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Bilingualism Including Learning English as a Second Language in Young Children Essay

… Bilingualism including learning English as a second language in young children

Bilingualism in young children

The issue of bilingualism and particularly the problematics and advantages of learning more than one language is one which has been hotly debated in academic circles. What becomes clear from the literature is that there are many positive reasons for teaching children more than one language at an early age. As one linguist noted, these advantages include the following

Young children can pick up a new language faster and more easily than a teenager or an adult, although some experts suggest this difference can be attributed to the level of exposure rather than the age of the child.

A second language is a skill that allows a child to explore…. [read more]


English Only Policy Term Paper

… As Woodrow Wilson once said, "as long as you consider yourself a part of a group, you are still not assimilated into American society because America like other nations is made up of individuals and not made up of groups" (Debate pp).

Critics point out however, that while learning English should be a priority goal, the fact is that there is such a demand for English classes in many areas, that students are being turned away (Debate pp). In 1994, more than 5,000 immigrants were turned away from English classes in Washington, D.C. And in New York City, schools have resorted to using a lottery to determine enrollment in English classes, while in Los Angeles, more than 40,000 applicants were on waiting lists for English…. [read more]


Socio-Cultural Influences in English Language Learning Research Paper

… This can be used to help structure language and cultural learning while the student is at home, even if his or her parents do not speak English at all. Watching television in English or listening to English song lyrics can help expose the language to the learner, while also teaching valuable lessons about mainstream American culture as well. This intrinsic style of learning happens most often without the student even realizing that there is learning going on. It is thus subliminal and is there to support future language and cultural development. Such media allows the individual learner to immerse him or herself in the culture and language in their own home environments.

Moreover, there are other individuals who can also serve as a support system…. [read more]


English in Teaching and Learning Thesis

… Zeng (2007, p. 46) explains the debate behind the medium of instructions at schools in historical terms. When Hong Kong was relinquished by the British during the 1990s, the government mandated schools to use Chinese as medium of instruction for all subjects. The rationale given for this was the international recognition that mother-tongue instruction is preferable to second-language instruction.

Regardless of these views, English has remained prominent in Hong Kong's business, mass media, and personal environments. These environments are also conducive to many young people being able to formulate complex ideas in English. Hence, many parents and students have opposed the government's mandate, along with teachers and other officials (Zeng, 2007, p. 46). Zeng notes that children with English-medium schooling have tended to find more…. [read more]


Bilingualism's Effects on Children Essay

… To a certain extent, very young children have no native language and any or all languages have the potential to be their native languages. The children at the preschool could also bounce back and forth easily between "This is a book" and "Kore wa hon o desu." We were teaching them how to speak (read and write) English as well as how to speak (read and write) Japanese. We also taught them how to think in Japanese and English. We also taught them Japanese and American customs and cultural practices. This is a holistic approach to bilingualism. Early Childhood News (2012) agrees that one of the most important ways parents can do to truly teach their children to be bilingual is to expose the children…. [read more]


English Creative Writing in Singapore Dissertation

… Creative Writing in English: Singapore



Singapore



Singapore is a country in which the learning of the English language has become vitally important. For many students, the learning of the English Language is dependent upon the development of creative writing skills. Creative writing is used as a learning tool because it permits students to write in a manner that allows them to feel comfortable as they become more proficient in using the English language. Creative writing is utilized as a mechanism that allows students to expand their vocabulary and improve comprehension skills. In recent years creative writing in the English language for junior college students and into adult working life in Singapore has been encouraged. The goal of the study…. [read more]


English as a Global Language Essay

… English as the Global Language

As the world moves towards becoming a global community, communities within the global community will have to address the problem of language communication. This is actually a sensitive issue, because it goes to the heart cultural identity and heredity. Most everyone is proud of their ethnic origins, the country of their birth, and that is evidenced, among other ways, by what has been described as the beautiful rhythm, sounds, and command of language. French has been described as one of the most beautiful languages in the world, but it is English that is fast becoming the communication tool for bridging the gap in global communications. There are arguments against English, but it nonetheless remains the logical choice as the global…. [read more]


Education the English Language Learner Essay

… Teachers should not be afraid to let students use their primary language in the classroom, nor should they resist using that language themselves to help advance instructional goals. Students should never be scolded for using a language other than English, but rather encouraged and rewarded for their attempts to use their new language (General Principles for Teaching ELL Students, n.d.).

