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Children's Rights in the Children Act 1989 United Kingdom Term Paper

… Children Act 1989

Many legal frameworks both national and international make particular provision for the protection of children, a recognition both that children are weaker and require protection and also that children are threatened and so, again, require protection. In the United Kingdom, the Children Act 1989 is a law intended to provide special protection for children.

Under this law, all child care relating to children being accommodated by the Local Authority is covered. The law is based on certain beliefs, notably the following:

The best place for children to be protected is within their own homes.

The welfare of the child is the paramount consideration.

Parents should continue to be involved with their children and with any legal proceedings that may concern them, and…. [read more]


Child Abuse in England Initial Term Paper

… She needs to be told that Dennis is at the center of her life, which should not be the case. She should understand that she is merely replacing her vacant father image with Dennis, and that Dennis' closeness to Clara does not mean that Clara is more loved. She should be made to focus on the irrationality of the jealousy and the harm it causes everyone, yet she can do something about it. Instead, she should focus on reducing the distance between Dennis and Anthony by trying to empathize with both of them as far as she can learn to.

Dennis must also be spoken to, heart-to-heart. He may be aware of Christine's past, but he should be made to understand that merely living with…. [read more]


History Term Paper

… In part three of the act the protection of children is mandated to the authorities if the authorites deem that the children are in need of that protection.

17. -- (1) It shall be the general duty of every local authority (in addition to the other duties imposed on them by this Part) -- a) to safeguard and promote the welfare of children within their area who are in need; and b) so far as is consistent with that duty, to promote the upbringing of such children by their families, by providing a range and level of services appropriate to those children's needs.

2) For the purpose principally of facilitating the discharge of their general duty under this section, every local authority shall have the…. [read more]


Diversity and Child Abuse Prevention Term Paper

… The discovery of child abuse in the urban industrial world and organized attention to child abuse took place more than a century ago with the foundation of the 1874 New York Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children. This was an organization of its kind and it spread throughout American cities and into Europe. By 1910 more than 200 such societies existed in the U.S., and by 1921, formal efforts to rescue children from cruelty at the hands of their caretakers and parents lost momentum (Myers, 2008). However, by late 1950s and 1960s, the efforts got revived when child abuse became a grim social problem that instigated a flood of professional and public concern. The term child saving was useful as an umbrella characterization…. [read more]


Foster Children/Foster Care Issues Term Paper

… Beginning in the 1960s, the numbers of reports of child abuse and neglect grew dramatically -- from ten thousand in 1962 (Lindsey, 1996), to almost three million in 1999 (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a). Consistent with legal mandates that certain professionals report suspected child maltreatment, more than half (54.7%) of the reports in 1999 were from professionals (educators, medical staff, law enforcement personnel, social services personnel, and others); the remaining reports were from relatives, friends, neighbors, and anonymous sources (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a). 1.8 million reports that were investigated were substantiated for child abuse or neglect (U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2001a).

According to the National Child Abuse and Neglect Data and the 1997 AFCARS report,…. [read more]


1st Amendment Protections for Child Essay

… "

On April 1, 2002, the Ashcroft v. Free Speech Coalition agreed with the Ninth Circuit (1996) majority opinion. Majority opinions formed by Justices Kennedy, Stevens, Ginsburg, Breyer, and Souter, and dissented by Justice O'Connor, Salaim, and Rehnquist, concluded that the CPPA had indeed violated the First Amendment due to the fact that: "Censorship thought the enactment of criminal laws intended to control an evil idea cannot satisfy the constitutional requirements of the First Amendment." (First Amendment Library. Web.) The reasoning were that actual children were not involved and that therefore the language "appears to be [a minor]" and 'conveys the impression" as formulated by the CPPA were not only overbroad but also unconstitutional. It was overbroad as illustrated by the fact that in the…. [read more]


Globalization the UN Convention Research Paper

… S. To amend the Constitution.

The U.S. policy on the Convention has not really had much impact on the effectiveness of the agreement. While is certainly looks funny that the U.S. influenced the document and then has refused to ratify it, the other nations have moved ahead with implementation. It is unreasonable to think that other nations are sitting around wringing their hands about what the U.S. is doing -- they've signed it, they've implemented it and are working to bring their laws in line with its mandates. UNICEF argues that the decision not to sign the treaty has "undermined U.S. leadership when it comes to protecting children around the world," but this is a false argument leaning heavily on appeal to emotion and the…. [read more]


Adoption Why the Biological Parents Have More Rights Than the Adoptive Term Paper

… ¶ … Rights of Biological and Adoptive Parents

The objective of this work is to compose an argumentative paper based on research in this subject area.

The adoption process is one that should not be entered into lightly and one that professionals should take great responsibility ethically in providing necessary services to the birthparents who are considering entering into an adoption proceeding.

