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Catholic Church Public Policy in Spain and US Thesis

… As I previously mentioned, the Spanish population is religiously homogeneous. Roman Catholics compose of 99% of the population, while the remaining 1% of the population is composed of those belonging to Jewish, Protestant, Muslim, and Buddhist faiths. In relation to other countries in the European Union, Spain boasts one of the most "religious" populations. As data from a study of religiosity in the European shows, as late as 1982, only Ireland surpasses Spain in religious practice. Further, by the end of the decade, the percentage of individuals identifying themselves as "religious persons" ranged from a low of 48% in Denmark to 72% in the Irish Republic. The Spanish percentage of 68% exceeded all other countries except Ireland, Portugal and Greece. In stark contrast to the…. [read more]


Catholic Church in Spain Term Paper

… On the flip side however, rising attitudes of liberalism, republicanism, socialism, anarchism, and intellectual pluralism ensured a direct and stiff challenge to the once accepted view of the clergy that Spain was always a catholic nation and would be one always.

The author has divided the book into twenty-four chapters. There is an introduction that surveys the Church from 1808 to 1873, followed by which there is a critical examination of the Church and politics from the year 1874 which signals the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy until the year 1930 which brought about the fall of the Primo de Rivera dictatorship. There is also a brief description and analysis of a host of topics that comprise the religious organization, clerical demography, the size, positioning…. [read more]


Spain and the Christianization Essay

… Here again, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi suggest that this policy was likewise intended to benefit the natives to which it was applied, but it is reasonable to suggest that this method was also used to exploit rather than benefit.

Other events followed in the 19th century that would serve to Christianize America is far different ways than the Spanish sought. For instance, Gonzalez and Cardoza-Orlandi report that with independence from Spain "came the Protestants" and their religious dogma which "brought new ideas, not only about the meaning of Christianity, but also about how the church and society ought to be organized" (p. 95). In addition, the mid-19th century witnessed some important political events that would serve to shape the manner in which America was Christianized in…. [read more]


Role of the Church in Colonial Latin America Thesis

… Church and Colonial Latin America

The relationship between the Catholic Church and Latin America is one that goes back to the earliest history of European Spain's first explorations of South America. The Church has had an integral role in the development of Latin America in an economic, political, and social capacity that continues to be reflected in Latin America today. It began with the conversion of indigenous peoples during the colonial period, which was the most pivotal period in gaining control of Latin America. The indigenous people had, as we know from archeological artifacts and study, a sophisticated society, albeit different, but nonetheless comparable to that of the Europeans with the exception of Catholicism (Lockhart, James and Schwartz, Stuart, 1983, 1). Therefore, it was essential…. [read more]


New Spain, Mexico the Culture Thesis

… She was speaking in his own native language, Nahuatl -- not the language of the conquering Spanish. What she said astonished him: she wanted a church built on that site -- and it was then that Juan Diego recognized her as the Virgin Queen Mary, Mother of Christ. Juan Diego ran to the local Spanish Archbishop, Juan de Zumarraga, and told him of what he had seen and heard. The Archbishop was reluctant to believe that the Mother of God would appear in a vision to a man like Juan Diego -- a peasant in Mexican society. The Archbishop demanded a sign. So the story goes -- Juan Diego returned to the site. He asked for a sign, and the Mother of God told him…. [read more]


How Were Catholics Treated Socially Economically and Politically in the Period Between 1865 and 1895? Term Paper

… Catholics in America:

During the period in American history just before the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, the United States was experiencing great change in its social, political and economic arenas, due mostly to the continuing expansion westward beyond the Mississippi River. This new territory was already inhabited by thousands of Catholics, mainly of Mexican descent, but much of the territory was completely unsettled and wild and was peopled by Native American Indian tribes. With new immigrants coming into the United States "at a rate of some two million every ten years from countries such as Ireland, France, Spain, Italy and Central Europe, the Catholic population exploded and was to serve as the basis for much social and political trouble in the future"…. [read more]


Crusaders and the Church Research Paper

… Crusaders and the Church

What has been the legacy of the Crusades? Were the Crusades a negative historical event or was there a positive side to these events? Given that the Crusades were politically motivated, and that there were intellectual and technological benefits to Europe, did the Crusades actually benefit the Christian movement? These issues and others will be critiqued in this paper.

