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Diseases Vectored by Insects Malaria Term Paper

… Diseases Vectored by Insects

Malaria and yellow fever are two main diseases, which are transmitted by insects.

Malaria remains an infectious disease, which is caused by Plasmodium, a parasite and infects the red blood cells. The disease is mostly characterized by sweating, fever, chills and pain, muscle aches as well as headaches. Other patients feel nauseated, vomit, cough, and experience diarrhea. The most typical symptoms are chills cycles, sweating and fever that repeats itself after a few days. Malaria parasite called, Plasmodium lifecycle is complicated and comprise of two hosts who are human and the anopheles mosquitoes (Abramowitz, 2006). Malaria is transmitted to human beings when anopheles mosquito, which is infected, bites an individual and injects sporozoites, which is the malaria parasite into their blood.…. [read more]

Diseases and Pathogens Are Disease-Causing Essay

… ).

Fungal Infection: Ringworm

Ringworm is categorized according to the part of the body, which is infected (Earthtym 2012). The scientific name begins with tinea, followed by the part of the body involved. Infection appears to be transmitted by air-borne spores, which infect only locally, such as the scalp, eyebrow and lashes; the body or skin; nails; the groin area; the feet; the hands; and the beard. When there are enough spores, the entire area will be infected. Other than these observations, it is not clear why the infection is transmitted to others in a family but does not spread. Yet at other times, ringworm is very contagious (Earthym).

Ringworm often develops on the exposed parts of the body (Earthtym 2012). The fungus forms circular…. [read more]

Diseases I.E. Lung Cancer Term Paper

… According to estimation, 30-35% of Americans are fat or obese ("obesity," 2012). The main cause of obesity is the intake of additional calories than the energy requirement as the surplus calories are stocked up in the body as fat. Other factors that may contribute to obesity are immobility and inadequate exercise. Overeating may be a consequence of unhealthy patterns of ingestion ascertained by the family and cultural setting. Obesity may be intensified due to psychological suffering, an emotional reliance on food or the easy access to high-calorie foods ("obesity," 2012).

The major treatments for weight loss include wiring shut the internal parts of mouth, reduction of stomach size via operations and operations related to intestinal bypass in which a the outsized area of the small…. [read more]

Disorders of the Brain Alzheimer Research Paper

… This is because the areas that are affected by the disorder are the ones that are responsible for these functions in an individual. Therefore the damage in these regions due to the disorder greatly affects the development and behavior of an individual (Remedy Health Media, LLC .2014).

Doctors recommend magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) when carrying out investigations of whether a person has Alzheimer's disease or not. This is intended to rule out any other possible cause for the cognitive impairment like brain tumor or even blood clots. This involves a painless outpatient procedure that involves the use of a tube-like machine; MRI gives a detailed picture of internal organs parts of the brain included. A physician may request for an MRI if a patient has…. [read more]

Blood Disorders Term Paper

… Blood Disorders

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma

Hodgkin's lymphoma is the cancerous proliferation of a patient's lymphoid cells. The presence of Reed-Sternberg cells is a necessary precondition of the diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma, although R-S cells are identified with other disorders. "The primary diagnosis of Hodgkin's lymphoma from the histopathologic examination of a lymph node requires the identification of Reed-Sternberg cells in an appropriate, reactive cellular background. If a diagnosis of HD has been established on lymph node biopsy, the criteria for diagnosis of extranodal sites can be relaxed - requiring only mononuclear R-S cells and their variants in an appropriate background- not classic bilobed R-S cells" (Lymphoma: Hodgkin's lymphoma (Part 1), 2010, University of Virginia). This is one reason why identification of R-S cells at…. [read more]

Blood Substitutes the Search Term Paper

… These manufacturers assured the public that their cattle were clean of bacteria, viruses and pathogens, including mad cow, because they came from a managed herd in Michigan. So far, it has proved to be a suitable product. It does not get stored in the kidneys and too negligible to trigger an immune response, stores at room temperature in light-proof pouches and has a shelf life of three years (McCarthy). With these qualities, Hemopure has developed a clinical reputation as Oxyglobin in the U.S. And Europe. In clinical trials, 96% of those who received it did not need red cell transfusions on the day after surgery and 60% relied on Hemopure after six weeks (McCarthy). It has been approved for use in South Africa.

