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British Royal Navy Essay

… British Royal Navy

What doctrine and dynamics of the British Royal Navy allowed it to dominate the seas for two and a half centuries?

British naval strategies were continually evolving over the course of 250 years. This was in response to changes in technology and the introduction of tactics that helped to give them an advantage over their adversaries. During the course of time, these techniques became essential tools in redefining warfare and the role of the navy.

The first of these innovations occurred in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. This is when a series of ships were designed to provide the British with the ability to attack and commandeer vessels at sea. To achieve these objectives, there was a focus on building…. [read more]

Military -- British Royal Navy Essay

… , 1989, p. 64.] [6: Ibid., p. 16.] [7: Rodger, pp. 250-1.]

This "wedding" of Great Britain's military and economic interests under the protection of the Royal Navy made the Royal Navy the "supreme industrial activity"[footnoteRef:8] and greatly contributed to the social belief in the myth that liberty and the strength of the Royal Navy were intimately connected.[footnoteRef:9] As a result of the belief that the Royal Navy was essential to the economy and to Britain's safety from its enemies, the Royal Navy had no difficulty in manning its ships with an eager populace.[footnoteRef:10] What is more, the myth spilled over into politics in which the Royal Navy's officers, coming from many different backgrounds[footnoteRef:11], occupied many local and national political offices and heavily influenced Great…. [read more]

Military -- Naval Questions Essay

… Military -- Naval Questions

In What Ways does Sea, Naval and Maritime Power Aid in the Prosecution of the Land Battle and Enhance the Ability of States to Project Power Beyond their Shores?

The efficacy of Sea, Naval and Maritime Power for land battles and projection of power is created in multiple roles, often carried out in tandem with land and air forces, to prevent wars and to win wars, as the case may be. Historically in war, navies have been employed in outright naval and amphibious warfare.[footnoteRef:1] in addition, they have transported troops and related materiel such as weapons, ammunition, equipment and supplies.[footnoteRef:2] for example, from January to June of 1944 alone, Allied navies transported nearly 9 million tons of supplies and 800,000 troops…. [read more]

Navies in American Revolution Term Paper

… ] [14: Dull, p. 119.]

Britain's First Lord of the Admiralty, the Earl of Sandwich, would have preferred to keep British naval strength concentrated in the English Channel, to deter the threat of a Franco-Spanish invasion. A major drawback to this strategy was that it meant allowing France and Spain more of a free hand in North America, the West Indies and the Far East. War with France and Spain also strengthened the hand of the peace party in Parliament, led by Whigs like Charles James Fox, who were prepared to grant independence to the United States in order to better defend the rest of the British Empire. This led to a "fierce governmental dispute over strategy" in 1778-79, since Britain simply seemed to have…. [read more]

Royal Navy and German Navy in 1904 and the Dreadnought Term Paper

… ¶ … Royal Navy and the German Navy in 1904 and the Dreadnought

By 1904, Great Britain was so concerned about German naval capabilities that it began to devote more and more of its national budget to military preparedness in general and expansion of its naval fleet in particular. What is the significance of the word 'Dreadnought' in this context? Who were some of the people involved in this issue?

In 1904 the British Royal Navy could look back over a century of effective supremacy across the oceans of the world. The Battle of Trafalgar in 1805 had marked the end of the last serious attempt to challenge British sea power; since then the authority of the Royal Navy had acted as the rock upon…. [read more]

Rise of the British Navy in the Renaissance Term Paper

… ¶ … British Navy from 1461 through 1700 [...] rise of the British Navy during the Renaissance period with a special emphasis on privateering. During the Renaissance, the British Navy was one of the most powerful and commanding forces on Earth. Led by daring and brilliant Admirals such as Drake, the British Royal Navy became the model for building a modern navy, and many other countries attempted to create their own maritime forces like England's. Plagued by privateering and piracy, the British Royal Navy eventually lost its command of the world's seas, but during the Renaissance it was at the peak of dominance and power.