What were the motivating factors of the Crusades?

In his book Norwich University professor of history John McCannon explains that medieval popes had the power to demand troops and financial resources in order to launch "holy wars" that were (and are) known as Crusades. These Crusades were fought in order to "convert nonbelievers to Catholicism, to crush Christian movements" that popes believed…. [read more]


Catholic Church in Mexico Underscored Term Paper

… Liberals opposed these fueros. Not only was the church the principal lender, it also was exempt from taxation on investments and land holdings. However, neither faction represented the true majority: most conservative land-owners and many liberal industrialists saw the state as an institution that existed to protect their interests by keeping rural peasants and the urban workers under control. In this respect at least, they were similar to their counterparts in Great Britain.

In the aftermath of Mexico's defeat at the hands of the United States that lost the country half of its territory many blamed the conservatives and Santa Anna. Strong criticisms were also leveled at the Church and the military, institutions that were viewed as incapable of responding to the changes needed to…. [read more]


Church and State Relations Term Paper

… Spanish Colonial Church and State

Spain and Portugal's Long Lasting Marriage between Church and State

Spanish and Portuguese rule in the New World has been a complicated affair full of tensions and relationships which seem unnatural to the modern American and democratic viewpoint. For generations, the Spanish and Portuguese crowns had intimate ties with the affairs and authority of the Church. However during early American settlement of the state had taken center stage, with undertones. After a reunion of church and state in the New World in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Spanish and Portuguese lands in the Americas had re-opened the divide between church and state. Throughout rule in the New World, the Church gave justification to the brutal conquest and control over its…. [read more]


Church History the Inheritance of Generations Essay

… Church History

The Inheritance of Generations: The Papacy, Protestantism, and Progress within the Church

Throughout the majority of its existence, the Roman Catholic Church was a far more politically potent entity than it was in the twentieth century or is in the current day. Religion itself was also highly political, in a much different way than is currently the case in the United States and certain other countries (where beliefs determine votes in many cases, but do not generally start wars or create massive political schisms with global ramifications), making the actions of the Church in all regards key historical events in the development and progress of Europe and Western civilization. All of this became quite clear in the period known as the Reformation, and…. [read more]


Spain's Missionary Efforts in North American on Public Policy Towards Volatile Movements Term Paper

… Skills in weaving were needed to assist the Indians. They also were skilled in carpentry which was done under the direction of the craftsmen who was hired by the Spanish missionaries.

In the closing managing area of the mission, most of the time, Native Americans were expected to grow in their Christianity and also learn economics and political practices until they no longer need a special mission status. In Texas, the Catholic mission system was not that strong when it came to politics. It was not strong enough to protect the Native Americans against the growing power ranchers and other in the area. It also did not protect them against certain business interest that were seeking control over Spanish missions. Basically the Spanish missionaries system…. [read more]


Conflict Between Protestant and Catholics in Early Modern Ireland Thesis

… Conflict Between Protestants and Catholics in Early Modern Ireland

The conflict between the Irish Protestants and the Catholics during and after the reign of queen Elisabeth I is deeply rooted in the political, social and religious situation in Ireland prior to the Reformation. The topic of the two rival churches did not start once the Protestant church came into existence in Ireland. The prior distinction between the English and the Irish was already dividing the Church of Ireland into two actual churches.

