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Crime, Social Crime and Crime Against Research Paper

… Crime, Social Crime and Crime Against the Person: Violence

One of the more challenging aspects of understanding crime is its ever-changing geographic and temporal qualities. Indeed, what is criminal in one place and time may be completely legal in another. Likewise, so-called "social crimes" have similar qualities that require careful analyses to place them into the appropriate context. Similarly, violent acts against another person may also involve contextual issues that must be taken into account when evaluating the criminality of such behaviors. After all, if people are trying to defend themselves and their families from harm, violence may be the only legitimate alternative that is available to them. To gain a further understanding of these three concepts, this paper provides a review of the relevant…. [read more]


Economy on Crime Rates Term Paper

… ¶ … Economy on Crime Rates

It is the general aim of all researchers not only to discover new information but as much as possible to build on what other people have already done in the field (Becker, p76). This is particularly important as these works whether published or unpublished can serve as a cheaper source of mobilizing data. It also helps the researcher to put the issues under consideration into the right perspective. The San Bernardino economy in general has received its fair share of academic and non-academic writing based on research or normative thought.

Some these works have usually focused on selected aspects of the economy just like this one seeks to examine the economy in relationship to crime rate. This research will…. [read more]


Juvenile Crime United States Essay

… Therefore, it was pointed by the researcher that even if the child sees violence in neighbourhood, it might affect his/her behaviour.

Moreover, it is the responsibility of the agencies to provide their services for the better upbringing of the child. They need to provide support and prevention services to the youth in where they live. But in the large country like U.S., these agencies have higher number of responsibilities and so they are unable to manage activities in each area. (Mandel, 2008)

Media

The children who watch violent movies and play fighting or violent video games for long hours from very early age are more likely to develop delinquent behaviour. Since, in most of Hollywood movies, cartoons and games promotes the elimination of enemies by…. [read more]


Capital Punishment and Sexual Crimes Term Paper

… Capital Punishment and Sexual Crimes

Sexual crimes and its impact on victims

Sexual crimes are a kind of crime involving forced sex, rape, child abuse, human trafficking, sexual harassment and sex with animals. Every country has differing levels of punishment for sexual crimes. Western countries are in general more tolerant to mild forms of sexual crime than other countries. A commonality when it comes to punishment is that there are stringent laws in every country to protect children and minors from sexual crimes and strict punishment is awarded to offenders.

Irrespective of the age of victim, sexual crimes have a profound impact on the victim's emotional health. Many child abuse victims end up with multiple personality disorders, extreme violent behavior, psychotic behavior, depression and other…. [read more]


Gender Bias in the U.S Research Paper

… In certain situations women have been given leniency because of their physical femininity such as the case where a woman became impregnated by a 14-year-old and was granted probation because she needed to stay out of prison to take care of the newborn baby (Elias 2007). Because she was a woman she was granted probation when a man in her same position would have been given a much harsher sentence.

Researchers found that both male and female judges tend to award women with a great deal of leniency as opposed to male criminals, but each for different reasons entirely. Both psychology and sociology takes part in the sentencing stage of a trial. According to Goldman & Portney (1997):

While the lenience of male judges toward…. [read more]


Against Capital Punishment Term Paper

… ¶ … Against Capital Punishment

Capital punishment, more commonly known as 'the death penalty' is both a moral as well as a legal blemish upon the principles that there should be no cruel and unusual punishment in America, as outlined in the Bill of Rights of the Constitution of the United States. Capital punishment is 'unusual' in the sense that it is immoral and goes against both national and world standards of what constitutes effective and ethical forms of punishment for crimes. It is cruel because it is applied arbitrarily, often dependant upon a defendant's race rather than the seriousness of his or her crime, and because it fails to have an added deterrent capability in contrast to sentencing a defendant to life in prison.…. [read more]


Capital Punishment Term Paper

… The first flaw is that the death penalty is simply not a cost-effective means of punishment, because the death penalty costs more than life imprisonment. The second flaw is that the twin goals of the death penalty, retribution and deterrence, are either inappropriate goals for the state or are not achieved by imposition of the death penalty.

