Viewing papers 1-30 of 83 for autism AND and AND behavior AND modification

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Autism Term Paper

… The functional behavioral assessment includes, but is not limited to, the identification of the problem behavior, the definition of the behavior in concrete terms, the identification of the contextual factors that contribute to the behavior (including cognitive and affective factors) and the formulation of a hypothesis regarding the general conditions under which a behavior usually occurs and probable consequences that serve to maintain it (

It should be noted that while behavioral assessment may help provide a substantial amount of help to many individuals suffering with autism it is certainly not a cure-all (Smith, Chung, and Vostanis, 1994, p. 558). However, it can be used to help improve the communication of many children with autism because it is a highly flexible model that can be…. [read more]

Autism Is a Developmental Disorder Literature Review

… In this way, they can play an influential role when it comes to the implementation of an education plan as per the child's requirements. However, the role and participation of parents may vary on the basis of their own expertise, educational background, the time they take out and other various factors. At many occasions, parents often lack the knowledge about their child because of which they might be unable to communicate or help even in the case of their dissatisfaction with the learning approach being adopted. For this reason, in order to deal with the legal difficulties which arise between parents and the school, IDEA has included the provision of providing procedural safeguards which was made a part of the act at the time when…. [read more]

Autism Spectrum Disorder Research Paper

… Autism Spectrum Disorder

The objective of this study is provide complete descriptions of research-based instructional strategies that will be used in working with students and to state a reason why these have been chosen.

Students Desire to Serve

The writer of this study has chosen to work with children with autism. This study will examine how these strategies address specific weaknesses and utilize the strengths of children with autism. The writer of this work has chosen the ages of 11 -- 13, children in the eighth grader with autism spectrum disorder to work with. The studies reviewed in this report have served to provide the writer of this work with information that can be applied in the instructional environment.

Instructional Strategies

The work of Thiessen,…. [read more]

Behavior Management in Special Education Essay

… The teacher will have to rely on multiple resources to effect a change in the maladaptive behavior. Knowing which special reinforcers will truly assist at a critical moment will truly be an asset to any Special Education teacher, or any teacher at all, and even to parents and guardians.

There are two types of reinforcement. There is positive reinforcement. There is negative reinforcement. Positive reinforcement occurs when the Special Education teacher or specialist working with the student presents a reinforcer, likely listed in the students IEP (Individualized Education Program). The student receives a reinforcer after the student demonstrates a target behavior or a target skill. Reinforcers can be many objects and what is most effective will really depend on each child. Examples of reinforcers include…. [read more]

Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Term Paper

… However, to date there is limited documented research supporting such a statement. In 2000, Holm and his colleagues conducted a seminal study that used everyday activities- (or occupation-) based interventions with two dually diagnosed students who attended school and lived in a CLA. The everyday activities-based intervention focused on enabling the students' participation in everyday AM and PM activities such as bed making, selecting clothes for school, helping prepare the food for dinner, setting the table, and selecting the games and crafts for after-dinner activities. Overall, the disruptive and challenging behaviors of the two students were significantly reduced when they participated in the everyday activities-based tasks, even though the focus of the intervention was NOT on their behavior as in the school environment, but rather…. [read more]

Autism and Behavior Modification Research Proposal

… Autism Behavior Modification

Health professionals view autism as a disorder involving communication, social interactions and repetitive behaviors (MedlinePlus 2009). It is usually first early in childhood. A person with autism has problems talking with others, may not look at them in the eye and does unusual things and often repetitively. He may line his pencils up in a way that catches attention, same the same sentence again, flap his arms to express joy or hurt himself to express his sorrow. Some autistic persons never learn how to talk. Health professionals describe it as a spectrum disorder because those afflicted exhibit different features or symptoms. Asperger syndrome is a milder form. The cause is still unknown and no treatment has been found. Therefore, the disorder may…. [read more]

Autistic Spectrum Disorders Term Paper

… (Autism FAQ - Similar Conditions)

There is another disease called LKS Landau-Kleffner syndrome which is also called acquired childhood epileptic aphasia. This is a very rare disorder and the patients show normal development and age appropriate language development for the age up to 7 years; then loses receptive language though retains some expressive language; the speech becomes 'telegraphic' with the use of few verbs; the child remains frustrated with the changes that the child observes; the behaviors become autistic; normal or above normal non-verbal scores in IQ; abnormal EEG which would be with or without seizures. Some doctors feel that childhood disintegrative disorder or "late outset" autism may be called Landau- Kleffner Syndrome.