Some historians, like Richey and Kane, even commented on the issue of a national church of Ireland, making it note worthy that before the Tudor monarchy, there has never been a real national Irish church. Since the English started to fight for supremacy…. [read more]


St. Madeleine Church Roman Architecture Term Paper

… At the same time an element of realism, which parallels the first flowering of vernacular literature, came to the fore. It was expressed in terms of a direct and naive observation of certain details drawn from daily life and a heightened emphasis on emotion and fantasy. For many aspects of its rich imagery the church was dependent on the heritage of antiquity and of earlier medieval art, while the prestige of Byzantine art remained high in Western eyes. The pilgrims, clerics, natives and crusades contributed to an unprecedented expansion of the formal vocabulary through the development of closer contacts between regional cultures and distant peoples.

Sculpture

The first important monuments of St. Madeleine sculpture were created in the second decade of the 12th century and…. [read more]


History and Culture of the Baroque Term Paper

… ¶ … Culture of the Baroque

The protests against the Roman Catholic church, its doctrines, faith, and practices began with Catholic clergymen like Martin Luther in the 16th century. The protestant reformation protested the exploitation of the peasants, like the sale of indulgences for remission of sins, and salvation by sacraments, fasting, and good works. This led to the differences like baroque art in Catholic churches and institutions to appeal to emotions, while protestants banned baroque art from religious institutions. This caused the catholic counter-reformation that led to structural reconfiguration, religious orders, political dimensions, and spiritual movements like Teresa of Avila's Carmelite Order, Discalced Carmelites. After the counter-reformation period came the post-reformation European political period that sought separation of the church and state. At the…. [read more]


Southwest History Susan Shelby Magoffin Term Paper

… Santa Fe was quiet at the time, with only the sound of marching heard at the time. The new Mexicans could have welcomed the American forces for promise of protection they offered against the Texans. But only few of them quietly received the arriving American troops and the suspicion was that resistance was silenced by Governor Manuel Armijo who was said to have been paid by an American agent to turn New Mexico over peacefully. In any case, a military government under General Kearny was set up in Santa Fe and promised to honor the civil and religious rights of the New Mexicans. He kept his word but peace did not last long. Susan Shelby Magoffin recorded her observation of the leadership and behavior of…. [read more]


Bartoleme De Las Casas Research Paper

… Advocate and Radical

Yet, not everyone agrees with his being given such a title. The situation as he described it was not always so utterly black and white. While there were certainly abuses on the part of the conquistadors, they were not always motivated by malice. Oftentimes they were the effect of indifference, ignorance, and lack of consideration. All the same, the abuses were inexcusable, and the missionaries constantly sought to balance the desire of the conquistadors to "erect" New Spain with the welfare of the natives, whose lives were put at risk in the process. In one way, De Las Casas represents the fight to secure for the natives the kind of life the Spaniards sought for themselves. In another way, De Las Casas…. [read more]


Welfare State in Postwar Europe the Aftermath Essay

… ¶ … Welfare State in Postwar Europe

The aftermath of World War II saw massive changes in the global political climate philosophically, theoretically, and practically speaking. The era of direct imperialism was largely over (though this assertion would certainly be disputed by certain populations today, and with legitimate reason), and the era of nation building had, for better or worse, begun. The effects were not limited to far-flung reaches of the globe or struggling Eastern European nations, however. There was also a major shift in the styles of government utilized in Western European powers. Though in no way comparing to the excesses, abuses, and extremes of the Stalinist Soviet Union, a program of social democracy spread throughout Western Europe effected the rise of the welfare…. [read more]


Cultural Differences With Spain Term Paper

… However, Spain also has numerous environmental problems of its own, such as growing air pollution, deforestation and the pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents produced by offshore oil and gas rigs (CIA Factbook).

Spain has a market-based economy, with a high reliance on private business.

The influx of United States businesses and investments is generally accepted, particularly because of its large Spanish-speaking population (Country Report on Spain). Many American analysts also see trade with Spain as a key route towards a greater business presence in Latin America.