Before the fifteenth century, Great Britain was primarily occupied with issues at home, such as the Hundred Years' War and…. [read more]

British Marines in American Revolution and War of 1812 Term Paper

… ¶ … British Marinesduring the Amer Revolution War and the War of 1812

The American Revolution is considered to be one of the most important political events in the history of the U.S., as well as a turning point in the development of military tactics and warfare. From a political perspective, it represented the moment in which the American colonies gained their independence from the British rule, while from the military point-of-view, it marked the beginning of a new war strategy, in which all the components of both offensive and defensive forces were used and played their significant role.

The confrontations that took place on the sea are of particular interest due to the fact that they involved the British Marine as opponents. From this…. [read more]

British Empire This Informative, Historical, Analytical Term Paper

… British Empire

This informative, historical, analytical, argumentative article of British History regarding British Empire present number of critical analysis from the beginning of the 17th century until de-colonization period of the 1960's and shedding light on one of the most important fact that trade and commerce was engine that drove the establishment as well continuance of British empire. Hence, collective information from various sources is making this dissertation more credible.

British Empire ical studies have exposed compellingly that no neocolonialist conspiracies were hatched to perpetuate British commercial domination in the former colonies after self-government and that relations among individual firms as well as policy-makers were frequently troubled. In acknowledging the force of this general proposition yet there is a risk of neglecting the still important…. [read more]

History Naval Warfare Essay

… In the 1760s American regal seaports from Newport to Norfolk refused to accept press gangs in a series of great insurrections; the disturbances were helpful in radicalizing American seaports and making regal sailors in the middle of the fiercest opponents of British regal rule. During the American Revolution, impressments were greatly opposed in Britain and this caused overwhelming shortages of manpower in the Royal Navy. After the Revolution, due to its continuing cultural and commercial networks United States remained a casual part of the British Atlantic world. But the ongoing impressments of American sailors once more caused separation in the Atlantic and ultimately ended in the War of 1812. In the two Anglo-American wars, press gangs had their contribution disintegrate the British Atlantic power that…. [read more]

Equiano Slave Narratives Term Paper

… For example, in Chapter IX of the narrative, Equiano encounters some Mosquito Indian chiefs. The author notices that they "were brought here by some English traders for some selfish ends." Equiano also sees that slavery is practiced in different ways in different places, and that some types of slavery are particularly cruel. For example, the slavery he experienced in Virginia involved methods that he had not before encountered; what he witnesses in the West Indies such as Jamaica was also disturbing. However, in the West Indies, Equiano learns a little more about farming and from the Mosquito Indians he learns how to make a potent alcoholic beverage made from roasted pineapples. Equiano also witnesses the various ways creative entrepreneurs make their money, which influences him…. [read more]

Royal Patronage of 17th Century Natural Philosophers Scientists Term Paper

… Royal Patronage of 17th Century Natural Philosophers (scientists)

During the 17th century, many educated Europeans in France and Great Britain developed a hunger for knowledge and truth seeking. These natural philosophers gave rise to science and to the technological developments that marked subsequent phases in the development of humanity. The link between the society of natural philosophers and the royal figures that offered them patronage was a close one and was based on what the royals identified as state interest.

Indeed, the 17th century marks, more and more, a defining shift from the earlier centuries, in a direction where scientific and technological progress begins to significantly factor into the military and political successes in Europe. Discoveries in the scientific sphere tend to affect the results…. [read more]

British Heritage Conservation Principle Term Paper

… British Heritage Conservation Principle

An Analysis of the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter Conservation Efforts and What Can Be Done to Improve the Process

One of Birmingham's oldest manufacturing communities is its jewellers in the city's historic Jewellery Quarter. Today, efforts are underway to preserve the unique quality and character of the Birmingham Jewellery Quarter, but some observers suggest that these initiatives may do more harm than good by destroyed the region's unique qualities and flavor. To determine what can be done to improve the process across the board, this paper provides a review and discussion of the relevant issues, followed by a summary of the research and salient recommendations in the conclusion.