Parents of English Language Learner (ELL) or English as a Second Language (ESL) students tend have significant challenges with communication that impact their everyday lives. Accommodating these parents is a challenge for school administrators, and even more so when disabilities are an issue. Ensuring effective communication between the school and the parents is essential in order to meet the child's educational needs and goals. The…. [read more]


Bilingualism the Subject of Bilgualism Essay

… These relationships refer to ideas such as that cars and buses both fall into the category of "vehicles," for example.

This understanding is not dependent on vocabulary size, but could be influenced by the structural features of the speaker's language. Bilingual adults are better than monolingual adults at learning new words. Bilinguals use a variety of word-learning strategies with similar efficiency and are less susceptible to interference from conflicting orthographic information during word-learning. Linguistic input co-activates both languages in bilinguals; when bilinguals hear or read words in one language, partially overlapping linguistic structures in the other language also are activated.

In terms of cognitive differences, bilingual people can inhibit irrelevant verbal and nonverbal information with greater ease than those who are monolingual. The inhibitory control…. [read more]


Second Language Learning Essay

… On the same English tests, Swedish-speaking Finns consistently did better than Finnish speakers. Because the students came from similar backgrounds, one likely explanation was that, when completing the English tasks, the Swedish speakers get more help from their L1 than Finnish speakers, as Swedish, but not Finnish, is related to English.

Supporting this view is Robert & Williams, (2009) finding that Swedish children already knew a lot of English words when they started instruction in English because of the cognates in Swedish and English. However, it is also possible that some readers are not aware of cognates and cannot exploit this source of information to facilitate their reading comprehension (Cook, 2001). In a recent study, we focused on the English reading comprehension of upper elementary…. [read more]


Individual Learning Plans in Community Education Term Paper

… Individual Learning Plans in Community Education

The Question of Individual Learning Plans for ESOL Learners

The purpose of this work is to research how individuals learning plans affect the role of the ESOL practitioner in community education? Further this work will document the fact that although individual learning plans are necessary they do not suit all types of learner in community education.

Just as each human individual is different in their abilities, capacity for learning and the method in which they learn most optimally, so it is the same in relation to the English as Second Language or "ESOL" learner. Thus, this specific consideration must be calculated in to the application of the instructional practice of the ESOL practitioner that intends successful outcomes for the…. [read more]


Effect of Bilingualism in the U.S Term Paper

… ¶ … BILINGUALISM in the U.S.

Bilingualism

Effect of Bilingualism in America

Sociolinguistics

During 2008 in America, the movement for bilingualism, no matter its intent in theory, in practice, some individuals, as Kimball contends in "Institutionalizing Our Demise: America vs. Multiculturalism," published in 2004 in New Criterion, translates to not mastering English. Whether he/she fluently masters English or not, an individual is considered bilingual in the U.S., when he/she speaks and understands English and one other language. During the nineteenth century, Linton reports, bilingualism, as well as, bilingual education, although in a lesser sense, was relatively known. Despite knowledge relating to bilingualism, albeit, Linton contends in the article, "A critical mass model of bilingualism among U.S.-born Hispanics," published in Social Forces during 2004, a belief…. [read more]


Bilingualism: First and Second Language Essay

… These results can be regarded as single dimensional presentation of the findings.