As with any country, an understanding of these key cultural differences will help American businesses in their dealings with Spanish businesses and the government. First, Americans need to recognize the importance of Catholicism in…. [read more]


Religion the Protestant Reformation Forced the Catholic Term Paper

… Religion

The Protestant Reformation forced the Catholic Church to redefine itself, its "inner life," and the role it would play in the greater social, political, and theological rubric of Christianity. The Council of Trent was the first official and ecumenical reaction to the Protestant Reformation and therefore began what was to be known as the Counter-Reformation or the Catholic Reformation. The standardization of Mass was one of the most notable developments of the Council of Trent, resulting in a long-lasting transformation Catholic ritual. Moreover, Catholic ritual would be forever distinguishable from Protestant ritual in its ascription to the standardized Eucharist ceremony. Second, the Protestant Reformation challenged the Church to unearth endemic corruption. The counter-reformation did not totally eliminate the Church's collusion with politics but did…. [read more]


Ottoman Early American Relationships to Religious Hierarchy Caliph Church of England Term Paper

… America and the Ottoman Empire

Currently, the United States and the Islamic world are at odds over many issues, and while the policy of the U.S. is to find ways of finding areas of agreement with Islamic countries, there are still basic differences between the two areas and the religions they support. Islam is a hierarchical religion, and to a great extent, the political and social realm in Islamic countries is also hierarchical. The U.S. is a democracy. One area of agreement is found I the origin of each society, for both came into existence as part of an effort to achieve religious freedom and to escape from religious oppression. The two have not always recognized this area of agreement, and in part have been…. [read more]


Spanish Inquisition Thesis

… Spanish inquisition would be a shared effort between the Spanish monarchy and the Catholic Church to impose harsh oppression upon non-Catholics.

Point 1: The inquisition was a reaction to an end in the long-term rule of Muslim conquerors on the Iberian peninsula and to a long-standing Anti-Semitism amongst the Spanish.

Point 2: The inquisition was set into motion by the marriage of Isabella and Ferdinand, who brought monarchical unity to the rule of the Iberian peninsula.

Point 3: The inquisition was facilitated by Catholic insecurity over its status as well as its theological conflict with the Jews. These produced an Anti-Semitism which permeated the economy, politics and religious doctrine, allowing public acceptance of the inquisition.

Point 4: Political imperatives became an important part of making…. [read more]


Shape and to Create Essay

… William the Conquerer was a rule who made it clear that he was to be treated as one more powerful and more popular than the pope, and that even the pope's envoys needed to enter England with the permission of William and that same permission was needed in order for members of the papal group to publish.

While these moves might appear incredibly controlling, William was one of the people who was able to push England into being an ideal European nation, a nation that was simply better organized and more powerful. And part of these achievements were connected to the fact that he took power away from the papacy and some of their more archaic tendencies for ruling and controlling -- old fashioned regimes…. [read more]


History of the Native American Essay

… When Spain began colonizing in the New World they found well established and sophisticated cultures in the form of the Incas, Aztecs, and Mayans. These cultures provided far more resistance than that offered by the Native Indians encountered by the French and British and the Spanish were forced to exercise their military power in order to maintain control of the area.

Another difference between the colonization efforts of the Spanish and those of France and England was that the Spanish never made any wholesale effort to establish new colonies in the New World populated by Spanish citizens. Spain never attempted to establish new settlements. Instead, the Spanish viewed their mission as one of conversion and saving the Native Indians and of stripping the area of…. [read more]


Patronato Real Term Paper

… Patronato Real

Religion played a very important and vital role in the Spanish empire that it became so powerful as to influence political conditions in Spain. Kings were elected and overthrown, and laws were made or abolished depending on what the Church had to say. It became a very powerful voice that those in the government either sided with it or went against it. The history of Spain and its colonies almost always include mentions of the influence of the Church as a prime mover in that era.

However, that has not been always the case of Catholicism in the Spain. There was a time when Spanish rulers persecuted Catholic leaders and promulgated laws abolishing Catholic beliefs that Christians had to flee Spain o hide…. [read more]


Greene's the Power Term Paper

… This was therefore a time of suffering for religious officials.

