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Biological and Chemical Weapons Counterterrorism Measures Term Paper

… ¶ … federal agencies dedicate resources to prevent or respond to biological or chemical terrorism. Countermeasures to biological or chemical terrorism continually evolve, in response to changes in the actual weaponry as well as to the tactics and types of threats. The agencies most closely involved in biological and chemical weapon counterterrorism include the Department of Homeland Security, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). These organizations serve different roles in counteracting biological and chemical threats, and ideally organizations like these and their state-level counterparts work together to predict and respond to threats or actual attacks. The private sector may also be closely involved, particularly to develop effective detection, decontamination, and protective equipment.

The most comprehensive chemical…. [read more]

Counterterrorism Training Program Terrorism Term Paper

… Social conditions that are likely to aid terrorists

Among the social conditions likely to aid terrorists are conditions such as those seen in Israel, where two distinct population groups claim or are attempting to 'homestead' in the same disputed land area (Almog, 2004).

Fanaticism that extends throughout much of a society is also a prime condition for terrorism to flourish. Again, in Israel/Palestine, this condition is met and has resulted in the deployment of hundreds of suicide bombers. Because individuals must sacrifice themselves to carry out this form of terrorism, an overwhelming dedication to a cause is essential. Once that is present, however, suicide bombing is highly effective. Almog notes:

Suicide bombers are the most sophisticated smart bombs ever devised. They are well integrated into…. [read more]

Weapons of Mass Destruction Nuclear Term Paper

… Seeing the ease and availability, there is present another factor why terrorist groups can get access to WMD.

Weapons of mass destruction aren't the only tools that the terrorists made use of to instill terror amongst people. The Anthrax plot that was initiated after 9/11 was developed to cause destruction in large amounts. Ayman Zawahiri, who is the deputy chief of al Qaeda, ran the project personally as other members of the organizations were determined to attain WMD. (Mowatt-Larssen, 2010, 8)

Also, the radiological weapon or dirty bob is ready available to the al Qaeda network. Even though this weapon cannot cause the same effects as those caused by nuclear weapons, the mere use of a radiological weapon can cause fear amongst the people. (O'Neil,…. [read more]

Countering Biological Chemical Agents Term Paper

… Bioterrorism

The movement into the highly technical 21st century and especially the terrorist act of September 11, 2001 at the World Trade Center in New York City and the anthrax scare, have stimulated major concern for civilian vulnerability to the deliberate use of biological and chemical agents. As a result, significant national organizations, such as the Center for Disease Control (CDC), as well as local urban areas and smaller communities, have either begun to develop or have implemented strategic plans concerning what to do in the event of a bioterrorism attack. Success of such programs relies on integrating essential training, education and preparation readiness, as well as strong communication systems among the many emergency organizations involved. It also necessitates the involvement of everyone in a…. [read more]

Al Qaeda's Next Major Domestic Research Paper

… "

Given the high-profile nature of the New Year's Eve celebration in New York's Times Square, it is reasonable to suggest that Homeland Security authorities and local, regional and state agencies are actively involved in developing contingency plans for a wide range of potential scenarios. In this regard, Davis and his associates add that, "For the scenarios to be useful in designing an individual strategy, they need to be as representative as possible of the broad spectrum of potential types of terrorist attacks."

According to Interpol's guidance, complex problems require complex solutions and this is certainly the case with the response needed to CBRNe threats. In this regard, Interpol advises that, "Due to the complex nature of CBRNe prevention and response, a multi-disciplinary approach is…. [read more]

Port of Baltimore Brief Over the Course Research Paper

… Port of Baltimore Brief

Over the course of the last decade, port security has changed dramatically in response to evolving threats, and especially the threat of transnational terrorism. In response to the terrorist attacks of September 11th, 2001, the United States Congress passed the Maritime Transportation Security Act of 2002 (MTSA), and in 2006, after successful terrorist attacks in London, Congress passed the Security and Accountability for Every Port Act (SAFE Port Act). Together, these two laws instituted a hierarchy of federal agencies (under the newly-created Department of Homeland Security) responsible for maintaining port security and responding to possible threats (Department of Homeland Security 2012). Therefore, assessing the security of the port of Baltimore will require considering the various threats faced by the port as…. [read more]