View of bilingualism:

The view of bilingualism is changed after the review of literature. I always thought it is the environment of a person that leads to bilingualism. Either there is a compressing need to learn a second language or one has extensively lived with the community from different language speakers. It is also noted that learning a second language has other factors also influencing the desire for learning as well as the process of learning a second language. The bilingual speakers are also required to follow learning process that is presented by Chomsky or Cummins.

Experience as a bilingual person:

The personal experience as a bilingual person is quite different as I…. [read more]


English Language Acquisition Among Latino Immigrants Literature Review

… ¶ … Connected Immigrant Communities

Chaney (2010) reports that there has been a large influx of Hispanic immigrants to Nashville, Tennessee over the last two decades. This large number of immigrants to the area has led to the establishment of an ethnic enclave in the community. The proliferation of Hispanic organizations, churches, and other community elements is the evidence for enclave development. This development of the enclave has enabled Hispanic immigrants to operate and live entirely within the Hispanic dominated environment, which include the primary use of Spanish as the main language of communication. Chaney notes that the enclave environment reduces the involvement of Hispanics into the larger English-speaking American culture environment, which in turn slows down the acquisition of the English language among Hispanic…. [read more]


Second Language Learning Motivations of Non-Heritage Chinese Research Proposal

… ¶ … Second Language Learning Motivations of Non-Heritage Chinese Learners in University Credit Courses

The 21st century has been dubbed the "Century of Asia" with China leading the way. Moreover, the number of people who speak some form of Chinese all over the world is enormous, and many experts suggest that individuals who are bilingual and fluent in Chinese as a second language will be in big demand in the future. This demand is being fueled to some degree by the need for Chinese speakers in North America as well. For instance, over the course of the next 2 decades, the respective representation of minorities in Canada is projected to continue to increase so that, by the year 2016, it is estimated that visible minorities…. [read more]


ELL Language Acquisition in English Language Learners Term Paper

… ELL

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

Significance

Language Acquisition in English Language Learners

The United States is a country of immigrants, and has been since its inception. However, until relatively recently, immigration did not pose a significant problem for the United States educational system or for many Americans because of the rigid cultural and social expectations for immigrants. New immigrants were expected to assimilate aspects of American culture, especially speaking English, as quickly as possible. Furthermore, schools were not responsible for teaching a new language to immigrant children; on the contrary, these students were expected to learn, in English, even if they did not know any English at all. The task of English acquisition was often left to members of individual immigrant communities. Non-English…. [read more]


Fingerspelling as Children Learn New Peer Reviewed Journal

… Average improvement rates did vary among both conditions however. Children were more likely to improve and build upon skills already learned through the control method. They were able to recognize more written words by using both fingerspelling and the control method. However, when it came to actual learning, fingerspelling was an easier method to learn for the first time (Haptonstall-Nykaza & Schick, 2007). Children knew how to communicate in American Sign Language previously, therefore the control method basically expanded on principles that were already learned and mastered. On the other hand, children did not have a profound understanding of fingerspelling, but they were able to pick it up quickly enough to produce significant results and demonstrate improvement.

Research in linguistics suggests that fingerspelling is an…. [read more]


Comparative Analysis of British and American English Multiple Chapters

… British and American English

Comparative Analysis of British and American English

Benefits of a comparative, polyimide approach

Conscious identification of differences

Traditional Standard English (SE)

Other standardized Wes

Unity within English

Zero-marking of 3rd person singular verbs

Modal Past in English

Modal Auxiliaries

Modal Past in Hypothetical Conditionals

Cross-Linguistic Findings

Comparative Analysis of British and American English

In a world where globalization is the trend -- a global economy, a global internet, global warming, global businesses -- it should not be surprising to learn that there is now also an undisputed global language, namely English. Because English today is used in a plethora of contexts around the world, as the native language of millions, the official language of numerous nations, and a lingua franca in…. [read more]


Bilingual Policies Term Paper

… They feel that a bilingual stance would encourage those in minority cultures to resist assimilation (Rubenstein, 2001).

