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Beyond Autism Treatment: The Application Article Review

… Behavior is viewed by traditional psychologists as a symptom of a disorder or condition and not as a functional response that enables one to escape, avoid or mitigate exposure to this unpleasant condition. Conversely, behavior analysts describes what the child does and does not do, and what specific skills need to be developed and then establishes the process of effective treatment. This is a motor task and not a change in verbal behavior. Practitioners in the fields of psychology and psychiatry are still primarily attempting to treat behavior by changing "thoughts" of that person. This is a change in verbal behavior.

A further difference is that behavior analysts look for precision in descriptions of human behavior and instead find terms that have no single agreed-upon…. [read more]

Treatment of Written Error Correction by Esol Research Proposal

… Treatment of Written Error Correction by ESOL Teachers

This study will focus on highlight the treatment of written error correction by ESOL teachers at a college in East London for all elementary (beginner), intermediate and advance level of students that are studying under the ESL program and curriculum being implemented at the college. The study will be divided into four different chapters, each focusing on a different aspect of the study. The first chapter, 'Introduction' will give a brief opening to the paper highlighting the statement of the problem and the purpose of the study. Chapter 2 will be the 'Literature Review' where we will use all the prior studies conducted in the field as a spectrum of reference to highlight the importance of the…. [read more]

Delayed Speech: Identification and Treatment Research Paper

… Even when they do speak, they may organize speech in an odd fashion, and learning musical patterns, rules, and rhythm can help normalize their use of words, as can asking them about the feelings of people in stories.

But despite the attention that autism has received as a cause of speech delays, it is important to remember that not all delayed speech is due to autism. Other causes of speech delays include learning disabilities which impede cognition and disorders such as apraxia, in which the brain has difficulty coordinating the child's muscles to make the needed speech sounds (Speech delay and disorder, 2012, University of Michigan). Physical causes must be evaluated when treating the individual child, as hearing loss can cause speech delays. The possibility…. [read more]

Teaching Communication Skills for Students Term Paper

… It has also been successfully tried with adolescents and adults having speech problems of various kinds. The use of PECS is found to be more effective if the behavioral analysis of the student is also taken into account.

Experts in the field of autistic spectrum disorders today consider PECS as one of the most effective method to teach basic skills of verbal communication to the speech dispossessed. The system has today become a widely used and well-known augmentative method for imparting functional speech skills and thereby filling the gap in the process of speech acquisition (Schwartz & Garfinkle, 1998). This method of exchanging pictures and making choices have been found to help speech acquisition, along with the attempts to communicate more frequently during the daily…. [read more]

Blum-Dimaya, A., Reeve, S Essay

… Conclusions: Based on her ongoing research and the results of the interviews with two actively practicing autism researchers, Berg concluded that it is too early to state categorically that autism is caused strictly by genetic factors, and that a complex system exists in which autism can develop by virtue of environmental factors that remain better described than understood in the scholarly literature.

Journal Article No. 4: Reschke-Hernandez, A.F. (2011). History of music therapy treatment interventions for children with autism. Journal of Music Therapy, 48(2),


The topic of the final study was to develop a critical review of the literature with respect to the effect of music therapy on children with autism.

Rationale: In support of her study, the author cites the fact that cases…. [read more]

Mindful vs. Traditional Martial Arts Thesis

… , 2001). As the existing research is largely limited to teenagers who are beyond the prime window of opportunity for prevention or early intervention efforts, this study will focus on children age 8-12, where early connections may inoculate at-risk students and set them on a more favorable trajectory. Terrence Webster-Doyle (personal communication, July 1, 2011) illuminates that by effectively challenging the self-imposed limits of each child, students will quickly realize that they can accomplish much more than they ever thought possible. Essentially, this parallels the old adage that we are each our own worst enemy -- the biggest fight for each of us, regardless of age, is within.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Mindfulness psychotherapies are considered the third wave of behavior therapy, preceded by cognitive…. [read more]

