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Attribution Theory Covered Article Review

… The first one is the fact that both situational and dispositional causality are inversely linked. The diversity of these causes is considered to be within the dispositional and situational categories are another measurement problem (Solomon, 1978).

Another one is the fact that there are difficulties that arise with differentiating between the external and internal causes to the actor. There is also the low convergent validity. This validity is that of numerous closed ended attribution measures. Studies conducted reaffirm the deficiency of convergence among several close-ended measures as well as between open and closed measures. The second study looks into subject ratings. It involved looking into subject ratings belonging to closed ended attributions (Solomon, 1978). Oftentimes, they are considered indicators where a freely chosen dimension offers…. [read more]

Attribution Theory Juvenile Delinquency and Gangsterism Research Proposal

… Attribution Theory

Juvenile delinquency and gangsterism has been a serious problem, and continues to be so in schools today. It appears that pressures in their social and academic world simply overwhelm some young people, who then succumb to this. Various remedies have been implemented and suggested to mitigate this phenomenon in the world of young people. Some have suggested after-school programs to help young persons use their time constructively, while others believe that more severe treatment, such as juvenile detention facilities, is in order.

Concomitantly, various reasons have been suggested to be at the heart of the juvenile delinquency issue. Studies appear to suggest a combination of various factors, of which peer pressure is the most significant. In addition, blame for the phenomenon has been…. [read more]

Multiple Theories in Research Two Essay

… ¶ … Multiple Theories in Research

Two theoretical notions that guide Caron and Rosette (2011) study on biases against black leaders are that black's success comes from superior athletics skills while the white success is attributed to their smartness and leadership ability. These notions have greatly impacted how black leaders are evaluated. When black leaders perform poorly in whatever activity s/he is assigned to do people will be quick to say that black folks are not as intelligent, determined or decisive and are therefore not good leaders. The situation is never the same when a black leader does an excellent work. However, the good performance is attributed to compensatory attributes like "he has survival skills'. Good performance is never attributed to actual leadership competence. Evaluation…. [read more]

Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization Peer-Reviewed Journal

… ¶ … Ethnic Diversity and Attributions for Peer Victimization in Middle School

According to this article, the American Medical Association has designated peer victimization as a public health concern. (Graham, Bellmore, Nishina and Juvonen, 2009) This type of harassment includes a variety of behaviors including calling names, assault, social attacks and excessive teasing. (Graham, 2009) the purpose of this study by the authors was to examine the role of self-blame on peer victimization/maladjustment relations in middle school and the role of classroom diversity. The participants were 6th grade students of Latino or African-American ethnicity or one of several other ethnic groups. The researchers also devised a method of study using numerical minority and numerical majority of an ethnic group within each classroom. In addition, rather…. [read more]

Intercultural and/or Cross-Cultural Communication Theories, Models Thesis

… Intercultural and/or cross-cultural communication theories, models, and/Or methodologies and a description of at least one research project or study for each theory chosen

Theories, models, and methodologies of face-negotiation and feminist communication theory

Saving face.' 'Face time.' Americans and other individuals from low-context Westernized countries are likely think about the metaphor of 'face' in terms of personally securing dignity and respect. They may think this notion of 'face' is part of a universal cultural vocabulary. However, 'Face - Negotiation Theory' as conceptualized by Stella Ting-Toomey, questions this notion by examining, "face" or "the way that we want others to see and treat us," as a culturally-bound concept (Whitham 1999). According to Ting-Toomey, Americans and other individuals from low-context cultures "equate the concept of face with…. [read more]

Apply a Social Psychological Theory to a News Event Essay

… Cognitive Dissonance, Social Comparison Theory, & a Norwegian Mass Murderer

Most people require a stable sense of identity to be comfortable with themselves. For such individuals, when they perform an action that is outside of the realm of what they call their identity, cognitive dissonance occurs. When acting or behaving outside of how they believe to be, people demonstrate cognitive dissonance by being uncomfortable to the point that they are motivated to alter their behaviors or attitudes or both.