Review and Discussion

Background and Overview. Today, Birmingham is the second largest city of…. [read more]

British Petroleum Brief Summary of Marketing Issues Case Study

… British Petroleum

Brief Summary of Marketing Issues and Strategies

BP's many latent strengths, from being able to successfully explore and discover vast oil reserves to their ability to refine, sell and even speculate on other natural resources often is forgotten in light of their many ethical and environmental disasters and mistakes. During its initial founding the country was on the right track ethically, creating the first medical center in Iran to serve its pipeline workers, and many other acts of humanitarianism in the region. BP was also chosen by Winston Churchill to supply the Royal Navy with much of their fuels and oil during the second World War. As the company expanded into the Forties Field of Scotland, to Alaska, Algiers and throughout the Middle…. [read more]

Barbary Pirates and U.S. Navy Research Paper

… Some historians call the Barbary Wars "The Forgotten Wars," but from a political and military standpoint they were quite important to the new republic. First, they necessitated the establishment of a formal navy, without which the War of 1812 would likely have been lost. Second, they proved to Britain, Europe, and the rest of the world that the U.S. would not be taken advantage of, and would press its soveriegn issues as far as needed. Third, with the completion of the Treaty of Ghent and the ending of Barbary raids, the United States was positioned to grow economically and politically, leading of course to the Monroe Doctrine and the climb towards global legitimacy (Nichols 1950).


Clark, G.N. "The Barbary Corsairs in the Seventheenth Century."…. [read more]

World War I Great Britain's Failure Term Paper

… World War I

Great Britain's Failure to Use Its Navy to Its Full Effectiveness in World War I

As World War I began, Great Britain was considered the supreme power in terms of naval force. Yet, the German Navy had been upgrading enough to make it of significant British concern during the war. In particular, the use of German U-boats as a threat to both military and merchant vessels complicated Great Britain's naval choices. Though many history texts take it for granted that Britain was the stronger of the two navies, the only major naval battle (at Jutland) between the two forces resulted in heavy British losses. While the Royal Navy had both experience and opportunity to strike more forcefully at Germany by sea, they…. [read more]

Naval History France Essay

… Now the Navy Is Paying Tribute to the Scot Who Saved Britain."The Daily Mail (London, England), October 11, 2010, 15., T., and P. Craig. Naval Historical Society of Australia, "Trafalgar - the Men, the Battle, the Storm." Last modified 2005. Accessed December 7, 2011., T. historyofwar, "Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821)." Last modified January 07, 2006. Accessed December 7, 2011., Herbert. 1913. Napoleon. New York: Henry Holt and Company., "HISTORY OF THE NAPOLEONIC WARS." Accessed December 7, 2011., N. BBC, "Trafalgar: The Long-Term Impact." Last modified February 17, 2011. Accessed December 7, 2011., A. The Trafalgar Companion. West way, Borley: Osprey Publishing, 2005., Battle Of. 2009. In The Columbia Encyclopedia 6th ed., edited by Lagass, Paul. New York: Columbia University…. [read more]

Pusser's Rum Term Paper

… Pusser's Rum is a fascinating product with a fascinating history. The association of Rum with a form of compensation on a naval ship has a long tradition and Pusser's Rum is the rum that fit this bill got the British Royal Navy from 1655 to 1970. The name comes from a slang pronunciation of Purser, the individual on the ship responsible for divvying out the daily rum ration for the individual sailors.

Prior to 1740, the men's daily tot of Pusser's Rum was a pint a day, which they drank neat, that is without water! Before battle, they were issued a double 'tot', and always after victory for a job well done! From 1655 to the 19th century, Pusser's Rum was one of the few…. [read more]

Australian Defense Force and Whole of Government Operations Term Paper

… Australian Defense Force and Whole of Government Operations

Has the Australian Defense Force (ADF) "broken the code" to successful integration of joint-interagency support during the conduct of military operations?

Following the end of Australian involvement in the Vietnam War a decision was made by the Government of Australia to reorganize the department supporting the military services, which included the Army, Navy and Air Force, which recommended the unification into one single Department of Defense. These recommendations were accepted by the government and the Australian Defense Force (ADF) was formed on February 9, 1976. Over the course of the next thirty years the ADF would continually redefine its role and how it interacts with supporting government agencies in the conduct of military operation. The contemporary security…. [read more]

General Dynamics Corporation Thesis

… ¶ … extended overview of General Dynamics Corporation. A throughout view of its history, activities, technologic development, its mergers and divestitures, as well as short summary of its financials will be summarized within this paper.