Pedagogic Model: Teaching Technology in Special Education Dissertation

… " (Dougiamas, 1998) Such trivial constructivism, though, is the bedrock from which Glaserfelds more radical constructivism springs. He continues to state that because knowledge is constructed by the learner, and because no two learners are the same, knowledge itself is not absolute. There is a degree to which knowledge is an illusion, and every individual constructs their own conception of reality which (while susceptible to the demands of "real" or normal reality) does not necessarily align with the normal paradigm. Constructivism does embrace this relativistic and existential approach to reality, but it also holds as a primary value the idea of constraint which enables the thinkers to participate in social interaction and mainstream reality. (Glasersfeld)

One interesting area of constructionist theory is…. [read more]

Activities to Reduce Inappropriate Behaviors Term Paper

… However, to date there is limited documented research supporting such a statement. In 2000, Holm and his colleagues conducted a seminal study that used everyday activities- (or occupation-) based interventions with two dually diagnosed students who attended school and lived in a CLA. The everyday activities-based intervention focused on enabling the students' participation in everyday AM and PM activities such as bed making, selecting clothes for school, helping prepare the food for dinner, setting the table, and selecting the games and crafts for after-dinner activities. Overall, the disruptive and challenging behaviors of the two students were significantly reduced when they participated in the everyday activities-based tasks, even though the focus of the intervention was NOT on their behavior as in the school environment, but rather…. [read more]

Characteristics of Asperger Syndrome and Coping Strategies Research Paper

… Asperger Syndrome

Asperger's Disorder -- also referred to as Asperger syndrome (AS) -- is essentially a "…chronic neurodevelopmental disorder" that limits the afflicted person's ability to have normal social interaction and communication, according to an article in the journal, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry (Woodbury-Smith, et al., 2009, p. 2). While AS is not associated with the problems resulting from intellectual disability, Woodbury-Smith emphasizes that AS is viewed as a "severe social disability" and in some cases there are "associated mental health and other medical problems" that can (and do) persist throughout life (p. 2).

The authors of this article point to some of the difficulties that result from AS, including the fact that diagnosis of AS is frequently delayed and that causes additional problems…. [read more]

Educational Psychology Essay

… 210)

One of the problems that Wolf cites in both the theory and praxis of applied behavioral analysis (and its close cousin cognitive behavioral therapy) that has remained an issue in the intervening decades is that because this technique is focused on the observable, there is no way for either a clinician or a researcher to make an accurate assessment of the internal state of a subject.

Behavioral researchers have reported many examples of a lack of correspondence between client-reported data and observer-obtained data. Patterson (personal communication, 1974) for example, described discrepancies between parental reports of improvements in the child's behavior, while objective data obtained by observers did not support these claims. Conrad and Wincze (1976) reported that clients undergoing orgasmic reconditioning verbally reported favorable…. [read more]

Music Composition Using Technology in Middle Schools Research Proposal

… Musical Theory and Education for Mainstream and Marginalized Students:
Literature Review Chapter:
The research conducted here pursues a direct focus on music as a media
channel through which to pursue a more holistic educational orientation for
both mainstream and marginalized students. As The Partnership for 21st
Century Skills remarks, "The framework presents a holistic view of 21st
century teaching and learning that combines a discrete focus on 21st
century student outcomes (a blending of specific skills, content knowledge,
expertise and literacies) with innovative support systems to help students
master the multi-dimensional abilities required of them in the 21st
century." (Partnership for 21st Century Skills, 1) The literature assessed
here attempts to offer a sweeping consideration of music as one such
innovative dimension for the promotion…. [read more]

Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete Dissertation

… ¶ … Students With Disabilities Who Did Not Complete High School

Richard Wieringo

This case study explores the experiences of students with disabilities who have dropped out of high school, so as to identify related factors that led to their decisions. Participants will include both males and females who were designated as students with disabilities at Ridgeville High School (pseudonym for a Virginia high school) and who dropped out between their third and fourth years of high school, during the 2009 to 2012 academic school years. All participants will be between the ages of 18 and 21. The proposed research design is a phenomenological study to be conducted through the use of semi-structured interviews, journaling, and observation of the sample population, with the aim of…. [read more]

Therapeutic Recreation Relies Essay

… An example might be the use of play therapy by a social worker or guidance counselor in a school to help a child, or group of children work through issues or concerns regarding a past event or present social concern in a nonthreatening manner. With regard to the autism spectrum disorders play therapy can be particularly helpful for a range of affected children as a carefully designed and guided set of goals can be established that allow the individual to meet them in a step process that is geared specifically to their particular developmental needs, a step process if you will where autism spectrum children are offered the ability to work on incremental steps that all go into connecting with people, such as learning eye…. [read more]

Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood Sexual Abuse Term Paper

… Compulsive Hoarding Due to Childhood Sexual Abuse

The objective of this work is to research and examine childhood sexual abuse and compulsive hoarding. This work will identify the social impediments to the treatment interventions of this population with traumagenic compulsions and will further analyze how cognitive behavioral therapy would overcome these impediments and provide treatment for this disorder.

OCD Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

SLE Stressful Life Events

CSA Childhood Sexual Abuse

PTSD Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

CRF Corticotropin Releasing Factor

HPA Hypothalamic Pituitary Adrenal

ACTH Adrenocorticotropic Hormone

NIMH National Institute of Mental Health


The work of Saxena, et al. (2004) entitled: "Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Obsessive-Compulsive Hoarding" states the fact that "Compulsive hoarding and saving symptoms, found in many patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)…. [read more]

Successful Steps to Transition Through Self-Advocacy and Self-Determination Thesis

… Self-Advocacy

Steps to Successful Transition Through Self-Advocacy Towards Self-Determination

The inclusion of disabled individuals in the general social, educational and occupational contexts which are welcoming to mainstream populations is a goal which appears to parallel the progressive orientation of our culture. Modern education shows evidence of the trend toward change, facilitating the increasing integration of individuals who are physically, emotionally or learning disabled into public and private schools. This trend has been a decidedly positive one, with legal, economic and educational strategies coming together to present an effective and productive change in the way that we contend with disabilities. Inclusive practice, which submits that educational institutions should be considered responsible for helping to assimilate disabled students into mainstream population classroom settings and for providing them…. [read more]

Attachment Theory & Self-Psychology Dissertation

… The "Growing" Process

Overview of the Study

Clinical Case Study Dissertation Structure

The Rationale for Clinical Case Study Dissertation

Diverse Contentions

Emotional Abuse/Maltreatment

Winnicott's Relational Model Theory

Bowlby's Attachment Theory

Kohut's Self-Psychology


Theoretical Basis for Case


Winnicott's Relational Model Theory

Bowlby's Attachment Theory

Kohut's Self-Psychology


Shania's Presenting Problems

Early Stage: Development of Therapeutic Relationship and the Holding


Middle Stage: Transference and Counter-transferenceread more-->[read more]

Fidelity in Sensory Integration Intervention Term Paper

… Fidelity in sensory integration intervention and research is an important concept because it measures the "faithfulness of intervention to the underlying therapeutic principles" (Parham et al., 2007). In other words, fidelity attempts to measure not whether the intervention is accomplishing therapeutic goals, but whether the intervention is using the therapeutic protocols outlined in a particular treatment regime. Fidelity procedures can help ensure treatment integrity, enable treatment differentiation, provide communication mechanisms about the core characteristics of interventions, and maintain consistency of treatment over time. Fidelity does not describe the efficacy or utility of any specific interventions, but the need for fidelity would be based upon research demonstrating that a particular intervention is useful.