Proponents of the death penalty often cite the expense of keeping a defendant alive for the term of his or her natural life as a reason for death. The reality is that it is much more expensive to impose the death penalty than it is to maintain a prisoner for life. For example, the costs for a single death penalty case range from $1 million to $7 million,…. [read more]


Capital Punishment or the Death Penalty Term Paper

… Capital Punishment or the death penalty is the execution of a convicted criminal by the State as punishment for capital crimes or offenses (Wikipedia 2006). It is called "capital" because it literally and historically meant losing the head to punish or deter crime and political dissent. It was practiced in the past by almost all societies but recently, most European and Latin American states have abolished it. In most places today, capital punishment is reserved as punishment for premeditated murder, espionage, treason or as part of military justice. It is imposed on sexual and religious crimes in some Muslim countries; drug trafficking in retentionist countries; human trafficking and serious cases of corruption in countries like China; and court martial cases in world courts-martial for cowardice,…. [read more]


Capital Punishment With Regards to Christian Ethics Reaction Paper

… Christianity and the Death Penalty

A Christian View of Capital Punishment

The issue of capital punishment is as old as the Bible itself. God himself was the first to issue an edict of capital punishment. In Genesis 6-8 God decided that all of humanity, except for Noah and his family were to receive the death penalty for their wrongs. In Genesis 18-19 God punishes Sodom and Gomorrah for the sins of the people. In Exodus 14, God destroyed the Egyptian army in the Red Sea. The Old Testament is filled with instances where God saw it necessary to destroy a single man, or humankind for their actions.

Many anti-capital punishment supporter claim that capital punishment is unethical, as it is not fair to trade one…. [read more]


Death Penalty Thesis

… This is similar to the old age dunce cap in the classroom. If a child acts up in class, you sit him in the corner with a white cone on his head. Seeing the boy or girl thus humiliated, the other kids will think twice before they follow suit. Instead of sticking the criminal in the corner, he or she is executed. Fearing for their own lives and their sense of self-preservation, the criminals will not commit heinous acts. According to statistics that have been gathered, there is no validity to the deterrence theory at all (Facts 2011). States that have the death penalty reportedly have twice as many murders than states that do not possess the death penalty. Pro-death penalty advocates say that this…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Process Essay

… Criminal Justice Process

Considerable attention has been devoted to law, both substantive and procedural on the justice process. The criminal justice system is a legal system. How does the law influence the day-to-day activities of the justice process? Be sure to cover criminal justice decisions in all major sub-components of the process.

The law influences the day-to-day activities of the justice process in a number of ways, because the law determines the parameters of permissible activity at every point in the criminal justice system. First, it is important to realize that the law influences what is considered criminal activity. This may seem like an obvious point, but it can have a tremendous impact on the day-to-day activities of the criminal justice system. For example, the…. [read more]


Juvenile Death Penalty Term Paper

… Juvenile Death Penalty Sentencing Is Cruel and Unjust Punishment

In America, twenty-five states permit the execution of juveniles, twenty-one states set the minimum age for execution at 16 and four states at set it at 17. No other Western country, no other industrialized state, and in fact no other democracy in the world allows juveniles to be executed. In fact, since 1990, the United States joins only Iran, Nigeria, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Yemen as nations that have executed children. With nine executions of juveniles since the year 1990, the American criminal justice system executes a larger number of children than the rest of the Earth combined. In fact, just the state of Texas, with five juvenile executions since 1990, executes more children than any…. [read more]


Criminal Justice Juveniles Research Paper

… (Johnson and Tabri, Page 2 -- 3)

People think that juveniles with life sentences would improve their health and their character if the possibility of parole existed to be something for them to work towards while imprisoned. LWOP is another form of death. Others who argue against LWOP for juvenile declare that LWOP diminishes the health of juveniles in many ways, many of which, lead to premature death.