Social comparison theory is a theory that explains how people perceive themselves through the actions of others. This theory posits that humans learn about who they are from themselves and from others. People learn more about their identities and perceptions of themselves by gaining that self-knowledge…. [read more]

Social Psychology Explanations Understanding and Distinguishing Essay

… ¶ … attribution error is the tendency to over-state or over-emphasize personality characteristics when evaluating an individual's moral responsibility for his or her personal situation. Instinctively, someone might wish to state: 'of course, aren't people different? Don't their personal characteristics affect their behavior and choices?' That is why the instinctive response is 'e' -- that the fundamental attribution error is a failure to consider the impact of personality and individual differences. It would seem that common sense dictates that everyone is 'different' and everyone is an 'individual.' Individual decisions produce different responses, and different responses result in different life outcomes. However, in Western society there is a tendency to over-emphasize, or over-stress personality characteristics to the point where critical aspects of the individual's social context…. [read more]

Organizational Behavior Joe Salatino (Revision) Case Study

… The other theory is the operant condition, where the individual learn and adopt voluntary behavior. The implications and influence of the theory to the surroundings made voluntary behavior to be referred to as operants (Hellriegel & Slocum, 2007, pg 98). Managers can influence this behavior due to the availability of consequences. For instance, if Joe increased the salary abruptly, then most of the employees would change their behavior, because of motivation. The consequence of work is pay. This is a tool most managers use to change the employee's behavior.

The last and most commonly used theory is the social learning theory. This was the theory to be implemented by Joe to help govern his company. According to the theory, people observe others and tend to…. [read more]

Social Psychology Social Beliefs and Judgments Humans Term Paper

… Social Psychology

Social Beliefs and Judgments

Humans are social beings that automatically make assumptions and judgments based on the observable behavior of others. When walking down a street in the downtown area, I have witnessed homeless individuals begging for money or food. Although empathy arises when I see this, I also unintentionally attempt to explain their behavior by either blaming it on the consumption of drugs or to a lack of family support. I also make personal judgments on these individuals without knowing in actuality what this person's life has been up to this point. All of these mind processes are a part of social psychology.

This chapter explains the main theories behind social beliefs. Myers (2012) introduces attribution theory as the way that people…. [read more]

Social Psychology Research Paper

… Nazi Germany used the images and methods of mass advertising to help Adolf Hitler come into power and to control the mass mind once the Party had taken over the state. E.H. Grimbach, the famous art historian and exile from the Third Reich thought that racist and anti-Semitic images were at the very heart of the Nazi worldview, and that the leaders really believed their own propaganda, especially Hitler. These images always showed the Fuehrer as a powerful man of destiny, a hero, savior and messiah who had saved Germany from its enemies. Very often, it even portrayed him as inspired by God as well. During the 1933-45 period, Nazi images also showed how a "virtuous young Germany fought manfully against evil schemers, above all…. [read more]

Leadership in Organizations Organizational Leadership Thoughts Capstone Project

… Leadership in Organizations

Organizational Leadership

Thoughts on Leadership (Opening statement)

Management verses Leadership

What is management?



The overlap ion management and leadership

What do leaders do?

Comparing personal thoughts and leadership models

Leaders see what others do not Leaders seize opportunities surrounding them

Personal statements/concluding the chapter

Leadership Theories

The trait theory -- what people have chances to be good leaders?

Behavioral Theories -- What Do Good Leaders Do?

The contingency theory - how situations determine good leadership

Leadership styles

The servant leadership style

Transformational leadership

Situational leadership

Effective leadership styles for today's organizations


Self as Leader

Core values in leadership practice

The leadership ethical framework

Decision making linked to core values

Organizational change framework

Organizational change strategy

Goal-setting change model…. [read more]

Dry Needling Cover Letter Department Peer-Reviewed Journal

… This could clarify why latent trigger points might not induce impulsive pain. As soon as these inadequate synapses happen to be sensitized, referred pain would likely follow (Mense, 2008).