The rights of the birthparents should be given the most weight in the adoption process as compared to the adoptive parents. While the adoptive parents have much to gain, the birthparents are those who have much to lose if the adoption process is not handled properly, ethically, according to prescribed laws, and responsively as to the psychological needs of the birthparents who are…. [read more]


Nikes Exploitation of Child Laborers in Asian Countries Thesis

… Nike and Child Labor

It is no secret that American-owned countries frequently outsource their labor to people in foreign countries, because foreign labor is cheap when compared to domestic labor. One reason that foreign labor is frequently less expensive than domestic labor is that many foreign countries do not impose the same types of regulations on employers as the United States does. One of the more controversial missing regulations relates to the use of child labor. While child labor is largely outlawed in the United States, and strictly and carefully regulated in the areas where it is not outright prohibited, many countries in the world do not take such a hard-line stance on child labor. As a result, many American companies are employing children in…. [read more]


Foster Children Term Paper

… Another provision of the Adoption and Safe Families Act was designed to expedite adoption for children who could not safely be returned to their birth families. For children who spent 15 of the previous 22 months in foster care, and could not be returned to their families, before requesting determination of parental rights could be filed, and upon approval of the child would be placed for adoption (Homes, 2002).

The Act was added to help reform the foster care provisions of the social security act. The main goal was to keep children from spending too much time in foster care, and either return them to their biological families or find adoptive families in the quickest amount of time. Foster care is growing, since more children…. [read more]


Poverty Issues in Education: Effects Term Paper

… The child of poverty has one primary all-present emotion which is 'fear' and according to research the feelings of 'fear' negatively influences a child's ability to learn. A safe and trusting environment in the class room enhances learning. The ideal classroom is "high in challenge and low in threat." (Pellino, 2005) It is critical that the classroom be a relaxed environment free of stress due to the fact that many children of poverty have a very stressful home life.

Research in related to the brain, or 'brain-based research' has shown that emotions impact memory because "emotion drives attention and attention drives learning and memory." (Pellino, 2005) "Verner (2004) state that poverty on a widespread basis "affects both students' performance and their availability to attend school.…. [read more]


Children Who Kill Term Paper

… Kids Who Kill

The growing social phenomenons' regarding violence among children and especially such heinous crimes as murder is beginning to startle the culture as a whole. The world, not the just the United States is desperately seeking answers for this growing problem. The problem has gained international recognition as similar crimes are becoming evident in other nations, such as the killing of 2-year-old James Bulger in the U.K. By two very young boys. Yet, when one looks at the statistics in the United States alone they are made painfully aware that such events are increasing in number and in severity.

In the United States,...between 1984 and 1989 the number of youths arrested for murder nationwide in the United States more than doubled from 1,004…. [read more]


Pornography and Children Term Paper

… Literature on the subject, in fact, suggests a host of social and psychological consequences ranging from guilt, shame, and fear to depression, hysteria, and difficulties in learning and interpersonal relationships. While some of these effects such as physical and somatic complaints are short-term, others stay with the victim carrying over into adulthood. For example, adult women who were sexually abused as children report that the negative emotions experienced led to drug abuse, sexual dysfunction, negative self-image, and even allowing repeated victimization (Maney & Wells, p. 3).

Thus, it is evident from the discussion so far that the widespread prevalence of pornography, especially child pornography has grave implications for the psychological development of children and indeed, for the very future of societal welfare. Indeed, it can…. [read more]


Rights of the Employees Term Paper

… If by any chance an employee is caught without work permit, the employee will be presumed as guilty as the employer.

Considerable forms of defense for workers have been provided by the UAE Labor Law and ministerial decrees. Any worker has the complete right to file a complaint at the Labor Department in the Ministry of Labor about a disagreement with his owner. Employers can be given severe penalty in case of disobedience with the labor laws.

The worker has the right to protest about the organization albeit he is working on a visit visa. Any other form of proof is inadequate to confirm that he is working for the organization (HRW, 2006).

The Rules and Regulations for an employee to sponsor his family

There…. [read more]


Right to Life Essay

… Autonomy is also dishonored when people are pushed to do things against their will. This clearly explains why using an individual for another's gain is wrong; and so same rule applies in Baby Theresa's case too. Transplanting Baby Theresa's organs would be "using her" in every moral sense and it is wrong to kill one person to save another person's life.

Capital Punishment

Most recent facts and evidences suggested that capital punishment has a considerable deterrent effect, putting a stop to as many as eighteen or more murders for every death sentence. However, these evidences have greatly disturbed moral objections to the death penalty, as it means that a refusal to compel that penalty actually convicts numerous people to execution since among them are also…. [read more]


UK Immigration Law Research Proposal

… UK Immigration and European Convention on Human Rights (echr)

The research question in this study is that of: 'To what extent are deportation orders made by the Secretary of State on the ground that it is conducive to the public good in relation to the national security compatible with Articles 3 and 8 of the ECHR?'