The fifth similar affliction is called PKU "Phenylketonuria." This is a genetic…. [read more]

Autistic Children and the Effects on the Family Thesis

… Autistic Children and the Effect on the Family


Autism is a disease that has a major impact upon the family of the child with this disorder, which include emotional, functional, social, financial, as well as others, which will be related in this study. The precise cause of Autism is not known however, researchers are examining the genetic and environmental causes and some state a belief that autism is likely a disorder that is biologically based. However, recently there have been reports, which address the potential of vaccines to cause this disorder as the number of children diagnosed as being Autistic has increased over recent years. Behavioral modification is the most prominent form of treatment being utilized presently…. [read more]

Autism and Asperger's Disorders Term Paper

… Autism & Asperger's disorders

Autism and Asperger's Syndrome: An Overview

Despite the fact that autism is being diagnosed with increased frequency across America and the world, the condition remains in many ways a mysterious disorder, little-understood both by scientists and the general populace. The most common image of an autistic individual in the cultural imagination remains the famous portrayal of Dustin Hoffman in "Rain Man." However, autistic individuals run the gamut between mildly affected individuals, such as people who may suffer from Asperger's Syndrome, to autistic individuals without any special "Rain Man" like gifts who also have delayed intellectual development. Autism manifests itself on a spectrum, from high to low functioning autism and many variations in between.

Regardless of the level of severity, autistic symptoms…. [read more]

Behavior Manage/Elementary Behavior Management Essay

… The teacher should not be an authoritarian figure who is feared, but rather one who provides guidance and support while facilitating learning.

Most people can probably cite examples of veteran teachers who had no control over their classes, new teachers with excellent classroom management skills, and vice versa. Longevity as a classroom teacher is not a guarantee of success, nor is inexperience an automatic "death sentence" for a new teacher wanting to maintain control in the classroom. Force of personality is always going to be an important component of good classroom management. The biggest key to success, however, seems to be a real mindfulness with respect to student-teacher interactions and time and care spent in preparing lessons that are engaging and meaningful to students.

It…. [read more]

Autism Has Grown Considerably in Recent Years Thesis

… ¶ … autism has grown considerably in recent years. The medical and healthcare profession has become more aware of this problem and the number of cases of autism has increased, largely as a result of greater awareness of the problem and earlier diagnosis.

However, research on specific areas of the treatment of autism is not as prolific and this includes the focus on nursing care, treatment and management of the autistic child. While this is an area that is still in need of more in research it is also growing in terms of academic breadth and depth. The following literature review was drawn from a number of resources, including journals and other offline sources, as well as sources and data from verified online databases and…. [read more]

Mystery of Autism Term Paper

… The study entitled "Working with Autism and Other Social-Communication Disorders" found that the subjects used some of the same coping mechanisms to deal with the disorder. (Olney, 2000) Among these mechanisms was the use of rhythm, humming and repetitious movements. Subjects reported using "repetition as both a soothing activity and as a self-protective strategy to better cope with sensory hypersensitivity."(Olney, 2000) Additionally subjects reported the rhythm of walking and talking simultaneously aided them in structuring their thoughts. (Olney, 2000)

The study also found that there are five treatment strategies that tend to benefit autistic individuals. The first strategy is to work with the interest and the abilities of the individual. This entails placing the individual in an environment that compliments whatever skills that they may…. [read more]

Ecological Behavior Model Essay

… 4. Megan could be reward incrementally for the period she does not get upset during group. If she is compliant for ten seconds, she gets rewarded. Perhaps she can only sustain that for a while. After demonstrating several progressive attempts and successes at staying compliant in a row, she is rewarded more so. Then the teachers try to get her to stay compliant for increments of thirty seconds, and so on, until Megan is coming to group independently and exercising greater control over her own behaviors and body with less and less assistance.

