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Black Picket Fences Sharlene Looked Term Paper

… Well, now, I went to a community college. I didn't go to no Harvard or nothing," he says. As he speaks faster and louder, Hank's speech resembles a specific brand of Black English. "I knew a few kids who did really well in school. They got all A's and did ok on their testing and all. They got into big name colleges and now I don't know where they are. But I wonder," he says. "I wonder how well off they are now. I mean, I know that black people don't earn as much as whites and even black lawyers and all have a hard time moving ahead in the world, getting really rich."

Hank brings up a topic that Patillo-McCoy touches upon in great…. [read more]

Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Culture Essay

… Black Films as a Reflection of the Progress of African-American Society

From the first African slave to set foot on American soil, to the election of Barack Obama, there has been a tremendous metamorphosis of the African-American community's stature within the culture of the United States. Where Within Our Gates provided one of the first proverbial dips into the waters of African-American's being able to express their genuine opinions, films such as Do the Right Thing and Shaft were vibrant expressions of passion and rage that pulled no punches. This dramatic change did not happen overnight, and to illustrate this, this paper will utilize films from the black film canon that individually signify the gradual steps African-Americans took to improve their social standing in the…. [read more]

Prison Industrial Complex Research Paper

… In addition, the tendency to depend on racists' ideologies and structures to impose punishments and obtain surplus income is more troubling. Privatization of prisons is currently a capitalist move within the prison industry. Prisons run by the federal government are grossly violating human rights; on the other hand, private prisons have demonstrated lack of transparency and accountability (Schlosser, 2008).

In early 2012, a leading U.S. prison firm bought about sixty thousand beds from various correctional centers. As the trend of subjecting more women in prisons increased, the company opened a new facility in Melbourne (Gottschalk, 2010). Currently, the company has discovered Michigan as its latest frontier. Statistics have revealed that stocks of private prison companies are doing extremely well. Early last year, the overall revenue…. [read more]

Nursing and Women's Roles Pre-And-Post Thesis

… Thomas Branagan wrote in The Excellency of the Female Character Vindicated that men would "sin and sin again" because they could not help themselves (quoted by Welter, 47). But a woman, Branagan asserted, was "stronger and purer" and had the resolve to resist a man's desire to "…take liberties incompatible with her delicacy" (Welter, 47).

However, if a woman should acquiesce to a man's attempts to engage in sexual activities, Branagan asserted in his book, "You will be left in silent sadness to bewail your credulity, imbecility, duplicity, and premature prostitution" (Welter, 47). The advice given to women in the early 19th century, as presented by Welter on page 62, clearly appears to the 21st century reader as propaganda designed to keep women in subservient…. [read more]

Women First Wave Susan B. Anthony Reaction Paper

… ¶ … Women

First Wave

Susan B. Anthony was born in 1820 on February 15 in Adams, Massachusetts. Her family followed the Quaker tradition, and was also involved in activism. This affected her deeply, and her sense of justice and moral zeal were developed early in life. When Susan grew up, she entered the teaching profession, in which she worked for fifteen years before becoming active in temperance. This led to her involvement with the women's rights movement and the suffrage in 1852. In 1900, she successfully campaigned for the admission of women to the University of Rochester. Throughout her life, she remained an active force of inspiration for many. Susan died on March 13, 1906.

Alice Paul was born on January 11, 1886, also…. [read more]

Sowell Black Rednecks and White Liberals Term Paper

… ¶ … Black Rednecks and White Liberals by Thomas Sowell. Specifically it will contain and analysis and discussion of the book and its thesis. Author Sowell states his thesis early on in the Prologue of his book. He writes, "The purpose of this book is to expose some of the more blatant misconceptions poising race relations in our time" (Sowell ix). His book is an attempt to dispel these misconceptions while he gives a unique and interesting history of both black and white culture as it evolved in the American South.