According to Monahon (2009), juveniles are vulnerable because of their size, lack of experience in the system, and lack of peer support groups. Compared to youth in juvenile facilities, juveniles incarcerated in adult prisons are five times more likely to be sexually assaulted, and almost twice as likely to be attacked with a weapon by inmates or…. [read more]


Convicted Felons Return to the Community Research Paper

… Convicted Felons Return to the Community

Deviance is both a sociological and psychological component of the human organism that expresses itself in numerous ways at numerous times. Further, if we look back at the way philosophers have defined abnormality and deviance, from Plato through Kant and into the 20th century, we find that there are really three classifications of abnormality and within these three classifications a variance on a continuum of low to high:

Perceived harmfulness -- usually to society as a whole (Plato) or to the actualization of the individual (Kant).

The degree of social consensus about whether the action is abnormal or deviant; what real harm is done? Is this utilitarian -- the most harm to the most people qualifies as the most…. [read more]


Correctional Law? Term Paper

… Should there be any restrictions? Why or why not?

They should be provided with health care without any restrictions. The legal reason for providing adequate healthcare to prisoners were set in motion in the 1976 Supreme Court ruling in the case of Estelle v. Gamble. The supreme court held that the deprivation of health care constitutes a cruel and unusual punishment (Rold,2006) a total violation of the eight Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.

Part 2: page 2

• In your own words, what is the difference between indeterminate sentencing and determinate sentencing? Explain thoroughly.

The main difference between a determinate and indeterminate sentencing system is the time or when the sentence is determined. Under determinate sentencing, the convicted individual knows with reasonable certainty when she…. [read more]


Capital Punishment Is the Method Essay

… This argument, however, once again neglects that the United States's system of capital punishment when compared to the rest of the world is highly flawed. Additionally, even a punishment of life imprisonment, or a consquence of any kind is typically enough to foster a sense of justice in the victims.

The third arguemnt for capital punishment is that of incapacitation. Incapacitation is the legal means of physically making recommitment of a crime impossible through either locking up or ending the life of the criminal. The reasoning behind this argument is that there are a number of criminals who are prone to recommitment of the same crimes if left in the public. In Italy, for instance, statistics have shown that 30% of those criminals released from…. [read more]


Criminal Gang Enhancements Term Paper

… Criminal Gang Enhancements in Sentencing

CRIMINAL GANG ENHANCEMENT

IN SENTENCING

During the time period between the years of 1997 and 1998 legislation was focused on crime and most specifically juvenile crime. The work of Matthews and Ruzicka entitled: "Proposition 21: Juvenile Crime" (2000) published by the Capital Center for Government Law and Policy in a California Initiative Review relates that Proposition 21 had as its aim the amendment of both "the Penal Code and the Welfare and Institution Code" and this was specific to the "procedures used in the treatment of juveniles and adults who commit gang-related felonies." (Matthews & Ruzicka, 2000) According to Matthews and Ruzicka this law would bring about serious changes to the way. Proposition 21 would increase penalties related to street…. [read more]


Homicide Rate Canada Increased Essay

… Conditions stabilized in the 1980s and 1990s, however, because people had gotten accustomed to change and came to accept that it was normal for them to experience particular feelings. This time period "can be characterized by the progressive integration of a new ethos of moderation in drinking, drug use, sexual activity and even tobacco use" (Explaining the American and Canadian crime 'drop' in the 1990s 9). Numerous concepts that were previously seen as inacceptable and that provoked harsh criticism from the masses later came to be considered ordinary and individuals were actually encouraged to do anything they wanted as long as their behavior did not hurt anyone.

