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Broken Windows Thesis

… Broken Windows

Is the Broken Windows Theory Broken?

In their article Broken Windows, Wilson and Kelling give an in-depth explanation of how whether a community is orderly or disorderly can impact the perception of a community's crime rate. They explain how lawmakers in New Jersey decided to enforce this policy by putting policemen back on the street, walking beats, rather than patrolling in police cars. Although Wilson and Kelling both acknowledge that placing officers on foot patrol did little to change actual crime rates, they noted that those foot patrols resulted in a change in neighborhood attitude and demeanor. While crime rates may not have changed, people in those neighborhoods perceived a difference in the rates of crime, especially violent crime.

The theory posited by…. [read more]


Rule of Law Today in China Research Paper

… China and the Rule of Law

A kind of democratic transformation is underway in Communist China, and that is thanks in no small part to China's race toward modernity. Such modernity, however, is highly dependent upon China's ability to operate according to a respectable rule of law. Therefore, everywhere in China the rule of law is touted as the center of its new and rising ethos (Peerenboom 2002:1). Meanwhile, China is poised to have the largest economy on the globe in the 21st century and desires to keep its 20th century setbacks well behind it. If "the hallmarks of modernity are a market economy, democracy, human rights, and rule of law," (Peerenboom 2002:1) then China hopes to be well on its way to being perceived…. [read more]


Rules of the Game Essay

… Rules of the Game

Amy Tan's "The Rules of the Game" and the Metaphor of the Chessboard

Amy Tan's "Rules of the Game" is both a story of the American dream and the American nightmare. Told from the perspective of an eight-year-old American-Born-Chinese girl, Tan's short story is no ordinary coming-of-age tale, in which a young person in dire circumstances finds away to excel beyond those circumstances. Instead, Tan's story offers readers the metaphor of a chessboard, a metaphor in which black -- the opposition -- stands for the old world of Waverly's mother and White, the offense -- the offensive team -- stands for the progressive ways of America. Through developing this metaphor, however, Tan causes the reader to question whether or not Waverly's…. [read more]


Broken Spears and Requerimiento Term Paper

… The Aztecs believed the Universe was in equilibrium, and the tonalpohualli showed the Aztecs how the gods were dividing the time between them.

The Spaniards followed a pretty similar cosmological system to the one we currently use in the West, with navigation being ruled by the charts they had, and by their knowledge of the stars. It could be argued that this was less imaginative than that of the Aztecs, and that perhaps we would still be using the Aztecs xiuhpohualli now, had it not been for the Spaniards conquest (as is argued in The Broken Spear).

In terms of the Requerimiento, this shows us that the Spaniards were very authoritarian in their approach, and in their rule, with excerpts like this " But, if…. [read more]


Rule of the Bone Term Paper

… As Chappie recalled:

Neither of us were into washing dishes so we kept on using new plates until after a while we couldn't find any more and would just turn them over and eat off of the other side and the pans we figured it was O.K. To keep on using without washing because when you cook things it kills the germs."

However, by this time, Russ had enough of this scruffy life as a youthful outlaw he decided to leave for home, and leaving behind Chappie to continue his adventures alone that will gradually take him to a Rastafarian community in the distant hill country of Jamaica. Finally, he found his long-vanished father, who was then an international icon man where Chappie lost his…. [read more]


Rules America? G. William Domhoff's Sociological Analysis Book Report

… ¶ … Rules America?

G. William Domhoff's sociological analysis Who Rules America? argues that the reins of power within America are tightly controlled by the interests of corporations, the financial industry, and members of America's elite 'upper class.' While officially America is supposed to be a classless society, Domhoff argues that the nation is actually polarized in a classic 'haves' versus 'have-nots' conflict. The representatives of labor and other disenfranchised groups (such as women and ethnic and racial minorities) attempt to gain power by pressuring the political system to raise taxes on the wealthy and elite institutions and distribute benefits and opportunities more fairly throughout society. However, conservative and corporate interests (including so-called 'agri-business') attempt to retain their stronghold upon power through deregulation and limiting…. [read more]


Rule of Peter the Great Term Paper

… He studied shipbuilding in Holland and England and observed gunnery practice in Prussia. Along the way he visited military and civilian schools, factories, and museums as well as military arsenals and installations. When Peter returned to Russia, he brought along Western educators, businessmen, and military personnel to serve as advisers.