Sowell supports his thesis through his own 25 years of research on the subject, combined with numerous scholarly essays he has collected for this work. Another aspect of his thesis in preparing this work…. [read more]

Women's Right to Vote in the 19th Century Term Paper

… Women Suffrage 19th Century

However novel it may appear, I shall venture the assertion, that, until women assume the place in society which good sense and good feeling alike, assign to them, human improvement must advance but feebly," (Wright). Fanny Wright may have presaged the deplorably slow progress the women's rights -- and women's suffrage -- movements would make throughout the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Although the Declaration of Independence of the United States heralded a new era of democratic self-rule, both it and the Declaration of the Rights of Man excluded females from its blanket ideas. Moreover, the democratic ideals espoused in the French and American Revolutions did not apply equally to blacks, who were slaves in the United States until…. [read more]

Women's Rights Movement Term Paper

… Zinn's narrative, by virtue of it using women's voting rights as a starting point, loses something in the telling by leaving out a broader historical context, which is provided by The Feminist Papers.

However, Zinn's depiction of women's perceptions of their status and lack of meaningful identity as individuals or as a gender does find echoes in both The Feminist Papers as well as The Feminist Mystique. For instance, Zinn talks about women feeling that the core of the whole problem lies in "...the body...the exploitation of plaything (weak and incompetent)...pregnant...(helpless).... A biological prison had been created by men and society." (Zinn, 512) This view is expressed in its many aspects and dimensions right across the texts examined. Some examples are:

John Adams: '...their…. [read more]

Prison Rape Elimination Act Term Paper

… Provide appropriate orientation to anyone having contact with offenders;


Provide intensive training, resources and support for personnel assigned to investigate allegations of sexual misconduct;


Provide detainee/offender orientation and ongoing education on staff sexual misconduct that includes information on the zero-tolerance policy, how to report allegations, how to obtain medical and mental health services, how to seek relief against retaliation for reporting allegations, and possible disciplinary actions for making false allegations;


Establish partnerships with prosecutors, medical providers, mental health providers and others who can provide advice, support and direct services to detainees/offenders who are victims of staff sexual misconduct; and,


Establish a systematic process for the collection of data that document the number of sexual misconduct allegations, the nature of each allegation…. [read more]

African-American Women Term Paper

… African-American Women

Oppression, Diversity and the Struggle for Human Rights: African-American Women

The history of African-American women is closely aligned to the history of social and racial oppression in America.

Significantly, the history of this group is linked strongly to the development of the movement in this country against inequality and for civil rights. The history of the African-American women is also intimately bound up with the history and after effects of slavery.

The Black people in the United States are historically composed of various ethnic groups. During the Atlantic slave trade " Over 40 identifiable ethnic groups from at least 25 different kingdoms were sold to British North America... " (African-American) From the very beginning therefore the history of the Black people and particularly…. [read more]

Black Power Movement Essay

… Black Power movement was the most effective means of overtly subverting institutionalized racism and entrenched white power structures that had governed American society since colonization. Figures like Dr. Martin Luther King provided the means by which to achieve black power without seriously challenging white cultural hegemony. As meaningful and remarkable as Dr. King's legacy has been in revolutionizing American racial consciousness, it is also important to recognize the impact of Black Power leaders like Malcolm X Malcolm X and other Black Power leaders shaped African-American consciousness to encourage self-empowerment, whereas integrationist leaders like Dr. King helped to shape the consciousness of white Americans to become more aware of racial injustice.