Homicide rates are presently reduced in Canada when compared to the critical time period between 1966 and 1975.…. [read more]


Maryland Prison System Crime Term Paper

… Much of the criticism and backlash attacks "three strikes" laws as being an ill-advised policy, a quick fix solution to the dynamic problem of crime, a policy with no or at best modest deterrent effect, and lastly, a financial burden to the correctional community and taxpayers. Furthermore, critics say, this law, which currently has been adopted by thirty-seven states, contains many inconsistencies across the states. Some of these inconsistencies include what crimes (violent or nonviolent) actually count as a strike, the possibility of parole or no parole, whether the person should be sentenced as a habitual offender, and whether the offender should receive a mandatory life sentence. In response, some states such as Washington suggest that "three strikes" laws are effective given proper implementation (http://www.msccsp.org/publications/strikes.html).…. [read more]


Victims and Criminal Justice Victimization Essay

… Thus, many victims' rights groups have been started that have the purpose of ensuring that all people who have been the victims of criminal activity are able to realize the same rights as a victim that White, middle class people are. The provision of victims' rights has even swung to criminals in some cases when they are the victims of heinous crimes committed against them by either other criminals (many times during a prison sentence) or their victims (Van den Wyngaert, 2011).

There have actually been studies conducted that look at victims' rights from the perspective of the victim as the suspected criminal is being processed through the criminal courts system as mentioned in the second part of the question. This secondary victimization is described…. [read more]


Use of Force in Law Enforcement Thesis

… ¶ … Force in Law Enforcement

The controversy swirling about Professor Henry Louis Gates, Jr., a respected Cambridge professor who happens to be an African-American, and Sgt. James M. Crowley, a police officer who arrested him at his home after someone called the police and said someone was breaking into it, is just one example of the wavering gray area which officers have to tread when deciding when to use force or not. When harangued because of his mistake, the officer took offense and the conversation became heated, setting off a controversy which reached the White House. President Barack Obama made the remark in a news conference that the police acted "stupidly" and the incident became a national issue. The New York Times reflected that…. [read more]


Capital Punishment and the Church Research Paper

… ¶ … death penalty is one of the few social issues where the United States's political position more closely resembles that of Uganda, Iraq, and Pakistan than that of Britain and most European nations. In fact, the U.S. is the only Western nation that practices capital punishment. Although the Supreme Court outlawed it in 1972 on the premise that it was unconstitutional, they changed their position in 1976, and the death penalty was re-instituted. So, why does the U.S., a country that prides itself on its commitment to human rights, continue a practice that the entire Western world has outlawed and its own court once outlawed because they believed it was "harsh, freakish, and arbitrary"? (Furman v. Georgia, U.S. 238, 408) Most proponents of the…. [read more]


Electoral Politics as Detailed Term Paper

… Some criminals obey the laws of their own immediate surroundings, from the inner cities to the highly competitive world of Wall Street, with a greater fidelity than the laws of the land, insinuating that the law makers do not understand reality from the Ivy Towers of the legislature, other criminals point on an individual basis to themselves as mavericks to the corruption of the system they are stealing from or the availability of insurance to cover losses. In front of juries, lawyers for obviously guilty defendants attempt to mitigate the severity of the crime, or the callousness of the crime with the often-cited and often defamed abuse excuse (http://www.twbookmark.com/books/10/0316181358/)

But although it may help to instate programs to prevent further crimes, explanations cannot equal excuses…. [read more]


Human Trafficking the State Department Research Paper

… Within the text of the law itself, there is little description of these programs, and no provisions for funding. The law also includes provisions for the victims of trafficking. These include outlining the requirements to receive funding, definitions of trafficking victims, the production of the annual report, the investigation and prosecution of offenders and protections for victim, including clauses related to immigration status (TVPA, 1475-78). The law also sets the minimum standards for the elimination of trafficking. These are the standards that are used in the annual report to grade other nations on their anti-trafficking legislative environment. The minimum standards are:

The prohibition of severe forms of trafficking

Mandatory severe punishment for those found guilty of sex trafficking

Severe punishment for other forms of severe…. [read more]


Daughters in Literature Requires Essay

… The act of getting on one knee resembles a marriage proposal; there is a great deal of subtext embedded in the relationship between Cordelia and Lear to suggest that the Oedipal complex is at play. Cordelia's character is, moreover, completely defined by her relationship with men. Her relationship with her father, and his subsequent scorn, are what prompt her to marry and move to France. Her death is due directly to the actions of other Lear daughters, who are likewise defined by their relationship with men as well as their nefarious natures.