Before Peter could institute his version of modernization, he first had to put down an internal rebellion. He did so in a bloodbath that signaled to his people that, despite his modern ideas, his rule would be absolute (Dukes, 1982). Peter's harsh treatment of his opponents - he subordinated the nobility and the church to the throne - squelched any major resistance to the radical changes he instituted. Peter demanded that education, trade, and industry…. [read more]


Rules of Engagement Established Essay

… Ewell's actions reflected the feelings of other commanders and their reactions to the rules of engagement.

General William Westmoreland's policies during the Vietnam War showed little regard to the rules of engagements. These policies were aimed at obliterating the Viet Cong army. In this regard, the United States army used sophisticated firepower to attack the enemy forces while the Republic of Vietnam Armed Forces protected their civilian population from those attacks. General Westmoreland engaged in activities that were in total disregard to the rules of engagements.

Secretary of Defense during the Vietnamese war, Robert McNamara was not keen on fighting aggressively in Vietnam. He sided with the president to make the war restrictive hence establishing the rules of engagement. He thought the Chinese and the…. [read more]


Rule of Law Legitimate? Term Paper

… These types of questions are being referred to as 'jurisprudential', and the issue or matter of whether it is advisable to waste considerable time on resolving them is debatable. (Dworkin, 1)

There are two types of jurisprudence, one being 'ethical' and the other which is 'analytical'. When compared to English jurisprudence, American jurisprudence is essentially more complicated, and it is dedicated to a large extent on the issue of how courts decide complicated and complex cases. The needs of industrialization, and the need to deal with legal issues made the American courts succeeded in shaping the Constitutional Laws of the country during the nineteenth century, and this perhaps led to the skeptical views that people like Oliver Wendell Holmes and John Chipman Gray had of…. [read more]


New Trucking Hours of Service Rule Research Paper

… ¶ … new trucking hours of service rule will take effect in the United States that will have important implications for over-the-road trucking companies and their professional drivers. To gain some fresh insights into these implications, the purpose of this paper was to use the three value system comprised of law, morality, and social responsibility in the application of different ethical principles in the analysis of the response by Swift Transportation and Werner Enterprise to the new hours of service rule. To this end, the paper presents a review of the relevant peer-reviewed, scholarly, governmental and organizational literature in these areas, followed by a summary of the research, important findings, personal opinions and recommendations in the paper's conclusion.

Table of Contents

A.

Introduction

1.

Purpose…. [read more]


Constitution for a Club Rules Essay

… The president can also appoint a person to make sure the rules are enforced. Such a club member can be chosen on a rotational basis, where a new person is chosen for this task on a weekly or monthly basis.

The rules should be no only fair, but also clear, wihout any loopholes. Exceptions, however, should be given when necessary. These exceptions should be approved by all club members.

When punishment is administered, this should also be done fairly. A club member's needs in terms of his or her mental, emotional, physical, and medical state should be taken into account when deciding for or against a punishment or exception. Punishments should never be administered when they can be considered unreasonable. Club members should feel that…. [read more]


Research Paper

… ¶ … al-Assad family has ruled Syria with an iron fist for the past 40 years, and the fallout from the recent uprisings in the Middle East and North Africa have also affected the Syrian people. The purpose of this research is to explore how the al-Assad family, members of a religious minority, came to power in Syria, and what that has meant for the Syrian people. To this end, this study examines how the Alawi sect came to power in Syria from a historiographic and religious studies perspective, and what the implications of the recent revolutions in neighboring countries might be for the ruling elite in Syria. A summary of the research and important findings are presented in the study's conclusion.