The main themes of Black Power include self-empowerment and recognizing institutionalized racism to promote general…. [read more]

Bell Hooks, the Celebrated Black Term Paper

… The story of "Carma" creates a beautiful contrast with the earlier one of "Karintha." In "Carma" the idyllic feminine side of the woman, instead of being overly adored as it is in "Karintha," is ignored entirely. Carma is viewed by society, and her husband, Bane, only as masculine "in overalls, and strong as any man." However, instead of this meaning that Carma is fully appreciated for who she is without the distraction of being idealized, it seems that Carma is overlooked, even taken for granted by Bane. He does not faun over her the way the males do in "Karintha." He even takes a job where he "was away most of the time" because he doesn't seem to think that this kind of woman (i.e.…. [read more]

Transformation of Strong Black Men Thesis

… ¶ … Strength of Women Depicted in Gaines' Lesson Before Dying

In Ernest Gaines' novel, a Lesson Before Dying, Grant undergoes an awakening and a transformation as he comes to terms with what it means to be a man. He could never have achieved this transformation on his own because he was still bitter, living with a painful past. His life would have taken a completely different path would it not have been for the powerful female influences in his life urging him to seek out the good in a dreadful situation. Tante Lou, Emma, and Vivian help Grant realize that he can overcome the pain of his past and not only become a better man but also seek out the best in every man.…. [read more]

Woman President Research Paper

… ¶ … Woman Will Reside as President of the United States

The time has come when we are likely to see within the next decade a woman become president of the United States. This is progress that has come, but slowly, to American women. The United States, like most other societies around the world, began as a patriarchal society. It was a societal condition that required no effort of forethought on the part of the earliest settlers or even our Constitutional forefathers. The earliest settlers of America were from patriarchal societies, and American society evolved within their societal cultural traditions. Women were historically subordinate to men in society, and in their marriages and personal relationships with men until the age of the feminist institution. The…. [read more]

Role of Women Since World War Term Paper

… Role of Women Since World War 2 (WWII)

The role of women in society may have changed more during and after World War Two than any other period in human history. As a brief indication of the change, five percent of American women were employed in the regular workforce, whereas 60% of women of working age were employed by 1990 (Goldin 1991). This paper will analyze how women's roles changed during and after World War II (hereafter called the "War") and to the present day.

The change in women's roles should be analyzed on more fronts than their contribution to the workforce, but workforce contribution is a key contributor to the change in how women are perceived (some would say 'valued') in the workplace.

Rather…. [read more]

Black Women in Prison Term Paper

… ¶ … women at five state prison facilities located in Tennessee, Kentucky, Arkansas, Georgia, and Mississippi. The purpose of this research is to study specifically the effects of being an older black female in prison today: how does prison life affect depression and anxiety levels, arid does a black woman's socioeconomic background contribute to or hinder her ability to adapt to prison life? Also the effect that racial and cultural discrimination may have on black female inmates serving longer sentences and facing the possibly of dying in prison. The initial results of the surveys indicated a significant difference in depression, anxiety, somatization, prison adjustment, and death anxiety levels between White and Black female offenders.





AGING (Graying) INMATES…. [read more]

Overcrowding in Prisons: Impacts Research Paper

… And conversely, when those African-American men are released from overcrowded prisons (in certain cases some inmates are released prior to the time they were sentenced for because they were not convicted of violent crimes and judges have ordered prisons to reduce crammed facilities), the "vast majority will return to the same communities" (smith, 388). This in turn puts "additional strain on already scarce resources" in the communities they came from and want to return to.

In other words, the PIC has a recent legacy of overcrowding, and in the process the PIC "exploits African-American men by extracting their labor" below fair market wages, and then by returning them to their communities where socioeconomic resources are already depleted (Smith, 389). On page 389 the authors use…. [read more]

Prisons for All Intents Essay

… The firms that owned these penal institutions bribed two judges in the Pennsylvania county that had contracted out the business, and paid them for several years per head for incarcerated teenagers. This led to something which, in its own appalling greed and contempt for human decency, is our own contemporary version of the Tyburn hangings -- the spectacle of two Republican judges sentencing children to incarceration for the slightest offenses, or non-offenses, purely to take advantage of the state purchase of penitentiary services provided by others, rather than persisting in the Benthamite ideal of state-managed facilities geared toward rehabilitation ("PA Judges Accused of Jailing Kids for Cash," 2009). The statistics (reprinted Table 1) offered by the U.S. Government speak for themselves, in the opinion of…. [read more]