The relationship between Lear and Cordelia also highlights a common thread throughout literature: that the relationship between father than daughter is similar to the relationship between daughter and her husband. In King Lear,…. [read more]


America Has the Largest Incarceration Rate Term Paper

… Crime & Inequality

There is no doubt that the United States has a crime problem. Indeed, the United States has a prison population of about two million people. While many to most people would argue that people should pay for what they have done wrong, there are others that say that the criminal justice system is very dysfunctional and/or that there needs to be more care taken as it relates to what happens to people once they get out of prison. Finding jobs and establishing a steady life is sometimes quite hard for ex-convicts and this leads some rather damning outcomes such as perpetual unemployment and recidivism. There are others that push the issue further and say that inequality and other social injustices leads to…. [read more]


Emile Durkheim on Social Solidarity Essay

… In as much as Durkheim does a good work of outlining the social order and the way this order can be maintained, he fails to comprehensively cover the clear differentiation between the individual mind and the social the community that shapes that particular mind. He holds the individual accountable (through punishment) to the disorder that the community moulds him to commit due to the social solidarity. He further emphasizes that the ideas and deeds that individuals within the group display is a projection of the social needs that the society has, this gives room and escape route for those who involve in abnormal things and then points at the social mesh and the level of integration.

References

Amity Institute of Higher Learning, (2010). Durkheim -…. [read more]


Juvenile Delinquency Crime Statistics Term Paper

… " (Winters)

Another major reason for the rise in juvenile delinquency can be attributed to drug and alcohol usage among America's youth. "Behaviors indicative of delinquency include, but are not restricted to, assault, vandalism, theft, and drug and alcohol use. Juvenile delinquency and its related behaviors correspond to the RBPC Conduct Disorder and Socialized Aggression subscales. And in fact, post hoc tests revealed significant differences between the means on these two subscales for LD and ND substance users. The lack of differences in alcohol use between these two groups may simply reflect society's acceptance of alcohol among the general population." (Irvin & Maag, 1993). Contrary to numerous other studies, self-esteem and specific behavior problems were not strongly related to substance use. One plausible explanation for…. [read more]


Scarface Latin American Culture Term Paper

… Scarface- Latin American Culture

Scarface (1932) film is an American gangster movie, written by Ben Hecht, directed by Richard Rosson and Howard Hawks, and produced by Howard Hughes. The film is founded on the 1929 novel written by Armitage Trail (White 30). The film stars Paul Muni as Antonio, Tony' Camonte. Brian de Palma remakes the film in 1983 in different setting in the Latin American and Miami drug cartel, with Al Pacino, Tony Montana, as the star (Myers 335). The Al Pacino Scarface film retells the story of an immigrant into the United States who attain wealth and power because of his indulgency in drug trafficking.

Al Pacino, acting as Montana, is a Cuban refugee who traffics drug from Colombia to Miami in the…. [read more]


Legalizing Prostitution in the U.S Essay

… Regulation rather than prohibition also makes the environment safer for both the sex worker and the customer. One of the biggest arguments against prostitution is the fear of spreading STDs. Opponents propagate that by banning prostitution these diseases can be controlled. As already established there is little evidence that illegalization reduces prostitution. In such a scenario a more effective policy would be to legalize and regulate the environment in which these sex workers operate. In Netherlands's for example regular medical checks are mandatory for renewal of licenses for an individual sex worker and brothels. Compare this situation with the U.S.A. where the sex workers shirk health visits afraid of being found out by a doctor. The harm of this is that sexually transmitted diseases are…. [read more]

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