How a Religious…. [read more]


Renoir's Method of Characterization in His Movie Which Called the Rules of the Game Term Paper

… Characterization in Renior's Rules Of The Game

At the level of high culture, most clearly in its modernist phase, there has always been this dream of transcending the local, the provincial, and the national, or in social terms, to transgress the narrow bounds of the bourgeois world and to enter a realm that is nothing if not International: the transcendence lay in being truly "European" or cosmopolitan." (Kroes, 1996, p. 126)

Rural France before World War II was a world of contrasts. There was a stark contrast between the world of the aristocrats and the world of the servants who attended to them. These two worlds were separated by social barriers created by a desire by the bourgeois to retain their status and separation from…. [read more]


Organized Crime Break Up of Soviet Union Research Paper

… Organized Crime -- the Fall of the Old Soviet Union

How much influence did organized crime have on the collapse of the old Soviet Union? Did organized crime flourish during the events that culminated in the end of communist rule -- or was much of the growth of organized crime due in fact to the collapse of the Soviet Union? What were the factors that were relevant to organized crime in that era of perestroika? These questions and other issues will be critiqued and reviewed in this paper.

Corruption & Lack of Ethics in the Soviet Union

According to a peer-reviewed article in the Journal of Business Ethics (Neimanis, 1997), there are old values associated with the former Soviet Union that linger on, and some…. [read more]


Broken Down Essay

… ¶ … broken down to the question of 'what exactly constitutes knowledge?' This is a question that has plagued philosophers since the beginning of time. Although the majority of the great philosophers seem to equate knowledge with belief, in at least its most basic sense, questions remain regarding what is fact and what is only believed to be fact. In this essay I will attempt to explain the various philosophical arguments that address this issue, will infusing some of my own personal observations and understandings into the fold as well.

Does Belief Constitute Knowledge?

In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Rene Descartes developed a theory of "rational philosophy" that attempted to equate knowledge with reason. In Descartes' view, beliefs are usually constructed on a fragile…. [read more]


Crimea Reignites Battle: Sovereignty and Self-Rule Term Paper

… But the nationalism movement has proved weak due to vague Russian and Soviet identities (Sasse, 2007). There are contradicting views among the Crimeans concerning the future of the region. Most people living in the region do not support the idea that Crimea ought to secede from Ukraine. At the same time, the great majority want Crimea to be part of Russia. So exactly what would they like to happen to Crimea (Pirie, 1996)? There is a generally accepted view that Crimeans should get dual Russian and Ukrainian citizenship. This need to belong to both countries demonstrates how East and South Ukraine residents have been in the quest of a status which incorporates the Russian element of the region's history (Pirie, 1996). This region's attitude towards…. [read more]


Ethical or Unethical Ground Rules Essay

… It was for this reason that Cameron decided to implement a separate committee for establishing and set ting up conventions for directing culture and ethics of the wider British media

3) How did the organizational leadership handle the dilemma? Did they report it right away, or did they hide it, ignore it etc.. Did they delay informing the public? Did they cooperate with the investigation?

Most of the prominent members resigned, but the organization as a whole cooperated. In other countries such as Australia and America, members of the specific and involved news corporations actively defended their innocence and protested investigations into their goings-on.

4) Propose a plan for implementing ethical standards and what should be the method(s) of communication of these standards in order…. [read more]


Under What Circumstances if Any Is it Appropriate to Depart From the Rule of Law Essay

… ¶ … depart from the rule of law?

Rule of Law

As Waldron (2009) emphasizes, the rule of law is considered to be "… one of the most important political ideals of our time."

He provides the following example of the rule of law in an international setting.