Room of One's Own Term Paper

… Three writers, namely, "Prisons of Silence" by Janice Mirikitani, "The Welder" by Cherrie Moraga, and "Black men and public space" by Brent Staples. These three literary works illustrates how racial and sexual differences can be reconciled in a widely diverse society such as the American society. In her poem, Mirikitani shows how she can 'break out' of the "prison" she is living in, being contained in the labels of being a "woman" and a "Japanese," which manifests sexual and racial difference in a dominantly white American society. Similarly, Staples seeks understanding from his readers as he relates his life as an African-American feared by people because of his color, where he describes himself as indistinguishable from the muggers." Moraga, on the other hand, details the…. [read more]

Women's Movement Term Paper

… On May 21, 1919, it was passed, 42 votes more than necessary being obtained. On June 4, 1919, it was brought before the Senate, and after a long discussion it was passed, with 56 ayes and 25 noes. It only remained now that the necessary number of States should ratify the action of Congress. Within a few days Illinois, Wisconsin and Michigan, their legislatures being then in session, passed the ratifications. One after another the other States followed their examples, Tennessee being the last of the needed 36 States to ratify, in the summer of 1920, to exercise their right of suffrage. On the evening before President Wilson made a strong and widely published appeal to the House to pass the bill it was passed…. [read more]

Prison Libraries Term Paper

… The IFLA states the one employed as prison librarian should have the necessary qualifications in library skills and the "ability to work in a prison environment...and emphasizes the importance of being aware of prisoners' immediate and potential needs" (Lehmann pg). Positions call for a library director with an ALA accredited MLS or equivalent plus two years experience in a professional capacity (Lehmann pg).

There are many organizations and foundations that contribute to prison libraries. Books Through Bars, founded in the late 1980's by the employees of New Society Publishers, "sends quality reading material to prisoners and encourages creative dialogue on the criminal justice system, thereby educating those living inside and outside of prison walls" (Books pg). While conducting a research study at women's prisons, Katherine…. [read more]

Randall Robinson's Book the Debt Term Paper

… That is, the responsibility does not lie "souly" (pun intended) with the whites, with the answer giving reparations as Robinson requests in an earlier book (and still believes will happen one day). Nor, should the responsibility lie only with those blacks who have "made it" to the middle-class. It almost appears as if they are being punished for succeeding and escaping their possible lives in the inner city. Rather, and admittedly it is a Pollyanna belief, the problem is all of society's.

Unfortunately, looking back on humankind's history, there are some sad truisms. There will always be racism or its equivalent in anti-semitism, feminism, gay bashing, etc. etc. Perhaps, as the population continues to alter with the Latin-Americans outpacing the Anglo-Americans and African-Americans, someday the…. [read more]

Black History Effects of Capitalism Term Paper

… After freeing from oppression, blacks still had to face discrimination, as they were restricted to the jobs, which were considered to be more dangerous, and worth less than those reserved for whites. The Blacks were also used as an army of jobless that could be used by bosses to threaten unions to keep salaries low or else they could lose their jobs. This discrimination was an open fact that blacks were dismissed in excess during an economic decline and therefor had to suffer comparatively in greater numbers of unemployment than whites.

Study after study confirms that the inequality between wealth and poverty is more pronounced in the U.S. than any other industrialized nation. The Labor Department reports that one-quarter of all workers in the U.S.…. [read more]

Four Questions About Euro / American Culture in 1800S-1900s Term Paper

… Question Three

The role and outcomes for women in Les Miserables is an easy pathway to follow. The modern parallels with the plight of migrant workers and how it so often ends up with the migrant workers engaging in the sex trade (like what is seen with Fantine, etc.) still happens to this very day. Many women in urban areas and those women from foreign countries in general often turn to the sex trade because it is one of the few (perhaps the only) way they have or see as a way to survive giving the massive challenges that follow them. This could even be held true in the United States to a lesser degree but it is pervasive in other areas of the world…. [read more]