Counter Terrorism Essay

… (Mickoulus, 2011, pg. 164)

He immediately contacted the police. They began working with federal officials to reach out these individuals as members of Al Queada. Their strategy was to begin selling the group weapons and talk with them about their plans. After nearly two years of collecting evidence, law enforcement arrested everyone involved with the plot (prior to attacking). (Mickoulus, 2011, pg. 164)

These elements are illustrating the need to maintain constant vigilance overseas (which will help to identify the threats at home and abroad). This is because, this kind of concentration will require everyone monitoring for suspicious activity. When there is a large presence overseas, the entire country is aware of the possible threats. This is when ordinary citizens can provide useful tips (which…. [read more]

Countering the New Terrorism Term Paper

… ¶ … counter the new terrorism threat (post 9/11) and whether these strategies have been successful. It will also look at many possible long-term strategies to counter the new terrorism. Terrorism is a growing threat to world safety and security. Countering this new terrorism menace is something all nations must work on together and in harmony, otherwise the threat of terrorism will only grow more menacing and unpredictable. Many measures have already been enacted, and more need to be developed to keep the country and the world safer and more secure.

Even before the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001 on New York and Washington, experts were calling world terrorist threats the "new terrorism."

Authors and experts have found attacks such as the chemical attack…. [read more]

Securing Government Facilities from Terror Attacks Research Paper

… , 2014). It details the functions of an asset, which an attacker could exploit. The impact of the loss is also determined, which provides the degree to which an attack would impair the building. In the Pentagon building, vulnerability assessment would assist in designing the required corrective measures against any possible terrorist attacks. Vulnerabilities include a deficiency in protection systems, security, process systems, building constructions, and loss of prevention programs.
The vulnerability assessment entails planning the resources required during the process, assessing the structure site, preparing of the building assortment and determining the Pentagon house's vulnerability rating. For instance, using the elements of CARVER to determine the vulnerability of the Pentagon building has the following findings (Paton, 2013).'On criticality, an attacked within the building can…. [read more]

Oklahoma City Bombing Term Paper

… Oklahoma City Bombing

Events before the bombing

What went wrong

Timothy McVeigh, the person who planned and executed the Oklahoma bombing in 1995 was able to create his own bombs by buying the needed chemicals (such as the ammonium nitrate) to a local farm cooperative and nitromethane to a texas Race track. He acted and disguised like a normal civilian needing the said chemicals for personal and inconspicuous use. after the his successful and deadly Oklahoma bombing, the United States of America has proposed a number of plans to prevent anymore terrorism attack (just like what Mcveigh did). However, the proposed programs of the U.S. did not provide any focus to what is very obvious - and that is the people's easy access to chemical-producing…. [read more]

Piracy Maritime Terrorism Term Paper

… Maritime Piracy and Terrorism in the Atlantic and Caribbean Oceans - a Methodology to Counteract

More than six years after the attacks of September 11th, 2001 showed the United States to be a nation deeply vulnerable to the type of attacks which are favored by terrorist organizations, the security policies and approaches to protecting the American people and America's friends and interests remain deeply impeachable. Security responses relating to the combat of foreign wars, the bureaucratic consolidation of American security agencies, the enhancement of surveillance freedoms to be used against the American people and the selling of America's port security to a state-run firm in the United Arab Emirates are all suggestive of a government which has not taken the proper steps to address the…. [read more]

Academic Simulation Describes Potential WMD Essay

… , 2003, p. 76

Summary and Conclusion

Taken together, there will be a high degree of lethality among all first-arriving responders, especially those who lack sufficient personal protection equipment. Even for those with appropriate protective gear, though, many will be initially overwhelmed by the sarin cloud, hampering timely responses to the event. The relatively short duration of the attack and the toxicity of the agent, though, indicate these conditions will be short-lived. Nevertheless, local law enforcement authorities should be alerted to the potential for the ARFF terrorists to attempt to block off self-evacuation routes by disabling vehicles at critical cross intersections leading from Daley Plaza (for example, a tractor-trailer loaded with explosives would cause significant additional problems in responding to the incident's location), and alternatives…. [read more]

Terrorism Research Paper

… Thus, the Chief Security Analyst will develop a plan for safekeeping our most sensitive data. Working with key consultants in the field of counterterrorism will enable the Chief Security Analyst to devise methods of responding to disasters of all types, including those that involve human casualties. Direct links to emergency response teams is one of the benefits of having a full-time security and antiterrorism expert on our team.