As a November 2007 New York Times editorial states, when President Musharaff of Pakistan fired the chief justice of the Supreme Court of Pakistan and had him placed under house arrest, Musharaff's actions were seen around the world as a crisis of the Rule of Law. Law societies and bar associations all over the world protested and, in Pakistan itself, thousands of judges and lawyers demonstrated in the streets and hundreds of them were beaten and arrested.…. [read more]


Exclusionary Rule Within the Scope Term Paper

… Exclusionary Rule

Within the scope of the legal system in the United States there is a foundational and unique expression of the checks and balances that are present in the constitution of the United States. Though the laws collectively are called the exclusionary rules, as is the standard of criminal law they are really a collective group of decisions, in local, state, and federal court decisions that establish a set of principles to protect the defendant from illegal search and seizure and illegal coercion of confession. The foundation of the law is the protection of fourth amendment rights,

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants…. [read more]


Rules and Ethics Governing Journalists Revealing Sources Term Paper

… ¶ … rules and ethics governing journalists revealing sources. The writer explores cases in which journalists were ordered to reveal sources and refused. The writer also examines the protections that journalists have from revealing sources and argues that it is those protections that provide the ability to bring the public the news. There were five sources used to complete this paper.

The freedom of the press has provided a powerful cloak of protection in the interest of getting the news out to the public, however in recent years some of the elements of that freedom have come under scrutiny as issues of justice and security have come into play. Journalists who bring the news to the public often develop confidential sources who are willing to…. [read more]


Exclusionary Rule Criminal Justice Essay

… Even if only certain aspects of the Constitution became obsolete, the damage to the American people, American society, and America's national identity would suffer substantial damage.

Other countries would perceive a blatant and likely irrevocable blow to rights in America as weakness or at least a sign that America is certain kind of country and not the one it purports itself to be. Who knows how the American public would react if the Exclusionary Rule were no longer valid. Certainly there would be some citizens that would leave America. It is possible that some Americans would organize, protest, and fight the loss of this rule. Rules about technicalities are necessary and crucial whether they are in sports or in the law. We have to follow…. [read more]


Exclusionary Rule in Defense Research Proposal

… Exclusionary Rule

In defense of the exclusionary rule: A legal overview of a controversial doctrine

"It is better that ten guilty persons escape, than one innocent suffer," said English jurist William Blackstone (Blackstone, 2009, Legal Dictionary). It is this core principle that lies behind the exclusionary rule, one of the cornerstones of American Constitutional law. Many people may agree with Blackstone's principle in theory. But the idea that evidence, if it is illegally obtained, should be excluded from the case submitted to a jury considering a defendant's guilt is often controversial in the court of popular opinion. Countless television shows such as Law & Order revolve around evidence that was obtained by police that is then excluded from a trial, resulting in a guilty person…. [read more]


Exclusionary Rule Be Abolished? Research Paper

… A child's bedroom, living room, kitchen, and dinette on the second floor were also searched. After this police went to the basement and they found a trunk with obscene materials inside of it. The prosecution could produce no search warrant at trial and there was no discussion about the failure to produce one. Miss Mapp was then convicted of the possession of obscene materials. There was some concern as to whether there actually ever was a search warrant and the methods that were used to search Miss Mapp's home were offensive to what most people would see as a sense of justice. The conviction was still upheld, however, because the evidence that was taken had not been taken by brutal or offensive force.

This type…. [read more]


Knock-And-Announce Rule: Case of Richards vs. Wisconsin Research Paper

… pag). One can rightly assume that felony drug investigations will always pose a high safety risk to the police, and that knock-and-announce modalities would often present opportunities for suspects to, prior to the entry of officers, dispose off drugs. In Richard's case, the slamming of the door implied that he either intended to cause violence and escape, or dispose of the drugs before the officers could gain access (ACLU, 1997). Either action would have inhibited the effective process of the investigation; and the officers' decision to resort to forcible entry was, in essence, reasonable.

The Wisconsin Court concluded that such exigent circumstances would always exist in felony drug investigations because the drug culture necessitates the same (LII, 2014). Furthermore, the privacy violation that comes about…. [read more]


Plantation and Factory Rules: United Essay

… Because the emerging differences made the southerners feel abandoned by the system on which they based their economy on.