Company overview

General Dynamics represents today a market leader within the aerospace and defense industry, designer of products and services aiming at meeting the needs of most demanding customers all over the world, thus creating great value for its shareholders.

With a global base of more than 83,500 employees, General Dynamics operates today in four main segments: Aerospace, Combat Systems, Marine Systems and Information Systems and Technology. Its customers are represented by the national security entities of the U.S. And its allies, their defense and intelligence communities and select commercial…. [read more]

Billy Mitchell and Airpower Essay

… Douhet, Mitchell and Trenchard were correct about the value of airpower, particularly on the tactical level, but its value as a war-winning weapon remains unproved, except under a set of very specific circumstances that will not recur in every war. [9: David MacIssac, "Voices from the Central Blue: The Air Power Theorists" In Peter Paret (ed), Makers of Modern Strategy: from Machiavelli to the Nuclear Age (Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press, 1986), p. 634.] [10: Stephen, p. 47.] [11: Benjamin S. Lambeth. The Transformation of American Airpower. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 2000, p. 3.]


Brodie, Bernard. From Crossbow to H-Bomb: The Evolution of the Weapons and Tactics of Warfare. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1973.

Douhet, Giulio. "Aerial Warfare" in The Command of the Air.…. [read more]

Economy of Colonial America Term Paper

… " Using this formula, and plugging the math into 1980 dollars, per capita income for "free" colonists in 1650 was $572; for 1720 it was $826; and for 1774 it rose to $1,043, according to McCusker's research. There was a dramatic disparity between wealth in the "Upper and Lower South" and the New England and Middle Colonies (Table 3.3, 61). To wit, the "Net Worth per Free White Person" (NWPFWP) in New England (using Pounds Sterling) in 1774 was 33.00; in the Middle Colonies in the same year it was 51.00; but in the Upper and Lower South, it was 132.00 Pounds Sterling. One reason New England lagged behind in NWPFWP (92) was that those settlers "...lacked a major staple commodity to export" to the…. [read more]

Undeclared War in the Atlantic Thesis

… This was a historic event in history (Kershaw, 2007).

Still at this time the U.S. was not formally engaged in war however. It was not until the Icelandic region invited the U.S. To intervene in their affairs that the U.S. intervened to replace British forces in July that U.S. forces moved further of where the Royal Navy had been battling U-boats (Kershaw, 2007; Baily & Ryan, 1979). War at this point seemed inevitable. Churchill and Roosevelt met privately after this discussing the U.S. entering war formally after this; however, the U.S. continued its commitment to democracy. There was no public outrage regarding the war, and no public affront despite the fact that U-boats sank another U.S. freighter in September of1941 (Kershaw, 2007). Incidents continued to…. [read more]

Battle of the Atlantic Essay

… When the Germans added radar to their defenses, the Allied forces were no longer able to get the drop on them by attacking at night, and the game was continually changing and evolving (Overy, 1997). The war was serious business for everyone involved, especially as it drug on month after month and year after year with no real end in sight.

Rebuttal and Counter-Argument

Even when there are sound arguments that deal with a battle as significant as the Battle of the Atlantic, there are still rebuttals and counter-arguments to be considered. For example, it has been argued that intelligence and teamwork were what won the war for the Allied forces. However, it can also be argued that winning the war had nothing to do…. [read more]

F-35 Joint Strike Fighter Research Paper

… " (Gertler, 2010) The result is that the committee states a recommendation for a reduction of $204.9 million in the APAF account within OCD. (Gertler, 2010) The following illustration shows the Summary of Action on FY2010 F-35 quantities and funding.

Figure 3

Summary of Action on FY2010 F-35 Quantities and Funding

Source: Gertler (2010)

Tiron (2010) specifically reports that the F-35 "…has undergone significant reshaping as a result of ballooning costs and development delays. The F-35 is meant to replace older aircraft for the Air Force, Navy and Marine Corps as well as international militaries. The cost of the program has risen to $382.4 billion, a 65% increase from the projected costs in 2002."