Parham et al. wanted to examine the validity of sensory integration outcomes research…. [read more]

Relationship Between Positive Behavior Support Programs and High School Student Achievement Literature Review

… ¶ … Extra Page; for Pagination Purposes Only

A Literature Review Examining the Relationship between

Positive Behavioral Support and Student Achievement

Positive Behavior Facilitation (Kaffar, 2010) and A Blueprint for Schoolwide Positive Behavior Support: Implementation of Three Components (Edmonson, Wickham, Griggs, Sailor, & Freeman, 2002)

Positive Behavior Support: Evolution of an Applied Science (Carr, 2002)

Academic Achievement and the Implementation of Positive Behavior Support (Danielson, 2002).

Areas of Research Reviewed

Positive Behavior Support to Remedy Problem Behaviors

Positive Behavior Support's Creation of an Environment Conducive for Student/Academic Achievement.

Positive Behavior Support: How to Design and Implement on an Individual Basis

Positive Behavior Support: Utility of Implementation of PBS on a School-wide Basis

Positive Behavior Support to Remedy Problem Behaviors

A. "No, I Won't!" Understanding and…. [read more]

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat Research Proposal

… ¶ … Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells to Treat the Severe Neurological Disorder Angelman Syndrome

With Additional Theoretical Application to Treating Other Neurological Disorders

Concepts, Issues, and Definitions

Statement of General Topic Area: Neurological Disorders and Stem Cell Treatment

Angelman Syndrome

Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Research

Possibilities for therapeutic cross-over benefit to other Neurological Disorders

Animal Model for Testing

Potential Therapeutic and Other Areas of Concern

Concepts, Issues, and Definitions

Statement of Purpose

The possibility of stem cell treatment as a therapeutic and/or as a cure for many disorders has been widely studied. Barriers to success have been political, social, ethical, and scientific (Fischback & Fischback, 2004). However, the field has continued to develop, with many new breakthroughs occurring within the last year, 2009. Significant progress…. [read more]

Critiquing the DSM Term Paper

… ¶ … American Psychiatric Association released the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fourth Edition (DMS-IV). The manual has been referred by the mental health professionals and physicians to verify and ascertain the causes of the mental disorders. The DMs-IV has explained more than two hundred mental health conditions, and every condition has been elaborated through the assessment techniques required for the appropriate diagnosis. A modified and revised version of the DSM-IV was published in 2000, however no major changes has been introduced, and there is no alteration to the classification. The symptoms and remedial measures for the prevention of the major depression have been highlighted in the DSM-IV. It has been researched that the diagnostic criteria for the mental disorders fall into…. [read more]

Collaborative Teaching Term Paper

… During this process, planning efforts should also be allocated towards focusing on non-academic behaviors, including social skills and integration into regular society.

Co-teaching programs should also be evaluated on a regular basis by monitoring the satisfaction levels of all stakeholders, including students, parents, the principal, and the like. This evaluation process can also then form the basis of further collaboration between the school and the community to help all students reach their full potential.

Fattig and Taylor (2008, p. 7) suggest that there are several advantages to collaboration. Effective collaborating both inside and beyond the classroom ensures that students have a solid basis for their educational efforts. It is vital that the community and schools work together to help children reach as much of their…. [read more]

indepth analysis of Mental Health Essay

… Hence, suicide will, as expected, follow from a failure to perform well and from a blow to one's self-esteem. Furthermore, different cultures condemn suicide to different degrees. For instance, one argument accounting for the few suicides recorded in the African-American community is that the community views suicide as unacceptable behavior. On the other hand, murder rates in the community are much greater, as victims as well as perpetrators. In fact, a larger number of homicides that involve African-American individuals are precipitated by the victim, consciously or unconsciously. The Afro-American culture seems to regard victim-precipitated homicides as a better way to die than taking one's own life (David Lester, 2008).

2. Describe how physical, psychological, and social factors influence health.

…. [read more]

Mental Health Legislation Critical Appraisal Essay

… The Carers and Disabled Children Act 2000.

The Carers (Equal Opportunities) Act 2004.