Plantation vs. Factory Life: In 1789, when the first mill was established no one realized it was going to be a hell hole for the people. slavery was the most common the mid-1800's where the slaves from the south tried to make sense of the unjust treatment they received by making the workers from north insecure about their working conditions, claiming that the northerners had a worst lives as compared to the south. Northern rejected this notion to keep their face, but in reality it was exactly what was happening. Factory workers felt injustice because of the comfortable way as compared to them, the southerners were…. [read more]


Prescriptive Grammar Are the Rules Term Paper

… " Also, from a prescriptive language perspective, one may learn that the letter C. makes a hard sound. However, there are many variations of this rule. In the word "scintillating" for example, the c is silent. The name Cecilia assumes a silent C.

From a descriptive grammar perspective, a native speaker would recognize for example that the word "ndugu" or "giasou" are not from the English language. Descriptive grammar allows an individual to pronounce sounds and make meaningful sentences, even without understanding the mechanics of language and grammar. Descriptive grammatical usage also allows the speaker to break up words such as compound words to form multiple meanings. Again, falling back on the idea of "linguistic competence" descriptive grammar models usage based on an intuitive understanding…. [read more]


Supreme Court Has Ruled Term Paper

… But for the most part, if we have knowledge important to trial proceedings and are called to court, we have to say what we know.

In your opinion, are there any subjects the government could make illegal to teach in a private school?

It occurs to one that there one could make a case for some topics being illegal. For instance, if students were being taught how to be a terrorist, it seems that the greater needs of the society would override the school's right to freedom of speech. By that reasoning, military academies would be fine, including those that taught military tactics and use of firearms. However, if the school taught an ideology of terrorism, that might be unprotected, whether they actually taught the…. [read more]


Arabic Morphology Morph = Form Term Paper

… Aspects of Contemporary Arabic morphology

Arabic language morphology is divided into two significant parts which is a well-established fact (Bohas & Guillaume, 1984). Primitive nouns constitute the first part that do not relate to verbs but it is possible to derive verbs from them. For instance, the verb [kaliba] which means "get infected with rabies" can be derived from the primitive noun [kalb] meaning "dog." The second part corresponds to verb morphology and incorporate proper verbs and derived nouns (nouns being derived from verbs). There are further two categories of verbs: augmented and unaugmented verbs. Three patterns make the un-augmented verb forms; {faoal}, {faoil}, {faoul}. The above three configurations are referred to as 'un-augmented' because they originate from minimal phonetic material required by a form…. [read more]


Broken Windows Theory and Strain Theory Criminology Term Paper

… Preventing Crime

From a crime prevention perspective, the role of Broken Windows Theory plays a considerable part. First advanced by James Wilson and George Kelling (1982), this theory stipulates that by preventing small crimes such as vandalism and petty public disturbances, larger and more serious crimes will be prevented as well. On the other hand, if a community lets itself fall prey to graffiti artists, vandals, and public disturbances, the area will soon become a crime haven simply because of the snowball effect, which holds that small matters will escalate until they are big matters. Thus, broken windows will eventually become broken homes, broken families, and broken cities. This is the essence of the Broken Windows Theory, and it is useful in helping criminologists to…. [read more]


Break All the Rules Book Review

… Possessing positive interpersonal skills is very important to balance the environmental harmony between employees as well as to improve their attitudes towards clients and co-workers. The big five factor model has been also emphasized from the book that explains about particular behaviors that are very relevant to the practice of business management. The openness to experience is a factor that pertains about the organizational behavior's awareness regarding all kinds of positive and negative outcomes for every activity that has been performed to identify issues that are appropriate and inappropriate actions to improve the organization. Conscientiousness is the process of showing self-discipline while extraversion refers to the process of seeking motivation to increase the core groups of managing all involved staff effectively. Agreeableness is the act…. [read more]