In education, some are adamantly opposed to bilingual education, arguing that earlier immigrants went to school and simply "sank or swam," and that the great majority learned good English and became successful. All instruction was in English and "it worked." (Rothstein, 1998) Other critics believe that some laws passed by Congress, including the Civil Rights Act of 1964, actually interfered with assimilation by implementing the law badly and requiring multilingual education (Rubenstein, 2001). Some of these critics go even further and state that teaching about the subcultures in public schools only encourages people to stay separate from the dominant culture (Rubenstein, 2001). In their view, the dominant culture…. [read more]


learning a foreign language must students Term Paper

… IV. There are even physical health benefits to learning more than one foreign language in school.
A. Vince mentions the 'health benefits from speaking more than one language, including faster stroke recovery and delayed onset of dementia,' (1).
B. Bialystok found that multilingualism can protect the brain from developing Alzheimer's.
C. Because of the physical health benefits, students should be required to learn more than one language in school.

V. Conclusion: To solve the problem of an underdeveloped future labor force, the United States Department of Education should mandate foreign language instruction from Kindergarten onwards.
A. Any costs associated with incorporated mandatory language classes in school will be offset by the benefits to the economy overall, as well as to benefits such as reduced healthcare…. [read more]


Bilingual Programs in Elementary Classrooms Term Paper

… Bilingual Programs in Elementary School

Type of Bilingual Program in the Classroom

The type of program used in the classroom is an approach known as a bilingual withdrawal program, or English as a Second Language (ESL). Through this program, students are taught in both English, while a withdrawal program is used to help them gradually become used to not using their mother tongue. In this way it is easier for them to keep up with the work being taught in the mainstream classroom, as they do not have to strain to understand the medium of instruction itself.

Through the withdrawal program, it is not a requirement for instructors to be proficient in the home language of students. The curriculum is set up in such a…. [read more]


First Language (L1) Essay

… When there is a similarity between two languages, a leaner may not observe learning difficulties. The greater degree of difference in two languages, the more difficulties will be presented in learning the language. Typically, Contrastive Analysis influenced the American linguistics in 1960s.

Gramley et al. (2008) argues the major influence of Contrastive Analysis is its usage in the prediction of error in the L1 classroom. Typically, Contractive Analysis points out that theory is able to identify learning difficulties of learners, which generally assists in predicting errors on n the usage of L1. To predict errors, Contractive Analysis assumes that difficulty and errors can be equated. Before the formulation of Contrastive Analysis, errors have the central concern in audio-lingual approach and language teaching. Typically, errors are…. [read more]


Teach Students Who First Language Term Paper

… One recommended approach would enable long periods of absolute English immersion that includes opportunities to communicate and interact with native English speakers (Haas, 2009). Moreover, both the immersion component and the bilingual component of these hybrid programs should be accountable for achieving standard benchmarks (Haas, 2009).

The tendency is to think of bilingual education as focusing on Hispanic students, but this is decidedly a limited perspective (Haas, 2009). Students who need to learn English in order to fully participate in the schools they attend cross all grade levels (Haas, 2009). Moreover, the number of foreign languages represented in any given school can be quite large (Haas, 2009). During the time of the public brouhaha of the Umz Initiative, one teacher reported that, "I have had…. [read more]


Childhood Second Language Learning Term Paper

… One criticism of Polinsky's 1995 research is that for some of his groups of speakers, only a few members participated. Then there were other groups that consisted of 20 members, such as the Russian speakers, and in the Reduced Lithuanian Group, there were only 4 speakers. A future research study could even out the numbers of speakers, unless this would be nearly to accomplish, as in the case of some "dead" languages.