Hemopure interacts…. [read more]

Disease Thesis

… Disease in the News: The Bird Flu

Critical Review

This critical review will examine a newspaper article published by the New York Times and entitled: 'Avian Influenza' published February 25, 2009, reviewed by Linda Vorvick, MD, a Family Physician, and Seattle Site Coordinator and Lecturer.

It was reported in the February 25, 2009 edition of The New York Times in an article entitled: 'Avian Influenza' that the avian influenza virus, also known as 'Bird Flu' historically is a virus that "infected pigs and mixed with pig influenza viruses" however "the viruses exchanged genetic information which led to the formation of a new virus." (The New York Times, 25 Feb, 2009) It was this genetic exchange that enabled the new virus to "infection humans and easily…. [read more]

Sickle Cell Disease Term Paper

… Sickle cell disease is a severely debilitating genetic disorder that has no real cure except the risky bone marrow transplantation. Pharmacological interventions are thus largely focused on symptomatic management and in reducing the discomfort and pain for the patient. The promise of gene therapy as a cure is not immediately imminent. The severe psychosocial issues associated with the disease makes vocational rehabilitation a very important part of the successful management of the disease. Providing proper counseling and supportive therapy is essential in order to improve the quality of life for the affected individual.

Sickle cell disease affects millions of people throughout the world. The disease is particularly prominent among the sub-Saharan African people with very high incidence rates. In the western and central African regions…. [read more]

Polycystic Kidney Disease (Pkd) Research Paper

… Drowsiness, joint pain and nail abnormalities are other symptoms that may happen with PKD ("Polycystic Kidney Disease").


Even though autosomal dominant PKD has no cure, proper treatment of this genetic disease can relieve symptoms and make life longer. Cyst infection, bleeding, kidney stone etc. can cause pain in the kidney area. At first, the doctor will assess the causes that are contributing to the pain in order to direct the patient about treatment. If it is evaluated as chronic pain due to the enlargement of cyst, over-the-counter pain medications (aspirin or acetaminophen) may be initially suggested by the doctor. If the pain is severe, it can be relieved by the means of surgery (for shrinking cysts). It must be noted that surgery may only…. [read more]

Krabbe Disease Genetic Components Research Paper

… The only known treatment that has some effect on the progression of the disease is a bone marrow or cord blood transplant. The healthy cells received in the transplant can make the GALC enzyme which was missing in the body. Though it has serious risks and is not an option for all patients, a transplant can be life- saving and prevent severe disability for some people with GLD (Staff, 2011).

Cord Blood Transfusion

It has been seen that blood transfusion of blood stem cells which are taken form umbilical cord od any unrelated donor can play an important role in the reduction of neurological symptoms in infants. If this is done before the symptoms are appeared, it is possible that the child can maintain his/her…. [read more]

Alcoholic Liver Disease Essay

… This is in combination with enteral nutrition as a suitable preference to corticosteroids in a patient with alcoholic severe hepatitis. Pentoxifylline or PTX was demonstrated to improve the condition of a patient with alcoholic hepatitis through the down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the same time, it possesses antibiotic effects that respond to disease severity. Furthermore, it asserts antifibriotic effects by enhancing both profibrogenic cytokine and procollagen effects. And lastly, it reduces mortality by reducing the incidence of hepatorenal syndrome by improving renal microcirculation and hemodynamic mechanism (Frazier).

If the patient is a chronic heavy drinker, he is likely to suffer from other disorders related to drinking (Makdissi & Stewart, 2013). A chronic heavy drinker consumes at least 50-60 grams of alcohol daily. These disorders…. [read more]

Heart Disease and the Elderly Essay

… " (Young, nd) In the elderly silent heart attacks occur without the well-known crushing pain or pressure and may present in the form of heartburn, shortness of breath, fainting or confusion and sometimes with no symptoms at all.