The suffering was however used for the purpose of resistance, and Catholic organizations were brought about to resist the harsh measures of the government that attempted to destroy them (Tuck). The National League for the Defense of Religious Liberty (Spanish acronym LNDLR), founded in 1924, the Mexican Association of Catholic Youth (ACJM), started in 1913, and the Popular Union (UP), a political party founded in 1925, counted as the most prominent of these. Once again, religious organization provided military forces with officers to provide resistance.

In contrast to this fighting spirit, Greene's priest fought a much more personal battle. Instead of military resistance, he attempted to save himself by fleeing the harsh political measures, while…. [read more]


Francisco De Vitoria Term Paper

… ¶ … Life of Francisco de Vitoria [...] his influence and role in the history of the Catholic Church. Francisco de Vitoria was extremely influential in the Catholic Church as a jurist and for his "just war theory," which questioned the inhumane treatment of natives in North and South America after Columbus' discovery of the New World. Educator, philosopher, and theologian, Francisco de Vitoria is known as the "father of international and natural law" (Doyle 13), and his importance and influence over the Catholic Church was great and quite varied during the first half of the sixteenth century.

Francisco de Vitoria was born around 1480 in the Spanish area of Old Castile, although many experts believe he could have been born as late as 1492.…. [read more]


Fascism of the Strong Term Paper

… ¶ … Fascism of the Strong

Fascism has become in our modern time something of a pejorative term for any authoritarian or totalitarian principle. Common parlance speaks lightly of a boss or parent being a fascist, or of specific foreign non-democratic nation being fascist regardless of whether it bears other resemblances to the original fascists. One might say that these uses of the term are wrong, but the English language is such that a word taken from the Italian to originally mean one thing may legitimately shift meanings in the public practice to mean something else. However, it is nonetheless important to know that originally, and most precisely, fascism has a very specific set of qualities in a government and culture. Though one cannot argue…. [read more]


Manuel De Lacunza Term Paper

… The influence that Lacunza's writings had on the denomination existed because of the way that he viewed the Sabbath. Lacunza believed that the Sabbath was to be observed on Saturday. As a result Seventh Day Adventist attend church in Saturday instead of Sunday because they believe that Saturday is the true day of Sabbath and that it should be kept holy.

The Prophetic movement

The beliefs of Lacunza also contributed to the prophetic movement that sprung up all over the world mainly during the 20th century. The prophetic movement was an instrumental in the conversion of millions of people to the Christian faith. People throughout the world had a greater appreciation for the prophetic and a greater understanding of end time events.

The Movie Industry…. [read more]


Optical Revolutions How the Telescope Essay

… Optical Revolutions

How the Telescope was a More Significant Invention to the Microscope

Advances in optical technology made it possible for early modern scientists to explore both the vastness of the universe and the minute complexities of the microbial world. However, while the invention of the microscope has transformed medicine and, ultimately, the lives of virtually every living person on Earth, these advances took decades to play out and were initially considered trivial. In contrast, the telescope may have had a less profound impact on everyday life, but, through its influence on a seminal figure, sparked an explosive revolution in early modern European thought, challenged the intellectual hegemony of the Church, and, ultimately, shifted our sense of the universe and our place in it.

The…. [read more]


Spanish Conquest of Mexico -- the Racial Book Report

… ¶ … Spanish Conquest of Mexico -- the Racial Order

Chapter 2 was a very informative chapter for me because I had not been aware of the Spanish conquerors' specific strategic plan; they were smart to reward Aztec loyalty (creating "middlemen" -- Aztec kings -- to retain some governing power) to "placate the masses" (p. 50). And yet they were viciously brutal in discriminating against native Indians in Mexico.

Indian slavery: The government of Spain imposed the "encomienda" system, basically making native Indians "wards of the crown" that would then labor under the command of the Spaniards. The "Laws of Burgos" basically put the native Indians into slavery at the whim of the Spaniards serving the King of Spain. The encomienda system put forward the…. [read more]

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