Finally, the Chief Security Analyst will lead training seminars for managers and all employees. Managers will be required to master counterterrorism techniques specific to their department, and employees will learn via drills. This organization is committed to protecting the lives of its employees. Training will be offered to all new recruits and periodically, refresher courses will be…. [read more]

Homeland Defense Homeland Security Is the Actual Course Research Paper

… Homeland Defense


Domestic counter terrorism

Domestic counter terrorism refers to any efforts by United States law enforcement and government agencies to detect, prevent, or cope with real or threatened act of terrorism against Americans or the American government. As a result of the United States' failure to prevent the 9/11 attacks, domestic efforts have increased dramatically and the government has created the Department of Homeland Security and National Counterterrorism Center; agencies that can devote 100% of their time to detection and prevention efforts (Treverton, 2008).

Border and transportation security

The successful implementation of border and transportation security is complex and challenging. From arresting terrorists before they reach the U.S. border to exercising emergency response procedures on the site of a terrorist attack, the defense…. [read more]

Terrorism Technological Innovation as a Weapon Thesis

… Terrorism Tech

Technological Innovation as a Weapon Against Terrorism

The United States is regarded as among the world's most vaunted leaders in technology development. Simultaneously, its military denotes one of the most formidable fighting forces in the world, both with respect to its capability to wage war and its capacity to provide defense to the homeland. These claims are inextricably linked, with the United States channeling its technological prowess into the development of greater weaponry, greater defense resources, more effective protective gear for military and defense personnel and a host of computer, communication and media devices that can have a significant impact on preserving the lives of Americans both at home and abroad. And yet, in the face of the threat of terror, many of…. [read more]

Intelligence Pathologies Term Paper

… Intelligence Pathologies

The Church Committee Investigations which began in 1974 after the Watershed Scandal in President Nixon's administration found that intelligence agencies had unlimited executive power. The committee found that intelligence agencies abused this power and harassed and disrupted targeted groups and individuals, spied on citizens, assassination plots, manipulation and infiltration of businesses and media. Recommendations made by the Church Committee in the 1970s concerning intelligence agencies have been overlooked. As President Nixon's administration gave more executive power to intelligence agencies during his reign, so did President Bush. Intelligence agencies acquired executive authority after 9/11 are founded on the rhetoric of the war on terrorism, finding weapons of mass destruction in Iraq and identifying the link between Iraq and Al-Qaida. The agencies have carried out…. [read more]

Terrorism in Japan Thesis

… Japan Terrorism

Aum Shinrikyo: A Cult of Terror

Throughout its history, Japan's proclivity toward highly centralized forms of government has prompted no small amount of social resistance. As an imperial democracy with an extensive history of regional conflict, occupation and human rights abuse, Japan has engendered resentment, resistance and organized acts of subversion for its political, military and economic activities at home and abroad. Across the latter half of the 20th century though, it is increasingly its relationship with the United States that has embroiled Japan in controversy and invoked the ire of socialist groups, anti-imperialist organizations and revolutionary militants. As a result, Japan has long battled a significant terrorist threat, and particularly on its own soil where a number of groups continue to act…. [read more]

Terrorism Research Paper

… ]

m. Federal Bureau of Investigation -- 28 C.F.R. §0.85

"[Terrorism is] [t]he unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a Government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives."[footnoteRef:17] [17: (The Federal Bureau of Investigation, 2005).]