Age related changes in the heart include the following:

Decreased Heart Rate Response

Longer P-R Intervals

Right Bundle Branch Block

Increased Atrial Ectopy

Increased Ventricular Ectopy

Altered Diastolic Function

Aortic Sclerosis

Annular Mitral Calcification (Schwartz, 1999)

Cardiovascular Disease related changes include:

Sinus Pauses

Second and Third Degree AV Block

Left Bundle Branch Block

Atrial Fibrillation

Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia

Decreased Systolic Function (Ejection Fraction)

Aortic Stenosis, Aortic Regurgitation

Mitral Regurgitation, Stenosis Systolic Hypertension Diastolic Hypertension (Schwartz, 1999)

VI. Treatment of Heart Attacks in the Elderly

The treatment of…. [read more]

Sensorimotor Disorder Restless Legs Syndrome Research Paper

… Complementary interventions include vitamins, acupuncture, prayer, meditation, and music (Mitchell, 2011). These interventions have generally not been scientifically investigated with the exception of acupuncture. However, researchers have suggested that there is insufficient evidence that acupuncture for the treatment of restless legs syndrome is any more effective than no treatment at all (Mitchell, 2011). Furthermore, research has demonstrated a considerable response to placebo in relation to restless legs syndrome (Mitchell, 2011). Specifically, it has been shown that more than one third of individuals with restless legs syndrome exhibit a significant improvement in symptoms following placebo treatment (Mitchell, 2011). This indicates that expectation of relief from a treatment somehow effectively reduces the experience of symptoms possibly through dopaminergic agents and opioids which are involved in placebo response…. [read more]

Sexual Transmitted Disease Term Paper

… Sexually Transmitted Disease

Sexual Transmitted Disease

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) refers to illnesses or infections that are spread through human sexual behaviors and are also known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted infections. These diseases usually occur through a variety of ways including anal sex, vaginal intercourse and oral sex with the most common means being through sexual intercourse with an infected person.

There are various types of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis, and HIV / AIDS. However, the main causes of sexually transmitted diseases are viruses, parasites, and bacteria. While these diseases affect both men and women, they are usually severe in women than men.

Though most of these diseases are treatable, some of them still lack effective…. [read more]

Crohn's Cronh's Disease and Ulcerative Research Paper

… Furthermore, with Crohn's the inflammation may appear in random patches while the inflammation in the UC is more uniform and generally the colon wall is thinner and more likely to produce bleeding from the rectum during bowel movements.

Figure 1 - Primary Differences (Columbia St. Mary's, N.d.)

There is no cure for either disease however the symptoms of both diseases can be mitigated to some extent. With Crohn's surgery may be performed to remove the diseased sections since they occur in patches. Furthermore, the drugs used to treat Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are similar. The mainstays of treatment, 5-ASA medications and corticosteroids, are used to treat both conditions. However, there are some medications that have only proved effective in treating one form of IBD…. [read more]

Diseases West Nile Virus, Malaria Term Paper

… During these outbreaks, hungry infected fleas that have lost their normal hosts seek other sources of blood..." ("Plague," 2004). The first sign of plague is a hot, swollen, and painful lymph node called a "bubo." The swollen node is often accompanied by fever, headache, and exhaustion. These symptoms usually begin about two to six days after the person is exposed ("Plague," 2004). The impact on the health of the individual can be fatal if the disease is not treated in time. In addition, the patient must be isolated because the disease is so contagious, and this adds to the impact on the patient and the family. Luckily, the plague is not nearly as common as it was in earlier centuries. However, plague still exists in…. [read more]

Blood Shortage and Potential Life-Supporting Term Paper

… S., there chances for anyone receiving blood to die from it are 1-in-100,000. And what would be in the blood that would cause death? Besides the HIV virus, and blood-typing errors by medical technicians, a person could possibly get hepatitis from a blood transfusion. Becoming infected with hepatitis from a blood transfusion is possible, but unlikely: there is a 1-in-63,000 chance of getting hepatitis B, and a 1-in-103,000 chance of contracting hepatitis C, the New England Journal of Medicine reports.

To duplicate all the functions that blood performs in the human body would seem to be an impossible challenge. Any artificial blood product must pass several tests: It must be nontoxic, disease-free, and be "easily transportable." Also, it "cannot elicit an immune response" from the…. [read more]

Communicable Diseases I Christiew Handle Essay

… Protection of medical staff also prevents the spread of both diseases. This is a global requirement where medics are encouraged to use gloves and protective gears like masks when handling all patients. For both diseases, vaccines are not available, but they are undergoing trials.