5. I understand the Ecological Model as context, environment, and atmosphere. I have read studies regarding learning and intellectual disabilities and the successes researchers have seen when the changes to the physical…. [read more]

Autism in Children Term Paper

… Autism in Children

Autism is a neurodevelopment malady wherein impairment of the behavior and abnormalities constitute the only basis for medical detection. (Courchesne, 2004) Autism and the connected persistent maladies in maturity are marked by examples of impediment and departure in the growth of social, communicative, and cognitive proficiency that happen in the initial years of life. Even if often linked with psychological impediment, these plights are characteristic as regards their course and cure. These circumstances possesses a broad array of manifestation of diseases and their supervision offers specific demands on doctors, persons having these plight can avail themselves medical treatment during any juncture in its development. (William, 1999) Categorization of individuals who have been affected for organic examination is rendered problematic by the diversity…. [read more]

PECS and Autism Research Paper

… He learns how to comment about anything in the environment. Strips of "I see" and "I hear" are shown one at a time on the communication board systematically (Prontes, PEC).


The TEACCH is a statewide program developed in North Carolina ((Kaneishiro & Zieve, 2012). It also uses pictures and other visual cues to enable the autistic child in order to function independently and manipulate his environment. It aims at improving his adaptation and skills and dealing with problems with the spectrum disorders of autism. Unlike PEC, it does not endeavor to make the child achieve a certain level of development through treatment (Kaneishiro & Zieve).

Voice Output Communication Aids are a type of alternative and augmentative communication system (Research Autism, 2012). These aids are…. [read more]

Inclusion on Autistic Children Term Paper

… The report by the National Autistic Society is the most conclusive study to date, but even it left many issues unresolved. It only surveyed parents of Special Needs Children and failed to take into account the effects of the general population, teachers, and even the children themselves. It only addressed the parents' satisfaction with the school program. I intend to pick up where these other reports left off. I will include the opinions of all involved and attempt to devise a barometer for measuring the success of inclusion in a school.


Through data collected from a survey, the researcher will analyze and explore the social meanings related to the facilitation of primary inclusive education. The themes are emergent and in the intermediary will be…. [read more]

Complementary and Alternative Medical Methods Research Proposal

… The Opioid-Excess Theory alleges ASD can result from disruptions to this process. According to the theory, some individuals suffer from inadequate production of gluten- and casein-related digestive enzymes, and increased gut permeability. Without adequate levels of digestive enzymes, peptides derived from gluten and casein fails to become amino acids in large numbers. Increased gut permeability then allows the peptides to leak into the blood stream, where they circulate and eventually cross the brain -- blood barrier. Symptoms of ASD are theorized to result from peptides' attaching to opioid neuro-receptors." (p.2)

Stated to be another variable implicated in ASD is "urinary peptide levels (UPLs)." (Mulloy, et al., 2011, p.2) Specifically it is stated that if children with ASD "are not turning peptides into amino acids, then…. [read more]

Does Gluten Effect Children With Autism? Research Proposal

… ¶ … Gluten Affect Autism


Effect of Gluten and Casein-Free Diet on Autism

Statistics say that 3-6 out of 1,000 Americans or 1 in every 110 Americans will develop autism, which is more than 90% heritable. There are pharmacological therapies for ASD but up to 27% of parents are drawn to the promise and observed effects of the gluten-free, casein-free diet in reducing ASD symptoms in their children. Naturopathy doctors advocate its use as one of the complementary and alternative medicines or CAM. Autistic persons are gluten and casein-sensitive. These substances produce morphine-line effects, which translate into the symptoms of autism. The rising popularity of the diet motivated an increase in research. Recent studies say there is limited scientific evidence on its…. [read more]

Fragile X Syndrome Research Paper

… The positive behavioral changes were modest, but encouraging. Nonetheless, there is much more research for occupational therapists to do. For example, the long-term effects of the use of the stories have not been investigated and it is not certain at ages or developmental levels these stories have the largest and least benefits.