The Carers Recognition & Services Act (1995) compacts in a straight line with the requirements of carers, it consists of the major legal duties. Through the 2000 Act carers rights were extended. They were given right to impede support services and to get payment for these services. The 2004 goes one step ahead. It impends a legal obligation on social services to notify carers about their rights. It also give carers the right to acquire education or training if they wish to work and take part in the assessments

3. Differing professional roles and systems for communication and collaboration

The nature of public health practice requires a delicate balance between protecting the…. [read more]

Discipline With Dignity Cardsmax Essay

… This classification includes students that do not follow teacher's directions; they are disruptive, and antisocial. These traits are significant in students that have been documented to have poor long-term negative behavior patterns. The researchers discussed the utilization of Functional Behavioral Assessments (FBA), which are used to aid in the creation of Behavioral Intervention Plans (BIP) these tools are used to impede negative behavior. Research continues to provide documentation of the importance and durability of function-based intervention. Studies have been conducted with students and adults of all ages, with individuals with various disabilities and with no disabilities, in various settings, and with a variety of problematic behaviors.

(Killu, 2008, p. 140) FBA is required prior to the development of a BIP for students with disabilities who…. [read more]

Special Education - Inclusion the Transition Term Paper

… Special Education - Inclusion

The transition from a middle school setting to a high school setting can be daunting for the best of students, but this transition may be particularly problematic for many special needs students that are transitioning from a program of instruction specifically designed for them to a more inclusive regular classroom setting. Unfortunately, there is a growing recognition among educators and policymakers alike that students with special needs are not receiving the level of educational services they need to succeed academically and professionally. Complicating the administration of special needs programs at the outset is a constellation of federal mandates that guide how individualized education programs must be provided for public school students with disabilities today. Advocates of full inclusion programs maintain that…. [read more]

Starting From 19th Century Psychology Essay

… Due to review of Chomsky, paired with neglect of Skinner to some extent, verbal Behavior possessed uncharacteristically slow reception to rebut or address any condemnations from Chomsky. Peers of Skinner might have acted slowly in adopting and considering the convention in Verbal Behavior because they did not have experimental evidences, contrary to empirical density that marked the prior work of Skinner. Though functional analysis of verbal behavior from Skinner encounters resurgence of interest within setting that are applied, Dixon, M.R. & Hayes, L.J. (1999).

Influence in education

Education and psychology has been influenced by Skinner. Skinner said that teachers are supposed to learn the way it is suppose to be taught and ways of teaching it effectively. He emphasized that positive reinforcement is highly efficient…. [read more]

Sustainable Agriculture and Labor Conditions Research Paper

… Sustainable Agriculture

There are many aspects of sustainable farming. Not only does this include healthy foods grown, healthy farming practices and systems, but, furthermore, healthy working conditions on the farm. There are a number of solutions proposed on the international scale that have been discussed or even implemented, but in order to achieve true sustainability in agriculture, not only do healthier foods have to reach more people, but so to do farm workers need to be treated fairly.

First, the state of our food industry is in tatters. The quality of our food has reached dangerous levels. The Organic Center, a research institute designed to evaluate the science of organic food and farming, recently published its concerns for the state of the food industry and…. [read more]

Agriculture Practices Have Significant Impact Research Paper

… Government should also encourage mariculture and aquaculture. There is also a need of improving current legislation on that matter. Coffee plantations require excessive use of water which is creating negative impacts on the environment. It's the responsibility of government to take initiatives and support farmers to grow the coffee under canopy shad. Government should also pass regulation regarding treatment of waste (both liquid and solid).

Pineapple Plantation

The production and export of Pineapple has multiplied all over the world. The major environmental issues in pineapple plantation are:

On average a worker in the pineapple plantation works for 10-12 hours earning a meager $1 - $2 per hour

Toxic chemicals exposition to the workers because of the use of pesticides and fertilizers such as Diuron in…. [read more]

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