Genesee Research

Genesee (2001) built on previous research which held that although bilingual children are exposed to different sets of linguistic input, they go through an initial stage where they have one linguistic system. According to Genesee (2001), current evidence indicates that bilingual children can use their developing languages differently and more appropriately…. [read more]


Mass Media Affecting Degree of Acculturation for Taiwanese Adult ESL Learners Ages 18-25 Literature Review

… Acculturation of ESL Learners in Taiwan

How impactful is the mass media in terms of the acculturation for Taiwanese adult English as a second language (ESL) learners (ages 18-25)? This issue has important implications for the ESL students both in terms of learning the English language, and in understanding the culture from which the English language is predominant. This paper references language learning -- which is necessarily linked to cultural understanding -- in several contexts, all of which relate to learners of the English language in Taiwan.

Communication Patterns…in the Process of Acculturation: Thirty-four years ago Young Kim presented a paper on acculturation to the Annual Meeting of the Speech Communication Association. Kim offered three factors that lead to the communication skills of a person…. [read more]


Problems With Bilingual Education Term Paper

… ¶ … Bilingual Research Journal (BRJ)

According to its website, this is "a journal that is published three times each year and covers a wide range of topics relating to bilingual education, bilingualism in society, and language policy in education. The journal contains three sections: research and essays, the traditional formats of scholarly discourse; research in practice, which documents the experience of teachers and other practitioners; and book reviews"

Website guidelines for submission available at http://brj.asu.edu/submit.html

Problems with bilingual education -- a review of current literature and a call to action

Ideally, research, not rhetoric should determine the most effective way to teach children within the American educational system. Yet the current debate over the best way to conduct bilingual classes for children has been…. [read more]


Language, One People? Arguments Term Paper

… But properly trained in their new language, they bring will bring American values and skills back to their homelands, thus encouraging the dominance of the American Way.

So, there are two sides to the great debate over immigration and the linguistic polarization of American society. On the one hand, people like Pat Buchannan claim that to permit the usage of languages other than English is to drive yet another nail into the coffin of American, and indeed, of all Western Civilization. However, Ben Wattenberg and others firmly believe that immigrants are essential to the survival of our nation. By contributing their skills, and adding to the ethnic and cultural diversity of this great land, they ensure that the United States will continue to be a…. [read more]


ICT, SA, and Oral Practice Essay

… However, all these studies reached one unified conclusion: using ICT helps the students to gain understanding of the text given, helps in visualizing it and interpreting difficult texts. Furthermore, ICT, makes the learner to have creative imagination and have a real life vision of the text. All these tools if used properly helps in gaining a greater understanding of the language one is intending to learn. In order to have a thorough command of the language, one needs to have suitable understanding of the words and also how and when they are used. Furthermore, one also needs to have a command over ethics related to that particular language. Since using ICT helps in creating a life like experience and makes them have a real exposure;…. [read more]


Instructional Modifications: ESL 10th Grade Student Term Paper

… When the student writes information down and uses it for reference, he exhibits much less hesitation, fewer errors, and diminished levels of expressed frustration. His strongest skill-set is definitely mathematics.

Which accommodations and modifications were successful?

I used graphic organizers and visual representations to help the student with the concepts presented in the content. The graphic organizers were particularly well-received by the student because information could be provided in both his native language and in English, in a parallel fashion, which helped him engage with the task. The theoretical foundation for this approach is that it is equally important to use the student's native language (L1) for instruction as it is to use English (L2). In this approach, L1 can be used to support instruction…. [read more]


Second Language Acquisition Advantages Essay

… There was no evidence that the extreme nationalism and anti-German feeling in France at the time of the First World War had any effect on his bilingualism.

Many other researchers after Ronjat have come to the same conclusion -- that early bilingualism has positive consequences for linguistic and cognitive development. A number of investigators (Volterra & Taeschner, 1978) have suggested that early bilingualism can accelerate the separation of sound and meaning and can focus the child's attention on certain aspects of language. Snow & Ferguson (2007) has argued that being able to express the same thought in different languages will allow the child to "observe his language as one particular system in the middle of several, to examine its phenomena under more universal groups, and…. [read more]

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