Latent trigger factors can easily turn out to be active trigger points. Simply because of elevated synaptic effectiveness within the dorsal horn, these trigger points might begin showcasing spontaneous pain. It seems that whether or not a trigger point is actually active or latent relies upon, at least partly, on the level of sensitization. Data shows that the very first phase of trigger point development includes the improvement of contractured muscle tissue or perhaps a taut band, which might or might not be painful. Whilst the precise mechanisms involving the taut band development aren't properly outlined,…. [read more]

Role of Technology in Corporate Essay

… In addition, purveyors of data have shown themselves to be antagonistic toward regulation (Verrier, 2010). Currently, there are no legal restrictions on how data that has been sold can be used (Verrier, 2010).

Free expression or copyright piracy. Intellectual property is intangible proprietary information. The word proprietary is key in this definition as it signals ownership. There are laws governing creative properties, such as literature, music, art, films, architectural design and the like. However, many of these regulations are difficult to enforce, particularly when violators are located outside the boundaries in which the law is applicable (Verrier, 2010). Global enterprise is replete with challenges, not the least of which is the watchdog function that must be employed to safeguard consumers and the legal rights of…. [read more]

International Business Law -- Recognition Essay

… In that accord, one party may have been searching for the resolution of a territorial unit or the territorial state or to become the part of new state or established state. In this situation two questions have been raised simultaneously which are: one, either the established state's title is to be used by the original state or, two, the new state should be mingled with the territorial unites aside them? However, this entirely depends on the situations that work as the baseline of the debate and focus. One may find that a given group favours the idea of side status quo which is being much preferred by someone while the rest find the idea of changing the framework of status quo to be a more…. [read more]

William Mcdougall Problems With Instinct Theory Term Paper

… William McDougall: Problems with Instinct Theory

William McDougall was an experimental psychologist and theorist who believed in a holistic psychology that integrated all of the tools available to help understand the human psyche. "He was the first to formulate a theory of human instinctual behavior," Margaret Alic notes, "and he influenced the development of the new field of social psychology" (p. 1). McDougall was born in Lancashire, England in 1871, and his early pioneering work on the subject of instinct helped to secure him much recognition at the time, more so than did the work of the previous psychologists (Alic, 2001). In his biography of McDougall, Chris Brand reports that McDougall held lectureships in Cambridge (St. John's College) and Oxford (Corpus Christi College) by the…. [read more]

Detecting Deception From Nonverbal Cues Research Proposal

… Detecting Deception

The Detection of Deliberate Concealment of Intentions and Deception

Psychology professor Paul Ekman pioneered the use of facial expression recognition for the purpose of detecting deliberate deception. According to a large volume of work by Ekman dating back to 1974 (Ekman, 2001; 2003) as well as collaborative work in conjunction with O'Sullivan and Frank (1999; 1991), human facial expressions are reliable indicators of deliberate deceptive behavior. The potential value of practical security applications of Ekman's principles and techniques in the contemporary climate of global terrorism and counterterrorism efforts is difficult to overestimate, particularly in light of contemporaneous evidence by Ekman, O'Sullivan, & Frank (1991), DePaulo, Lindsay, & Malone, et al. (2003), and numerous others reported in scientific literature (Stanovich, 2007) conclusively establishing the…. [read more]

Theories of Learning and Educational Psychology Term Paper

… ¶ … Learning

Educational Psychology

Multiple Choice: select the best answer

The ultimate goal of teaching is knowledge lifelong expert learning motivation volition

Which one of the following factors does NOT influence a person's skill and will to learn?

Common sense




Another term for self-discipline that is characteristics of self-regulated learners is common sense context motivation volition

When studies are based only on observations, the results should be expressed as cause-and-effect relationships descriptions principles theories

In what specific type of research would a researcher be likely to serve as a participant-observer?





The most likely correlation between height and shoe size of adults is anywhere between +0.00 and +0.50 close to zero negative positive

Which of the following one…. [read more]

Workforce Diversity or the Demographic Mix Term Paper

… Workforce diversity or the demographic mix of different genders, races ethnicities, ages, and able-bodiediness in the workforce, is becoming increasingly important, as the use of demographic differences in employment is covered by a series of federal, state/provincial, and local laws outlawing discrimination. However, both mental and physical aptitudes and abilities are still used in matching individuals to organizations and jobs in terms of personality and capacity. The 'Big Five' personality framework consists of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness to experience. A useful personality framework consists of social traits, personal conceptions, emotional adjustment, and personality dynamics, where each category represents one or more personality dimensions.

