ever had the opportunity to see a single photograph of his work, let alone the real thing (Bartoli pp). As Damien Bartoli points out, references to his work could only be found in tiny black -- and white images offered in old dictionaries and art books (Bartoli pp). Moreover, among the scarce paintings in French public collections, none were exhibited, but rather they were rolled up or carelessly stored with other equally despised academic paintings (Bartoli pp).…. [read more]

Illustrators Who Influenced Society Research Proposal

… Influential Illustrators 1980-1990

Elaine Duillo (1928- )

Elaine Duillo was a German born illustrator who later moved to the United States and began a very successful and long career as an illustrator primarily for publishing. Duillo, like many of her contemporaries, studied art at the School of Art and Music in New York City. She began her career illustrating covers for murder mystery, gothic, western, and suspense novels producing amazingly realistic images with very active content. Duillo later found great fame in the niche of Romance novels. Since beginning illustrating for Romance novels, she has produced an immense amount of high quality work. She has worked with famous publishers, including Bantam, Avon, Warner, and St. Martin's Press, (Solinder 2009). Also Working with various writers, such…. [read more]

Industrial Revolution and Beyond Term Paper

… Modern style was viewed as simple, practical, convenient, and sanitary.

Modernism was a mirror-image of the Arts and Crafts Movements -- as well as a mirror image of the virtues practiced and praised by artist and artisan from the Ptolemaic period to Impressionism. As Walter Benjamin argues, before the age of mechanical reproduction in art (and the age of machine-made everyday and decorative objects) each object was valued for its individuality. But with the rise of Modernism, every object became valued because it was like all the other examples of its type. While difference had once been the measure of the worth of an object, now lack of difference became that measure.

Rationalism and Other Aesthetic Philososphies

The changes that occurred in art and design…. [read more]

Victor Horta and the Art Nouveau Movement Term Paper

… Victor Horta: Art Nouveau Movement

How Does Victor Horta's Work Reflect the Aesthetics of the Art Nouveau Movement and What Were Some of the Limitations of the Art Nouveau Movement?

The enduring popularity of some older architectural works makes them stand out from their less attractive contemporary counterparts, and the art nouveau-inspired works by Victor Horta stand out among these. Horta was the son of a Belgian shoemaker who went on to become the pioneer of the art nouveau movement in Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and many of his buildings and the homes he designed remain influential today. In fact, Horta is even credited with introducing central heating into homes in Brussels. To determine where, when and why Horta pursued…. [read more]

Medieval Towns Crafts and Guilds Term Paper

… Medieval Towns: Crafts and Guilds

Gervase Rosser has written an article that spells out, with descriptive attention to detail, the economic and work culture dynamics of medieval communities. The piece contributes enormously to a reader's understanding of England during the medieval period, so much so that it would seem an entire semester's study could be built around the article (with numerous supplemental articles and materials, of course).

What the reader absorbs in particular in the first few pages of Rosser's article - and in general throughout his piece - is that he is intent on setting the record straight on a number of issues about the medieval workplace and worker. In fact, this is not just an article about how medieval crafts and guilds functioned…. [read more]

African American Landscape Artist Robert S Duncanson Essay

… When war broke out in April of 1861, Duncanson sought out a safer climate in which to pursue his craft. Between Canada and the UK, Duncanson passed the years of the war, painting, collecting landscape ideas, and developing professional relationships that could facilitate his career at the international level.
In Montreal, Duncanson was greeted warmly. He settled down there in 1863 and before he left two years later, he had acquired the reputation of being one of Canada's first 'professional cultivators of the fine arts' (Taft Museum, 1995). Indeed, Duncanson helped to establish the landscape painting movement in Canada, inspiring various artists there, from Otto Jacobi to C. J. Way and Allan Edson.
Following his stay in Canada, Duncanson traveled to England, where he visited…. [read more]

Michelangelo Was the Greatest Sculptor Term Paper

… Despite Michelangelo's cruelty, the Pieta survived, bruised and scarred, and remains a "sublime monument to the torments of love and the yearnings for salvation of Michelangelo Buronarotti."

Michelangelo is quoted as once saying, "Whenever (as very rarely happens) a great painter makes a work that seems false and deceitful, that falseness is truth, and greater truth in that place would be a lie."

From the end of the 15th century, the Florentine artistic culture showed signs of a "particular preoccupation with the analogies between human making and the creative act of God."

By the mid-16th century, Michelangelo had come to "epitomize the conception of a divine artist, to the extent that he appeared to have overcome the distinction between the two modalities."

Vasari believed that…. [read more]

African-American Art Creative African-American Literature Research Paper

… The vast majority of X's autobiography, of course, spanned more than his life, it detailed the history of oppression of African-Americans at the hands of America, which the following quotation proves. "One hundred million of us Black people! Your grandparents! Mine! Murdered by this white man! To get 15 million of us here to make us his slaves, on the way he murdered one hundred million! (Haley, 1965, p. 216)." This quotation is indicative of the incendiary language and graphic representation of facets of slavery that X employed to recruit African-Americans to resist their American oppressors. This aspect of The Autobiography of Malcom X is a central component of the literature of African-American artists in the 20th century.