Shirley Chisholm an Analysis Essay

… Community building, the term, is the effort that some make, and that all should make, to build a continuity between all people of African origin who live in the United States. Shirley Chisholm tried to do this by working for many black community organizations such as the NAACP, but she realized that there was more that could be done for her community (Chisholm, 1970, 53). She ran for, and won, a seat on the New York Assembly in 1963 (she was seated in 1964), and then when she realized that it was possible to have even greater influence, she ran for her local seat on the U.S. House of Representatives (Hill, 1993). It was a mystery to many of the political leaders in the city…. [read more]

Black Markets and Their Results Term Paper

… Countermeasures must continue to emphasize containment of material at the source in Russia and other countries. Once the material is illegally and surreptitiously removed from a storage area, the difficulty of intercepting it en route to foreign buyers increases dramatically. Nevertheless, interdiction efforts at international borders, between the original storage areas and the borders, and across transit countries can greatly complicate efforts, making life difficult for contraband mercenaries. Hence a layered defense, with strategies directed at every possible checkpoint in the trafficking routes of HEU and plutonium, is an essential ingredient of any program to secure nuclear materials (Schweitzer and Dorsch 64).


Probably one of the most dehumanizing and reprehensible of the black markets is the one that exists in human trafficking. There…. [read more]

Equality for Women in the Workplace Term Paper

… Emma Goldman

The interesting thing about history is, as the saying goes, "the more things change, the more they stay the same." In the last century, the U.S. has undergone tremendous technological change. In many respects, it has changed in its political philosophy as well. In 1907, the 19th Amendment for women's suffrage was still years away from being ratified and the Civil Rights Act was not signed until 1964. In the 1900s, Emma Goldman was one of the most rebellious individuals who strongly advocated for a number of causes including equality and independence for women, freedom of thought and expression, radical education, sexual freedom and birth control, and union organization and the eight-hour day. Then she was known as "Red Emma" and an anarchist.…. [read more]

Nietzsche's Woman Is by Turns Term Paper

… In Thus Spake Zarathustra, Nietzsche clearly shows his views of woman as inferior, in his discussion of the capabilities of men and women to form interpersonal relationships. He argues that having a friend makes a man vulnerable, and that this must be carefully guarded against within any friendship. However, he argues relatively forcefully that women are not yet capable of forming friendships. He justifies this by arguing that women's desire for love interferes with the ability to keep and make friends, and that this trait is much more commonly present amongst women. Ultimately, he comes to the conclusion that the love of a woman is truly interior to friendship with another man. Here, he clearly argues that women are inherently inferior to men, and in…. [read more]

Women in Prison Major Legal Research Paper

… Women are also in a total state of dependency upon their female guards for all of their needs, which can again exacerbate the feelings of victimhood.

A lack of program support

Although most prisons afford vocational training and psychological support for women to enter into the job market as productive citizens, few women prisoners take advantage of such opportunities. The reason, one study suggests, may be inadequate program design, given that most approaches to training focus on males and are the program paradigm is merely transferred to female prisons with the same approach. The employment rate of formerly incarcerated women is similar to the level of their pre-incarceration period, suggesting a failure of appropriate vocational training and social support for women inmates (Lalonde & Cho…. [read more]

Improve Treatments of Women Offenders When Sentenced Term Paper

… Treatment of Women Offenders: The Problem

The issue of the treatment of Women offenders when they are sentenced requires knowledge not only of the process which incarceration necessitates but also an in-depth understanding and knowledge of other related factors. These may include psychological and emotional aspects as well as physical and social issues. These issues constitute a complex problem area that has been discussed to varying degrees in numerous studies and reports.

There are many suggestions and ideas as to improving the conditions and situation of women entering correctional facilities. However, this paper will attempt to elucidate and detail the extent of the problematic areas which affect women offenders entering prison. The paper will also ascertain from literature the central focal areas where problems exist…. [read more]

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