Chapter 5

The perceptual process involves the perceiver, the setting, and the perceived. Common perceptual distortions include stereotypes or…. [read more]

Org Culture Organizational Culture and Values Term Paper

… Org Culture

Organizational Culture and Values

I am a member of an organization that facilitates cultural exchanges between American universities and international medical students interested in obtaining certification to study and participate in America's medical education and health care system. However, although my job description speaks of my status as a facilitator of cultural exchanges and a kind of translator of the bureaucratic language of educational institutions around the world, I am also part of a unique workplace or organizational culture myself.

In dress and language, diversity and tolerance is key to my workplace culture and my workplace's system of values. To deal with other certifications and governmental authorities over the phone, one must be tolerant of many cultural differences and imperfect English. The tolerance…. [read more]

Performance Evaluation of How Hedge Funds Research Proposal

… ¶ … Performance Evaluation of How Hedge Funds Can Be Used to Augment the Overall Efficiency in German Pension Funds

Much attention has been given to hedge funds over the last few years, but the industry itself remains to a large degree, opaque. A lack of clarity and understanding of how these funds work, what they do, and how they can be used in conjunction with other kinds of funds is at the forefront of the knowledge and beliefs of most people when it comes to these funds.

High and unseen risks are involved when investing in these vehicles. However, the returns generated have attracted the attention of a growing number of institutional investors, including those who work with pension funds. Past studies have suggested…. [read more]

Jewish History Was Promoted Term Paper

… Dubnow relates that if one is to "pierce to its depths, and scrutinize the processes that take place in its penetralia, we perceive that even in the early period there were latent within it great powers of intellect, universal principles, which visibly or invisibly, determined the course of events." (Dubnow, 2005) The Jewish people are "not a simple political or racial entity, but to an eminent degree 'a spiritual people'." (Dubnow, 2005) The national development is based upon a religion that is described as an "all pervasive religious tradition" and one that "lives in the soul of the people as the Sinaitic Revelation, the Law of Moses." (Dubnow, 2005)

The bible verse which states "And ye shall be unto me a kingdom of priests and…. [read more]

Cross-Cultural Communication With Increased Competition Essay

… However, this alone cannot guarantee effective communication, but it will allow people to mindfully attempt to understand strangers and the way these strangers are interpreting their messages. In doing so, people can respond in a manner that results in effective communication. Therefore proper control of uncertainty and anxiety provides an avenue for effective communication, though effective communication depends on the conduct of a person in such situation (Gudykunst, 2005).

Self-concepts and AUM

Self-concept is used to refer to a personal views, they comprise of personal identity as well as social identity. Self-esteem of a person can either be positive or negative feeling a person has about himself/herself. According to Gudykunst, (2005) personal identities are the main generative ways for interpersonal behaviour; whereas social identities are…. [read more]

Social Media and Technology Essay

… , 2006; Anderson & Emmers-Sommer, 2006). It is a widely accepted fact that one would only desire to stay in a relationship indefinitely if they are deriving the satisfaction they expected to derive from it. Towards this end, a person's level of commitment to their relationship is essentially the measure of satisfaction they derive from it. Sidelinger, et al. (2006) express that one's commitment could be measured by the level of investment they make in the relationship, and their perception of the quality of alternative relationships. Towards this end, higher commitment is signaled by one perceiving his/her relationship as superior to alternative relationships, ignoring attractive alternative relationships, and being willing to sacrifice for the relationship, accommodate the other party, and make high investments in the…. [read more]

Author Present a View of Society Thesis

… ¶ … Society

Does the author present a view of society?

The author does present a number of competing views of society - with the focus on the interpretivist view of social interaction. Interpretivism refers to the theoretical stance or view that culture and context are central determining factors that need to be understood if one is to truly understand a particular culture. This view is contrasted with more quantitative and objectivist theories about the nature of society - such as the functionalist and Marxist views.