Influence of environmental factors, lifestyles and socioeconomic status

Both HIV and Herpes being sexually transmitted diseases have a certain relationship with the lifestyle of the people who contract the disease. It has shown that people who practice anal sex have a higher risk of contracting the infection. The same applies to people with multiple sexual partners' e.g. commercial sex workers. The HIV / AIDS epidemic is regarded as a socioeconomic problem. The HIV epidemic seems to be influenced by factors that…. [read more]

Parkinson's Disease Is a Neurological Term Paper

… There is a positive relation between depression and Parkinsonism and in at least 30% to 50% of patients depression is found to be a co-existing condition. Dysphagia is again a severe complication and the patient may even require a feeding tube. [Jeff Blackmer]

Medical treatment

Medical treatment of Parkinson's disease is broadly divided under two main categories namely surgical and non-surgical (pharmacological) treatments. Advancements in stereotactic surgical techniques such as thalamotomy, pallidotomy and deep brain stimulation have created new breakthroughs in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. Of these thalamotomy and pallidotomy are considered as destructive surgeries in that they involve creating lesions in the brain segments to limit the effect of anomalies and improve the motor functions. Thalamotomy is proven to be greatly effective in…. [read more]

Typhoid Fever Disease Essay

… The severity of the disease is fueled by the fact that proper treatment of patients with the disease through efficient antibiotic therapy is increasingly becoming more complicated by strains resistant to the existing antimicrobial agents (Lynch et al., 2009). Generally, this disease is considered as an acute, life-threatening febrile illness that can cause severe health effects if it remains untreated.

As a potentially fatal multi-systemic disease, typhoid fever illness is likely to result in severe cases when it's left to develop. If the illness remains untreated, it's likely to progress to intestinal hemorrhage, delirium, bowel perforation, obtundation, and even death within one month of infection. Moreover, the survivors of the disease are also likely to experience permanent or long-term neuropsychiatric complications.

Therefore, the possible estimated…. [read more]

Cardiovascular System 10 Diseases With Symptoms and Treatment Essay

… Cardiovacular System: 10 Diseases With Symptoms and Treatment

There are many different types of heart diseases. As such, there is a variety of symptoms that pertain to these diseases. Still, some diseases share the same symptoms and the same basic types of treatment. Others, however, have distinct symptoms and forms of treatment.

The principle symptom associated with coronary heart disease is chest pain. Other symptoms include a heart attack. Essentially, coronary heart disease results from a blockage of the coronary arteries. There are a variety of forms of treatment for this condition, which vary in efficacy due to the specific symptoms a patient endures and the stage of this disease in which he or she is in. Lifestyle changes can treat this condition, and include…. [read more]

Elephantiasis the Disease Essay

… Some studies have shown that by cleansing the affected areas symptoms are lessened. In areas where irritant soil is believed to be the primary cause of Elephantiasis, it is recommended that individuals wear shoes to keep the soles of their feet from coming into too much contact with the irritant.

Swelling as a result of Elephantiasis is among the "most common causes of disability" world-over, according to the Carter Center ("Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program"). Nearly 10% of all women in communities where endemic outbreaks are customary suffer from some symptom of Elephantiasis, while nearly 50% of males in these communities are subject to symptoms of genital swelling in these areas ("Lymphatic Filariasis Elimination Program").

The Elephant Man?

One of the most common misunderstandings surrounding Elephantiasis…. [read more]

Disease Caused by a Microbe Research Paper

… ¶ … disease known as influenza is a respiratory illness and it is caused by flu viruses. Influenza is not to be confused with the common cold. It may originally start out that way, with some cold-like symptoms, but very quickly the person affected by the flu virus will suffer far more serious symptoms. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) the following symptoms will be present: fever (and chills); cough; sore throat; runny or stuffy nose; muscle or body aches; headaches; tiredness / fatigue; a possibility of diarrhea and vomiting. The CDC asserts that "not everyone with flu will have a fever" (CDC).

What are the complications associated with influenza? The CDC reports that the average person who is attacked with…. [read more]

Periodontal Disease and Pregnancy Research Paper

… The effective management of the large pyogenic granumola coupled with the treatment of periodontal inflammation before pregnancy helps in controlling periodontitis and gingivitis. While small pyogenic granumolas may disappear suddenly, large lesions require treatment through surgery, lasers, electrocautery, and freezing. However, the most common way for treating the unusual large pyogenic granumolas is through surgical therapy or excision.


Periodontal disease is a disease that affects the structures of the teeth and can cause adverse pregnancy outcomes like pre-term birth. This disease can be prevented and controlled through promotion of good oral health or hygiene and management of pyogenic granumola.