3. Two Approaches to the Complexity of Terrorism Definitions

As nations struggle to define terrorism in order to target and combat it, the conflicting viewpoints and interests become obvious in the sheer number of their definitions, all focusing on a single word: terrorism. Even within the United States, separate governmental departments rely on separate definitions. In the face of these burgeoning and changing definitions, scholars have attempted to find a common ground from which we…. [read more]

Homeland Security Coordination and Implementation Essay

… To this end, the risk assessment included "only those differences in risk that are still significant despite the associated uncertainties" (SNRA 2011, 6). The Strategic National Risk Assessment is strategic, which means that the full spectrum of risks and some particular regional or incidental risks will not be identified. Because of the focus on the contingency type risks emphasized in the PPD-8, steady-state risks were not explicitly assessed; examples of steady-state risks include border violations, drug trafficking, illegal immigration, and intellectual property violations (SNRA 2011, 6). The varying maturity rates of the data sources related to some events impeded comparison, such that qualitative discussion and representation was employed (SNRA 2011, 6). The dynamic nature of some hazard is not modeled by the methodology used for…. [read more]

Risk Assessment Terrorists and Acts Essay

… S. To track them.

Risk Assessment in Regards to the Al Qaeda Capabilities Prior To 9/11

It was impossible for the United States to accomplish any risk assessment in regards to the Al Qaeda capabilities prior to 9/11. However, there was enough information pointing towards the possible hijacking but not the suicide attacks pointed at York's World Trade Center. Scientists are still not sure of the nature of attacks on either, the Pentagon or even the World Trade Center; some believe and purportedly have scientific evidence. According to Legge, (2010), there is no scientific proof that a Boeing 757 did not hit the Pentagon.

Preventing 9/11

As mentioned above, the United States government was aware of eminent attacks. However, the government was ill prepared by…. [read more]

American Terrorism for Many People Research Paper

… American Terrorism

For many people, terrorism was first brought to their attention after the events surrounding September 11th. As they were quickly made aware of the underlying threats that these groups can be. However, the last several years have seen a shift in tactics. As many organizations are focused on conducting domestic terrorism. This has caused the number of incidents to increase dramatically. In this research project, we examine the impact that domestic terrorism is having on the nation. As we are looking at how the overall threat has become so severe, that there needs to be a change in this strategy. This will improve the reader's understanding of the threat, through knowing the way this kind of terrorism is: increasing the risks and how…. [read more]

Terrorism and Drug Trafficking Capstone Project

… In particular, heroin from Mexico poses a formidable threat throughout Pennsylvania and Delaware, as evidenced by the increasing availability of high purity, low priced heroin and the resulting escalation in abuse, drug treatment admissions, and overdose deaths. This threat is exacerbated by the widely-reported trend of prescription drugs abusers migrating to heroin, seeking a cheaper and more available high. The DEA Philadelphia Division routinely assesses and ranks the drug threats to Philadelphia and the Delaware area as determined by availability, threat to public health, community impact, attendant crime, enforcement activity, seizures, drug abuse and treatment statistics, as well as propensity for abuse. Analysis of these factors, supplemented by investigative reporting, human intelligence, liaison, and open source data, allows for a comprehensive overview of each drug…. [read more]

Terrorism Preparedness and Military Emergency Management Research Paper

… " (Keefer and Loayza, 2008, p.65) Spending on the expenses across components and not including disaster relief and insurance spending, is stated to total somewhere in the range of approximately "$13-14 billion." (Keefer and Loayza, 2008, p.65) It has been estimated by the Congressional Research Service that between September 1, 2001 and March 2005, the Congress "appropriated and authorized $201 billion for the campaign against terror, including OEF, OIF and enhanced security and other operations at home…" (Keefer and Loayza, 2008, p.65) Stopa, et al. (2004) reports that Federal Preparedness programs including the following categories: (1) emergency management and planning; (2) training and equipment for first responders; (3) weapons of mass destruction and hazardous materials; (4) law enforcement; and (5) public health and medical community.…. [read more]

Terrorism, Destabilization, and the Modern Global Environment Research Paper

… There is also increased fears of the use of nuclear and biological weapons through which terrorists can launch violent attacks (The diplomacy of counterterrorism, 2002, USIP:4).