In summary then, it is quite plain…. [read more]

History of Graphic Art Research Paper

… Graphic Art

It is possible to study art in a variety of ways, because of the impact that it has had throughout human development. For example, art can be studied by looking at periods of specific art forms, such as impressionism or abstract art. It can be analyzed through the artists and how they related to their culture and the historic times. or, in the case of graphic art, it can be studied in relationship to what was taking place in history at the time. Graphic art, which includes graphic design or the manipulation of the art, is closely tied to the technological advancements that have been made over the centuries. Although some define the term "graphic art(s)" as including drawing, it is most often…. [read more]

Picasso Pablo Picasso Was a Painter, Sculptor Research Paper

… Picasso

Pablo Picasso was a painter, sculptor, ceramicist and stage designer who belonged to Spain but lived most of his life in France. He was one of the most influential and known artist of his age and had gone to achieve a lot of different things. Some of the most renowned achievements by Picasso include invention of the constructedsculpture; work on the collage, co founding the Cubist movement and introduction of various different styles of art. Seeing how his influence is appreciated worldwide, he is an interesting artist to look into in more detail. He was a man who made use of not one but several styles to blend in into his art work. His work was marvelous and people know his for the talent…. [read more]

Aboriginal Art Essay

… Teaching Aboriginal Art

Canada has a very rich and unique history in the modern era, having maintained connections to its parent country while achieving independence in a peaceful manner. At first, Canada was also unique in the relationships formed between early settlers and the indigenous tribes that existed in the country for thousands of years -- since the beginning of time, according to many members of the First Nations. Unfortunately, Canada's unique peaceful and accommodating ways could not stand up to the test of time, and eventually many of the people of the First Nations and the other indigenous peoples of the Canadian region lost their ancestral homelands and eventually even their culture. Especially in the latter half of the twentieth century and into our…. [read more]

Peter Voulkos, a Clay Sculpturist Term Paper

… The piece is wheel-thrown and built out of four parts.

Looking at the piece, only the top half of the piece reflects its origin on the potter's wheel. The bottom half of the piece is distorted and has had extra pieces of clay added to it, giving it an appearance of randomness. The illusion of randomness is accentuated by the firing method, in a pit. Placed into a pit of burning materials, the flames kissed the piece sporadically, and the combustible materials give off various fumes that color the clay in an unpredictable way. The result is a piece that on the outside looks at first as if it may have been made without a plan. However, the relative symmetry of the top shows that…. [read more]

Benefits of the Creative Process for Dementia Thesis

… Art Interventions for Dementia Patients

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Creative Aging

Art Intervention Processes for Dementia Patients

Art Interventions for Dementia Patients


There are few phrases that I dislike more than 'It is what it is'. I believe people that make use of this phrase are stating that whatever the concern, it is not worthy of thought; it is their under-mannered way of naturalizing the consequences of misguided choices. However, the fact that every choice, good or bad, has consequences is a truth that cannot be ignored. I know the frustration and anguish of rectifying the consequences of the horrific choices of others. I know because on October 24, 1998, I survived two violent crimes. In 2002, I was formally diagnosed with…. [read more]

Gothic Cathedrals and Light Essay

… The Gothic style is still used today, and the techniques and innovations permeated Europe and became standards for future innovations in building design. Gothic art shaped human perception in Europe at least until the High Baroque, and possibly longer (early 1700s). The idea of craft, stonemasons and others, arose from the lengthy building projects of this age, as well as the way humans viewed themselves and their ability to conceptualize and build (Gothic Dreams - Appreciating a Cultural Legacy, 2009). However, more than the tangible output, the evolution into the Gothic became a different way of viewing the human condition, and that condition as relative to God and other men. In painting and sculpture, just as in literature and poetry, figures become more animated and…. [read more]

Living in the Middle Ages Term Paper

… Among the cathedrals that exemplify this art of building, include those at Chartres and Amiens.


In the music sector, the art continued to evolve during these middle ages. Living in these ages, I would be happiest to experience the developing trends and upcoming groups in the industry music are an industry that existed before the middle era. However, these ages marked the beginning of revolutionary music artists with immense talents in songwriting and actual singing. Living in this middle age, the greatest invention of interest would be the invention of the music staff, the lines and spaces in which the notes are written. This happened by the efforts of an Italian Benedictine monk, Guido of Arezzo (995-1050 AD). He informed the naming of these…. [read more]

Kinesthetics Movement in the Classroom Research Proposal

… Kinesthetic Intelligence -- and Kinesthetic Learning for Every Child

Most educators are aware that there are different styles of learning. However, this does not mean that they are equally aware of each different style or are equally good at honoring each style of learning. Teachers seem to be able to integrate visual and auditory styles of learning with relative ease. This should not be surprising given that both visual and auditory elements have been a part of traditional pedagogical techniques for decades. However, teachers are probably less likely to include a full range of kinesthetic learning tools. Again, this should not be surprising given that learning-through-movement is something that is in many ways alien to traditional teaching and classroom-management techniques. Indeed, a glimpse into most…. [read more]

Deutscher Werkbund and Bauhaus Term Paper

… ¶ … architectural and design movements that played central roles in the evolution of Modernism as a whole and in the development of German culture in particular throughout the first half of the 20th century. While a proper comparative analysis of the Deutscher Werkbund and the Bauhaus is difficult, if not impossible, to undertake, owing to the fact that the latter essentially grew out of the principles of the former, I will endeavor to explore the goals and aesthetic principles of each movement in order to illuminate the similarities and inconsistencies within each. I will also take a look at landmark architectural works belonging to each of the two movements in order to support my hypothesis that the principles laid out by the Deutscher Werkbund…. [read more]

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