However, the author stresses that the subjective view or the qualitative analysis of society and culture and institutions like schools are essentials if one is to understand the culture and the school. This argument is underlined by the view…. [read more]

Protecting Police and Engaging Citizens Term Paper

… These names should not be construed as flippant or in any way diminishing the significance of strategies to keep policemen safe in the community.

Friendly cop, aloof cop. One out of every pair or every group of officers on duty must maintain a high level of alertness and must resist casual engagement by community members and distractions of any kind that would diminish his or her acute watchful state. It simply is not possible to alert fellow officers to potential harm or to protect them in an escalating situation while completing paperwork or stirring half-and-half into a Venti.

Bond, James Bond. Officers should assume, like every 007 worth his salt, that the environment they are presently in can quickly sour, or the next environment they…. [read more]

Halo Effect in Business Halo Effect Literature Literature Review

… Halo Effect in Business

Halo Effect Literature Review

The existence of the halo effect has been recognized for many years since 1920 when Edward Thorndike was the first psychologists to research the halo effect. This was then followed by other researchers who studied the halo effect in relation to the attractiveness of the person or organization and led to its application in various sectors such as business, education and judicial systems. The researchers stated that the halo effect was greatly influenced by the first impression on a person or organization Luttin, 2012.

The halo effect has a very powerful influence on business. This literature review attempts to find the halo effect in business and how it affects decisions made by the public on the company…. [read more]

Labor Discrimination Equal Pay Act Law and Reality Thesis

… Labor Discrimination - Equal Pay Act - Law and Reality

The objective of this work is to examine law and regulations relating to labor discrimination, the equal pay act and the reality of labor discrimination in today's workforce.


The work of Becker (1957) defines 'Labor Market Discrimination' by stating that Labor Market Discrimination "...may be in the form of differences in wage rates for workers who are equally productive but who are different in terms of their personal characteristics including race, age, religion, nationality or education. Labor market discrimination also comes in the form of job exclusion upon the basis of social class, union membership or political beliefs. (Becker, 1957)


The Equal Pay Act (EPA) is…. [read more]

Gendered Experience in the Workplace Sexual Discrimination Term Paper

… Gendered Experience in the Workplace

Sexual discrimination is a reality in the workforce. Despite many recent and well- publicized advances of individual women in business, and some prominent examples of female leadership of once male-dominated corporate entities, in the everyday experience of most workers, common workplace relations remain 'gendered' in terms of leadership. Gender constructs that favor promoting males to positions of leadership still affect the perceptions of managers, and their employees. I know this from my own personal experience, even though I am male.

No, I did not face some sort of "Disclosure"-like scenario, as dramatized in the (very) fictional film with Michael Douglas and Demi Moore. Penned by Michael Crichton, the film showed a man discriminated against by his female boss because she…. [read more]

Network Research Encountering -- and Countering Research Paper

… Network Research

Encountering -- and Countering -- Unstructured Attacks: Current Issues in Network Security Monitoring

As technology and information networks continue to grow in complexity and in sheer size, and as they become more prevalent and important to industries and organizations of all sorts, the problems encountered in network security and network security monitoring are themselves growing in number and complexity. Hardware changes, software developments, and an ever-adapting range of purposeful and accidental security threats through unauthorized activity have led to the rapid evolution of network security monitoring in many ways, while at the same time certain basic elements and frameworks for understanding issues remain the same. This juxtaposition of the old and the new in the world of network security monitoring means that basic…. [read more]

Management Principles Management Leadership Model Term Paper

… There is a pre-assumption that the leader's traits existed before leadership and most of them failed to approach the study of personality. Several studies aiming at identifying some of the leadership traits reveal that most of the traits were unimportant compared to other traits (Dereli, 2007). In this context, some scholars have argued that the failure to outline leadership traits should account to the lack of measurement and comparison of data from the many studies conducted. Some of the recent studies utilized measurement procedures focusing on managers and leaders.

Behavioral Theories of Leadership

The lack of tracing important leadership traits urged scholars to explore the behaviors exhibited by specific leaders. Behavioral studies of leadership primarily aim at identifying behaviors that distinguish leaders from non-leaders. These…. [read more]

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