Summary and Conclusion

The costs for development and production of the…. [read more]

Olaudah Equiano / Prince Slave Term Paper

… S. Embassy in Morocco. This results in correspondence, an exchange of letters in order to secure the Prince's freedom. In fact the Sultan of Morocco initiates correspondence with President John Quincy Adams. Somehow the president is convinced that The Prince deserves a chance to be free to John Quincy Adams writes directly to farmer Foster to "…let Abdul Rahman go" (PBS).

Foster is reluctant, but he lets The Prince go, under one condition: "That Abdul Rahman was not to enjoy the rights of a free man in the United States -- he was to travel directly to Africa" (PBS, p. 2). Did The Prince agree to that deal? No, he defied the edict, and instead he tried hard to secure the freedom of his wife…. [read more]

English Military Term Paper

… In 1066, the Normans invaded and conquered England. The Normans' great contribution to the English military was the castle. They began building the first castles there, and used them as bases from which to control the surrounding countryside. This also brought the art of siege warfare to its zenith. This changed the focus from a walled community surrounded by fields to a single massive structure surrounded by the farming peasants. In times of crisis the peasants would withdraw to the castle and wait out the enemy. Siege machinery was developed to try and overcome the great stone structures, such as catapults, ballistae and the dreaded trebuchet.

The next major development of the military was the use of gunpowder. The use of firearms and cannons began…. [read more]

Battle at Dunkirk Term Paper

… Boats that were not built for war, which arose from rivers and coastal waters of England and some of them who came to England in refuge - strong schuyts from the Netherlands. There were many varieties of river launches, old sailing and rowing lifeboats, yachts, pleasure steamers, fishing boats, working sailing barges, fireboats without any compass, most of which had not been to sea before. (Hart, 77)

Some of them were sent in the name of the King; some were steered without any attention and given hand written slips for the receipt by the naval members. Anything that could float was boats like three or more journeys on their own amidst dive bombing and fighting by the Luftwaffe. Not being light and able to make…. [read more]

Billy Budd Before Referencing Herman Term Paper

… However, Claggart's evil is described as inevitable, something that lesser men always feel before a "Handsome Sailor" like Billy. In other words, there will always be Claggarts in the world; the question is how society should respond to its 'Claggarts.'

The paranoia about mutiny in the Royal Navy gave credence to Claggart's self-serving and baseless accusations, and without the inflexible attitudes of the Navy, a peaceful man like Billy would never have been impressed and forced to serve. The navy's undemocratic forms of justice, where only officers, not Billy's equals on the ship can judge him, and the quick pace of justice, which allows no court of appeal, also seem complicit in Budd's death. The reason given for Claggart's quick advancement, although he was unpopular…. [read more]

Parliament Elizabeth Term Paper

… British History

Simon De Montford And Parliament

According to J.S. Roskill, around the year 1265 during the Medieval Period in England, the sole institution "which soon came to be viewed as the co-protector of England and the Crown was parliament" (167). At the time, this new entity, created by Simon de Montfort, was still somewhat similar to the royal council of ecclesiastics, controlled predominantly by rich and powerful English barons. In the eyes of many of these barons, the King of England, Henry III Plantagenet, was quite biased toward them, for he was "well-known for giving high offices. Bishoprics and land to his foreign courtiers," a situation which forced the newly-created parliament to assert "some rather outlandish claims, one being the right to approve, veto…. [read more]

War in 1917 Term Paper

… ¶ … War! For Safety, Security, & Future (written for mid-Late 1917 new article)

It has now been three years that we have watched the European nations struggle for supremacy at the expense of their own people. Yet, I contend that our nation, too, has struggled. We may not have men in the fields and trenches of Europe, but American lives have been lost at the hands of German submarine soldiers. It is a fool who thinks that we are truly neutral, for we have only lost American lives due to only one force. That force is Germany.

In the beginning of this year, President Wilson called for "Peace Without Victory," and that victory for one nation would mean, "peace forced upon the loser" (Wilson,…. [read more]

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