In response to many of these problems, the drive has been towards consolidation -- consolidating domestic efforts within the United States to enhance information-sharing between law enforcement agencies and also to improve efforts between states to engage in mutually beneficial monitoring of the geopolitical situation to reduce terrorism. Certain aspects of the new, globalized world will be difficult to contain, however, including the diffusion of communication as well as enhanced capabilities to launder money for illicit, terrorist purposes. There are no quick fixes for addressing the problem of terrorism given the growing pervasiveness and diffusion of the problem:…. [read more]

911 and Beyond Presage Essay

… British Airways, for example, now has a very comprehensive risk assessment system at every level, with all risk leaders meeting quarterly with the head of Risk Management. It also uses a new system of risk assessment software called Aceptus. In dealing with terrorism, its policy is one of risk avoidance, and the company "will do everything to avoid this risk, for example, stricter security checks." Even if this means longer waiting periods for customers, BA still follows a "safety first" policy (Punzel 2008, p. 18).

Airlines are a business based on cash flow and lack the deep pockets to endure a prolonged loss of revenue, as was the case after September 11th. United Airlines had to lay off 20,000 workers and reduce its schedule by…. [read more]

U.S. National Strategy What Three Essay

… CCDRs determine theater strategy "based on analysis of changing events in the operational environment and the development of options to set conditions for success" (JP 3-0 I-3). They are expected to modify old plans or formulate new ones based on changing conditions in the operational environment or new directives from national command authorities. In their theaters, these estimates will also be based on less comprehensive efforts of subordinate commanders, and will be focused on threats and also "consider other circumstances affecting the military situation as they develop and analyze COAs" (JP 3-0 I-4). Commanders use strategic estimates to determine the likely intent of the enemy and consider alternatives in a continuous process. Theater Strategic Concepts describe the types of operations to be conducted, when and…. [read more]

Foreign and Domestic Intelligence Term Paper

… Foreign and Domestic Intelligence

The intelligence system of the United States is the most capable one assembled in the history of man. This intelligence community (IC) has undergone reforms since 2005 after President Bush signed the Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act. However, transformations of analytical initiatives have constantly reduced the barriers between individuals and organizations across the IC and have prioritized missions effectively. A window of opportunity was evident in the 1990s that reexamined the existing structures and processes of intelligence. Emphasis for the intelligence community included, downsizing, streamlining, and consolidating, which forced them to prioritize on resources scarce to the environment. Members of Congress, think-tank analysts, and executive branch senior officials are a community growing interest of the U.S. government organization on how…. [read more]

Domestic and International Terrorism Essay

… It is also to plan the budget of the successful execution of the missions of homeland security. 2009 saw the first conduct of QHSR, and the report was handed over to the Congress on 1 February 2010. This report was a complete evaluation of the strategies of the homeland security for the nation and involved the recommended longstanding strategic concerns of the Nation in its homeland security (Burnett, 2007).

The report was inclusive of the outcome of the QHSR, a strategy of the national homeland security, an account of the dangerous Nation's mission of the homeland security, and details of the assumptions that are beneath that were used in the course of carrying out the review. The report is persistent and expounds more on the…. [read more]

Homeland Security Strategies Research Paper

… They also emphasize the Department's commitment to securing the U.S. from terror and beefing up security along the United States borders, enforcing immigration laws, securing cyberspace and generally building resilience to disasters (DHS, 2007). The other function often overlooked is to secure the major infrastructure like bridges and towers, airport as well as key natural resources and also respond to and recover from the incidences that may occur within the U.S. The mention of maximizing effectiveness and efficiency of the tax payer's dollar implies that the leaders of this Department are people of integrity.

From this paper it is clear how an organization's missions, goals, and objective are integral in coming up with a strategic plan. It is also clear that a strategy must have…. [read more]

Legislative Critique of the Homeland Security Act of 2002 Article Critique

… Boat

Legislative Critique of the Homeland Security Act of 2002

The Homeland Security Act (HSA) of 2002 was passed in response to the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. It created the Department of Homeland Security as part of the largest U.S. government restructuring since the Department of Defense was created. The Homeland Security Act is a far-reaching anti-terrorism bill that gave federal law enforcement agencies broad powers in order to monitor citizens. The act has a large number of data-related conditions. In combining federal groups into a single agency, it also addressed how their IT systems and data would be consolidated and connected. It mandated the agency to create secure communications and IT infrastructure and advanced capabilities in order to access, receive,…. [read more]

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NOTE:  We can write a brand new paper on your exact topic!  More info.