This work intends to examine deportation orders when made by the Secretary of State on the basis that such deportation is conducive to the public good regarding national security and the compatibility of such deportation orders with Articles 3 and 8 of the Europeans Convention on Human Rights (ECHR).

European Convention on Human Rights: Article 3 - 'Prohibition of Torture'

The European Convention on Human Rights: Article 3 -…. [read more]


Child Soldiers Burundi and Sudan 1992-2002 Research Proposal

… Child Soldiers in Burundi and Sudan: 1992-2002

The convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 is one of the most prominent international humanitarian treaties in world history. It entered into force quicker than any other treaty and currently only two countries (the United States and Somalia) have not ratified it.

Carol Bellamy, Executive Director of UNICEF says that the Convention has become "the centerpiece of a global movement, a movement that reflects a growing awareness of the importance of safeguarding human rights, and child rights in particular."

Yet, during the 1990's, more children in Africa became victims of, and combatants in, war than at any time in history according to a report in Human Rights Watch entitled "Promises Broken."

Named by the International…. [read more]


UK Healthcare Term Paper

… According to Enthoven, the focus was directed towards enabling private practice to develop and forcing more elderly people to independent private nursing homes, where they had to pay from own resources until their money ran out. Within this approach, the goals of the government as addressed by Enthoven were:

To improve its ability to control the NHS financially by separating 'health' from 'social' care and to continue offering 'free' if services were provided by the NHS staff based on 'means tested' access.

To increase the efficiency of the NHS by improving both productive efficiency and allocative efficiency.

According to Le Grand et al., (1998), the basis of the development of the 'internal market' involved the introduction of competition via the establishment of more and smaller…. [read more]


Child Sex Tourism: Its Scope and the Law Research Paper

… Canada's Criminal Code lets it prosecute its permanent residents for having child sex in a foreign country. Child Sex Tourism Offences as well as Related Measures Bill during 2007 in Australia is another recent initiative. The UK Sexual Offences Acts of both 1996 as well as 2003 allows extraterritorial prosecutions. The Protection of Children Act 1978 in UK declares taking and circulating indecent photographs of children as punishable.

According to Office of Public Sector Information (OPSI), 1988, the UK's Criminal Justice Act 1988 seeks to create "a summary offence of possession of an indecent photograph of a child." In November 1997, the EU's Tourism Council propounded its stand against the issue. In 2007, the EU declared October 18 as an Anti-Trafficking Day.

Based on German…. [read more]


Children's Literature "All Work Essay

… " (18). In other words, Tom has made the activity seem as though it required special talent and insight to do it properly, and to make it enjoyable. But the larger joke is that, of course, Tom's initial capitalist scheme -- to possibly pay other boys to do the work for him -- is reversed here: he now gets Ben and the other children to pay him for the opportunity to work. The profits, of course, are parody profits within the parody economics of the situation but Twain nonetheless maintains the metaphor of commerce, claiming that "Tom was literally rolling in wealth" -- although the wealth here is defined in the same terms as before, "toys, marbles and trash" (19). We are also told that…. [read more]


Parenting Program for Women and Children Term Paper

… Parenting Program for Women and Children in Residential Treatment

Addiction is something that has been around for many years, and there have been increasingly new ways of treating it that have been created over the course of much research and study. There are many different forms that addiction takes, and there are many different drugs and substances that someone can become addicted to, even if they are not of the age that most people would think of when they picture people that would start down that particular road. Most individuals think of addicts as primarily young, minority men in their 20s and 30s that rob, steal, and cause other problems in order to get their drugs or alcohol. However, there are also many women that…. [read more]


Adoption Gay Term Paper

… Gay Adoption

Adoption is an important social and legal process whereby children without parents are placed in homes and given full status as members of a family. Adoption goes beyond the sort of temporary placement that is common in foster homes and is seen to serve the needs of the children, to benefit the adoptive parents, and to strengthen society. Adoption for many people stands as the only viable option they have to become parents because they cannot conceive on their own, and yet there are usually far more children in need of adoptive parents than there are parents. Some children are harder to place than others, usually because they are older, and adoptive parents prefer small children as a rule. Children who have certain…. [read more]


UK Children and Families Homeless Term Paper

… The agencies tended to target these referrals as a single homeless population, many of whom were afflicted with severe mental illness. It was more difficult to cover and handle parents with depressive or anxiety disorder, self-farm or drug addiction. Research in the previous year showed that 49% of homeless mother were afflicted with psychiatric disorders but had only 11% contact with mental health services and 30% of homeless children faced similar problems but had only a 3% contact with child and adolescent mental health services or CAMHS.