One of the important considerations when judging the effectiveness of a certain intervention is that of choosing empirically supported treatments/methods. This verification for a certain type or method of intervention most often refers to evidence from randomized controlled trials (Polatajko & Cantin, 2010). However, such group designs comparing treatments against each other or comparing treatments to control groups are not always practical or ethical to implement in real world clinical situations (Kazdin, 2011).…. [read more]

Treatment Approaches to Autism Term Paper

… Treatment Approaches to Autism

The purpose of this paper is to introduce and analyze the topic of autism. Specifically it will discuss the disease and treatment approaches to the disease. Autism is a disease that has no cure, even though research is working on understanding and thus curing the disease. It affects one in every 150 individuals, making it one of the most common diseases in the world. It usually begins to show symptoms in the first three years of life, and is the outcome of a "neurological disorder that affects the functioning of the brain, autism impacts the normal development of the brain in the areas of social interaction and communication skills" ("About autism," 2005). Children with autism often employ rhythmic and recurring or…. [read more]

Applied Behavior Analysis Use With Autism Term Paper

… Applied Behavior

"Parent Education for Autism: Issues in Providing Services at a Distance."

Alexis Schoen (2003) discusses applied behavior analysis as an approach to treating autism. The author begins by defining applied behavior analysis as "characterized by discrete presentation of stimuli with responses followed by immediate feedback, an intense schedule of reinforcement, data collection and systematic trials of instruction." It is highly structured method utilized by Symon in her article "Parent Education for Autism: Issues in Providing Services at a Distance."

Symon (2001) examines effective support services for families of children with autism. The author acknowledges that individual and system level risk factors not associated with autism could "result in poor outcomes" and thus relies on positive behavioral interventions "that address individual and family needs…. [read more]

Person With Autism Is Not a Savant Research Proposal

… ¶ … Person With Autism is Not a Savant

I chose to write this paper on the 1988 film Rain Man because while it does contain some important and accurate information about autism, it overall presents a picture of this disability that is finally inaccurate. While I recognize that this film (written by Barry Morrow and Ronald Bass and directed by Barry Levinson) is a piece of fiction, it bothers me that it should represent a condition as common and as disabling as autism in a way that may might hurt affected individuals and especially their families come to terms with the condition and seek the most appropriate treatment possible.

The film tells the story of Charlie Babbitt, an obnoxious yuppie (no doubt intended to…. [read more]

Applied Behavior Analysis Methodology Functions Assessment

… Applied Behavior Analysis methodology functions to understand certain behaviors and modify undesirable psychological characteristics not only at the individual level, but also at the collective level. (for society-at-large) When pertaining to the individual, ABA is most oft used in the treatment of autism related disorders, but also informs experts about how to modify behaviors related to AIDS, natural resource conservation, littering, seatbelt use, as well as very bad mental disorders. The ABA paradigm lies in the premises of behaviorism.

ABA is a systematic approach designed to improve keystone behaviors of sociality. The seminal paper on the topic is Baer, Wolf, and Risley's 1968 paper entitled "Some Current Dimensions of Applied Behavior Analysis." Upfront, the paper elucidates how, while ABA is an effective methodology, it produces…. [read more]

Humans Behavior: Discriminative Control Article Review

… (Shannon, 1961) Thus experiences especially the sensory and perceptual experiences are dependant on the stimulus and the activation of the sensory receptors. While the learned reactions as with Pavalov's dogs are explainable as stimulus, the reactions of human subjects is not dependent on mere stimulus but on complicated variables like predisposition, attitudes, associative cognizance and personality. It also depends on individual motivation and the truth is that as of now psychologists are still debating the issue of the nature of perception. (Brown, 1961)

One aspect of this system is contingency management where the therapist uses models to control behaviors, or create new ones by altering existing stimuli and reinforcing the sanctions or rewards. It is assumed that all persons have the desired behaviors existing in…. [read more]

Autistic Child Treatment Plan Essay

Reactive Strategies


  • Tell Austin you understand he is having difficulty focusing

  • Show Austin the timer, tell him how much time is left

  • Provide verbal praise when Austin is seated and working for 30 to 60 seconds

  • If Austin continues to stay seated and engage with the task, give a further example of praise and ask if he requires any assistance