Avula, H. & Avula, J. (2011). Periodontal Infections and Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes: The

Oral Health -- Fetal Connection. Journal of Gynecologic Surgery, 27(1), 1-4.…. [read more]

Oral Health and Heart Disease Research Paper

… The study consisted of 10 monozygotic twin pairs, with one twin presenting with coronary heart disease and one twin an absence of heart disease. All the subjects underwent detailed dental examinations including radiographic imaging, as well assessments of teeth, gums, and soft tissue health, hygiene, measurement of periodontal pocket depth, and bleeding upon probing. Results indicated that twins with coronary heart disease demonstrated significantly more symptoms of periodontal disease than twins without heart disease, while no significant difference was found for any other factors including marital status, smoking, employment, education, income, or body mass index (Tabrizi et l., 2007). Furthermore, a shared genetic factor may be considered to be less likely of a confounding variable in the association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease based…. [read more]

Disease HIV Disease Is Viewed Term Paper

… ¶ … Disease

HIV disease is viewed as a continuing progressive damage to the immune system from the period of infection to that of the manifestation of severe immunologic damages by means of neoplasms, opportunistic infections, wasting, or further by means of low CD4 lymphocyte count that indicate AIDS. (Epidemiology of Disease Progression in HIV) People first became aware of HIV disease with publication of a brief report in 1981, published in the Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, of a rare pneumonia generated by Pneumocystis carinii, presently recognized as P. jirovecy, along with other uncommon infections in 5 young homosexual men in Los Angeles. This has become spread as an epidemic with increasing reports on similar immune deficiency syndromes concentrating in New York, California and…. [read more]

Communicable Disease - HIV Essay

… Current Prevention Efforts

As stated above, professionals are currently focusing on universal access to prevention through the use of condoms, testing and treatment (AIDS Healthcare Foundation, n.d.). Prevention interventions in the form of testing and education are being used to identify, inform and change the behavior of people with HIV to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV to their sex/drug partners (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012). Health care professionals have also found that improving access to high quality health care for populations traditionally highly affected by HIV, including nonwhite and gay/bisexual men, educating/encouraging HIV patients to stay in treatment, and providing preventive measures to the partners of HIV patients are all fundamental preventive strategies (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2012).…. [read more]

Communicable Disease/Community Nursing 2003 SARS Term Paper

… Individuals suffering from respiratory and cardiovascular disease should avoid spending time outdoors on days when pollutant concentrations reach levels that have caused health problems in the past.

Urban pollution levels in the United States and Canada can be monitored using the Air Quality Health Index (AQHI), which can be accessed through the appropriate government agency, online, and through news channels (reviewed by Abelsohn and Stieb, 2011). Patients with respiratory and cardiovascular disease should monitor the severity of their symptoms in relation to the AQHI, thereby allowing them to use the AQHI to predict periods when spending time outdoors or certain activities would exacerbate their symptoms. Monitoring the AQHI will reveal that some patients react adversely to even low levels of air pollution, depending on what…. [read more]

Blood Diseases and Disorders Research Paper

… Blood cells disorders that affect the white blood cells always occur as a result of the presence of too many white blood cells or when the cells are few. Lymphoma is a form of blood cancer that occurs in an individual's lymph system making white blood cells to become malevolent while increasing and spreading abnormally. While leukemia also makes white blood cells to become malignant, they multiply in the bone marrow. Myelodysplastic syndrome is a form of blood cancer affecting the bone marrow, which can suddenly develop into leukemia. Multiple myeloma is a blood cancer that causes the plasma cell to become malignant and increase while releasing substances with the potential of causing organ damage. Other examples of white blood cells disorders include basophilic and…. [read more]

Blood Cultures Research Paper

… Blood cultures are laboratory tests that are used to detect whether bacterial or viral pathogens have entered the human vascular system. They are typically ordered when a person has symptoms of infection and allow medical personnel to understand which type of pathogen is affecting the individual so that appropriate treatment may be ordered. A typical blood culture is able to reveal a number of problems; from the innocent to the very severe. It is a way to scientifically understand the chemical make-up of the individual's blood at the time of testing. The term "culture," refers to the procedure that blood cells are placed in a medium that allows bacteria or other microorganisms to grow under conditions which allow medical personnel to more accurately identify them…. [read more]

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