But these CAMHS have been expanding their services and expanding their accessibility. They found that they needed to evolve a service model for homeless children who could not access services structured around stability and waiting lists for assessment…. [read more]


Social Work Dimension Term Paper

… The question can be asked about who will take 'unwanted' children in a market-led system where individual schools have the right to choose the students they want. An example of this can be seen in this illustration, little girl was sexually molested and developed some behavioral problems including the fact that she was being bullied by classmates who knew about her molestation. The school district did not offer care or support, but told the mother she was acting out. The mother took her to another school that wanted her to put her in some emotional behavioral classroom where she would be the only girl among twelve boys. Finally, the school kicked her out. Where should this child get her education? Which market-led school should take…. [read more]


Catholic Child Sex Abuse Handling Term Paper

… Mental Health Ethics

The author of this report is asked to pick from several example scenarios and discuss the mental health and other ethics surrounding how to react to that particular situation and why. The scenario selected by the author of this report asks the author to evaluate a Catholic father that admits to having urges and attractions towards adolescent boys and he has gone so far as to even engineer opportunities to be around them. He has apparently not acted them yet and has thus not violated any laws. However, the amount of further disrepute this would bring on the church and of course the overall risk that he will act in the manner of a child predator eventually seems like a foregone conclusion…. [read more]


China Violence Essay

… Violence Against Children in China

Children in China often face a plethora of issues. The culture there is conducive of violence against children as a form of punishment. Many people in China believe that physical or psychological abuse is necessary to help their children mature and learn responsibility. However, many of these acts are in violation of human rights in general and especially the declaration of human rights for children. There are other issues that Chinese children must also face such as the lack of an adequate education. Some children, especially in rural areas, are being forced to quit school and work on their families' farms or in factories. Some children are even being sold as slaves to perform manual labor on the black market.…. [read more]


Australia Have a Bill Essay

… The very smallness of the Australian dream is an important part of our particular value-system: there is no vision of creating a society that can be a model for the rest of the world, as in the U.S.A., nor of upholding revolutionary ideals, as in France, nor even of traditional community, as in Great Britain. This lack of an idealist tradition, as reflected in the prosaic language of Australian politicians, is a particular disadvantage for those who would bring about change (Patapan, 1997).

To sum up: Australia is, indeed, a conservative country if by this is meant that there is a highly developed consensus on basic values, but these values seem more accurately described as liberal. (Louis Hartz has characterized them as radical, (Hartz, 1964)…. [read more]


Parenting Styles in Correlation to Alcoholism and Social Change Research Paper

… Parenting Styles & Alcoholism in College Students

Parenting Styles in Relation to Alcoholism & Social Change

Parenting Styles & Alcoholism

Research regularly Conducted on Parenting Styles & Adolescents' Alcohol Intake

Alcoholism & Its Relation to Parenting Styles

Frequency & Beginning of Alcoholism

Theoretical Implications

Measures for Controlling Alcoholism in Adolescence

Sponsors of Community Awareness Programs

Limitations of the Community Awareness Programs

Lack of Interest from Sponsors

Differences in Other Ethnic Groups & Jewish Community

Ethical Implications

New York Liquor Authority

The given research is intended to develop a relationship between the parenting styles experienced by a child during his childhood and his/her propensity to develop alcoholism during the adolescence especially in freshman college year. Empirical evidences derived from prior researches have helped in developing a…. [read more]


UK Immigration Act of 1971 Term Paper

… "

For the purposes of the Act, patrials were defined as British or Commonwealth citizens who were born or naturalised in the United Kingdom or who had a parent (or grandparent in the case of British citizens) who had been born or naturalised in the United Kingdom." The patrial category included British and Commonwealth citizens as well provided they had been settled in the United Kingdom for a period of 5 years and had registered or had applied to register as a British citizen; as a result, British citizens who were non-patrial were subject to controls while non-citizens who were patrials were not subject to controls.

According to Spencer, non-patrials were allowed to seek residence and could apply for a work permit; however, these steps…. [read more]


Rights of Disabled Children Term Paper

… Otherwise, problems may occur during its implementation.

Programs for Special and Gifted Children

This includes children with special talents and skills, known as the Gifted Children. Aside from the opportunity of skipping grades, some states support this type of children in developing more of their skills through provision of their needs such as enhanced learning experiences, and counseling if necessary (ERIC Digest #E456).

Programs for the Physically Handicapped Children

This covers children with physical disabilities such as visual, hearing, and orthopedic impairments. Such children may be permitted to attend education in their respective residence, or in separate classes (ERIC Digest #E456). If attending in a regular class, special assistance and supervision must be provided (ERIC Digest #E456).

Some of the provisions that physically handicapped students…. [read more]

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