Disruptive behaviors

Inappropriate Words

  • Should Austin engage in the use of inappropriate words with other students, moderating the situation is required. Guide the students back to their tasks, including Austin by pointing to the task color and the time

  • Promote the use of positive and appropriate words through reinforcement examples: tell the class…. [read more]

Incidence, Diagnoses, Characteristics and Safety Term Paper

… Diagnosis and Incidence of Mental Retardation with Autism. The incidence of mental retardation has been estimated at 3% for the general population (MacMillan et al. 1996); however, as noted above, because definitions of mental retardation with or without autism vary and the syndrome can be easily confused with similar conditions, depending on what criteria are used, slightly more or slightly fewer children will be considered mentally retarded with autism, or be diagnosed with another form of learning disability. For example, the AAMR criteria are based strictly on an IQ range for those students who are classified as having mental retardation. "By definition," MacMillan et al. note, "students with IQs in the range 55-70 who are not identified as having mental retardation cannot be mildly mentally…. [read more]

Educational Psychology Essay

… 210)

One of the problems that Wolf cites in both the theory and praxis of applied behavioral analysis (and its close cousin cognitive behavioral therapy) that has remained an issue in the intervening decades is that because this technique is focused on the observable, there is no way for either a clinician or a researcher to make an accurate assessment of the internal state of a subject.

Behavioral researchers have reported many examples of a lack of correspondence between client-reported data and observer-obtained data. Patterson (personal communication, 1974) for example, described discrepancies between parental reports of improvements in the child's behavior, while objective data obtained by observers did not support these claims. Conrad and Wincze (1976) reported that clients undergoing orgasmic reconditioning verbally reported favorable…. [read more]

Research Designs for Autism Studies Journal

… Figure 1. Pick up the shirt by the bottom

Figure 2. Place the shirt over your head

Figure 3. Put your head through the top hole of the shirt

Figure 4. Put your arm into a sleeve

Figure 5. Put your other arm into the other sleeve

Figure 6. Pull the bottom of your shirt down
Source: Adapted from
In some cases, young people learn these steps more readily through backwards chaining which involves beginning with the final stage of the effort and working backwards (e.g., learning to put a pullover shirt on by first taking it off ) (Porsteinsson & Sigurdardottir, 2009). These approaches makes the withdrawal and alternating treatment research designs appropriate for evaluating the efficacy of the above strategy for teaching…. [read more]

Relationship Between Positive Behavior Support Programs and High School Student Achievement Literature Review

… ¶ … Extra Page; for Pagination Purposes Only

A Literature Review Examining the Relationship between

Positive Behavioral Support and Student Achievement

Positive Behavior Facilitation (Kaffar, 2010) and A Blueprint for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: Implementation of Three Components (Edmonson, Wickham, Griggs, Sailor, & Freeman, 2002)

Positive Behavior Support: Evolution of an Applied Science (Carr, 2002)

Academic Achievement and the Implementation of Positive Behavior Support (Danielson, 2002).

Areas of Research Reviewed

Positive Behavior Support to Remedy Problem Behaviors

Positive Behavior Support's Creation of an Environment Conducive for Student/Academic Achievement.

Positive Behavior Support: How to Design and Implement on an Individual Basis

Positive Behavior Support: Utility of Implementation of PBS on a School-wide Basis

Positive Behavior Support to Remedy Problem Behaviors

A. "No, I Won't!" Understanding and…. [read more]

Real Problems Term Paper

… In order to provide the best combination of therapies to a person like Grace, it is also essential to understand the nature of anxiety, which she sometimes suffers from. She might in fact be a candidate for a DSM-IV diagnosis of 300.02 or Generalized Anxiety Disorder. This diagnosis of GAD is part of the larger arena of anxiety disorders and manifests as a feeling of dread or fear that usually has no clear justification. Anxiety may thus be distinguished from true fear because the latter arises in response to a clear and actual danger - a tiger charging towards one should produce fear. Anxiety, by contrast, arises in response to apparently innocuous situations or is the product of subjective, internal emotional conflicts the causes of…. [read more]

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