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Christianity and Paganism Term Paper

… Christianity and Paganism

At the core of the apparent attempt by Christianity to condemn the pagan belief in controlling nature is a relatively simple 'leap of faith.' That leap involved taking man out of the place of power, and putting an external force -- the Christian God -- in that place instead.

Some scholars have proposed that the difference lay in removing spiritual practice from the imprecise indulgence by the laity and placing it in the hands of a specialist. Hillgarth notes:

The advantages that the Catholic Church possessed over its pagan rivals, notably the Eastern 'Mystery Religions' such as Mithraism, and over paganism generally, may be briefly stated, following, if slightly modifying, Gibbon, as: a clearer and much more precise mythology; a more organized…. [read more]


Christianity and the Middle Ages Essay

… Christianity and the Middle Ages

Many Bible readers today would be surprised to learn that people during the Christ's time on earth in fact had quite a scientific concept of health and healing. Indeed, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that the society of the time tended to subscribe to the Greco-Roman idea of medicine, where a number of natural cures were available to heal the sick, who were generally regarded as being physically ill because of physical causes, rather than because of original sin or any spiritual cause such as possession by evil spirits.

The concept of illness as caused by some spiritual aberration came only later, after the Germanic tribes wrestled the territory from the Romans and Greeks. These tribes were not particularly…. [read more]


Religion Christianity Started Essay

… Luther's edicts had established an emerging faction of Christianity that denied vehemently the papal authority. With the denial of Papal authority came the avowal of a new type of worship and new vision of Christianity. In accordance with Protestant theory, the individual believer can come to know God without the intervention of a priest. Scripture is to be read and studied by the individual, regardless of Papal authority.

The Reformation had a more significant impact on the social and political affairs of Europe than on its theological life. Disavowal of Church authority paved the way for the Enlightenment and the age of humanism. Religion had a stranglehold on European social life for centuries. The people demanded a more egalitarian state of affairs with a worldview…. [read more]


Christianity the Breaking Term Paper

… (Bede's Library, Christianity and Pagan Literature)

However, this does not necessarily mean that libraries were not destroyed, and in a world where art and knowledge are revered and valued more than human lives, such wanton destruction by any one will not be tolerated by anybody at all. In fact, Christian and Roman Emperors are said to have destroyed quite a few texts of that time, and the fact is that the destruction had nothing whatsoever to do with Christianity and the Christian Faith. The relationship between the state and the Roman soothsayers of the time has always been shrouded in mystery and has in fact remained quite ambiguous, even today. It was often stated that these people were evil, and they were dangerous people who…. [read more]


Death of Greek Polytheism in the Face of Christianity Term Paper

… Polytheism and Monotheism

Christianity and the Decline of Polytheism

Years ago, A.D. Nock wrote in his important book on conversion in the Greco-Roman world, "The blood of the martyrs is the seed of the Church: the death of Socrates created the type of wisdom and virtue standing in heroic opposition to a world which can kill but which does not have the last word" (Nock 194). This statement illustrates the persuasive power of the image of sacrificial death for a cause. The Romans were tolerant polytheists. Yet they looked at Christianity with suspicion due to its refusal to make oaths and sacrifices to the emperor cult. This disrupted traditional pagan religion. The new emphasis on dedication to one God alone was subversive. The main argument…. [read more]


Birth of Christianity Institution Essay

… Accordingly, the early Christians who faced prosecution depending on era and the emperor were force to intermingle with pagans; they took this as an underground opportunity to spread Christianity. Similarly, the church also manipulated the traditions and pagan empire thus making Christian faith more adaptable. Considerably, some church leaders were motivated like power hungry politicians and used force to advance Christianity (McKay et al., 2011). Following unending efforts by the church, Christianity spread vastly and took hold of a massive part of the population. With regard to this, Pagans with dissimilar ideologies and traditions were unable to put up with the huge Christianity wave and hence they were forced by circumstances to Christianize. It is stated that by the fall of the Western Empire in…. [read more]


Dante, Boethius, and Christianity Essay

… In Canto IV of the Inferno, once he crosses with Virgil, in a ferryboat with Chiron at the helm, Dante finds himself and Virgil surrounded by a sad, dark valley:

That valley, dark and deep and filled with mist,

Is such that, though I gazed into its pit,

I was unable to discern a thing. (lines 10-12).

The light of the earth has been swallowed by the darkness of Hell.

In Canto V, Dante speaks with the adulterous Francesca de Rimini "through the darkened air" (line 89). Francesca, buffeted about endlessly by strong winds, tells Dante the story of how her adulterous love for her brother-in-law, Paolo Malatesta, his brought them both this point, the Second Circle of the Inferno, where those who let lust…. [read more]


Islam and Christianity Thesis

… This led to calmness at the time and allowed the Muslims to cooperate, and not engage in conflicts at the time. Such actions enhanced the cooperation regardless of the challenges that the Islamic and Christian communities faced at the time. The communities found the need to live well with one another in honor of the statues in the Quran and the Bible.

The Christians were also guided by the scriptural concept of promoting peace at all times. The Bible advocates for Christians to keep the peace as they can with all people, and to treat others as they would have wished to be treated. This led the Christians in the Middle East to find the means to coexist with the Islam within the lines of…. [read more]


Fall of the Roman Empire Research Paper

… Christianity regards all men as equal in the eyes of the Lord thus the emperor was also equal in the eyes of the Lord as his subjects and again he couldn't exercise control over this religious institution which was headed by Bishops, meaning that the emperor's authority over religious institutions had been lost to the Bishops. This also meant that Bishops would be in charge of a huge number of believers or Christians whom basically looked at them as spiritual leader thereby reducing the emperor's influence on the great population who were mostly at this time Christians.

After Christianity was formalized by emperor Theodosius in AD 380, the Church gained much control of the state through the Constantinople council which placed it at a higher…. [read more]


Christian Elements in Beowulf Essay

… The concept of God plays a huge role in the poem, as God is the one who provides protection to the warrior through his most dangerous moments and trying times. Beowulf and the other clansmen are constantly referring to the God's protection and savoir. After the final battle with Grendel's mother, Beowulf claims that "the fight would have ended straightaway if God had not guarded me." This is interesting because in many ways it aims to rectify the need for the warrior to achieve glory and fame which is discussed earlier. By attributing this victory God, the warrior in the transitioning culture can enjoy the quest for glory from older pagan traditions but justifies it through a newly formed Christian lens, where God grants the…. [read more]


Jesus - Christianity Christmas Term Paper

… The disputes between the Roman Catholics and Protestants led to persecutions and both civil and foreign wars (Christianity pp).

In spite of the belief that violence is antithetical to the teachings of Jesus, Christian adherents have persecuted, tortured, and killed other for refusing to believe in their type of Christianity (Christianity pp). During the Crusades, Christian atrocities against Jews in Germany and Hungary, and later in France and England, and in the massacres of non-combatants in Palestine and Syria, initiated a tradition of Christian anti-Semitism that was further bolstered by the "blood libel cult and continued into the 1500's by the Spanish Inquisition" (Christianity pp). The European colonization movement was endorsed by the European Christian churches supposedly legitimized the exploitation of the colonized lands by…. [read more]


Roman View of Christianity Early Term Paper

… It is not surprising, Celsus continues, that Christian beliefs are so nonsensical when those who believe them are drawn from the least intelligent and rational members of society. The Christian message, he argues is given to no-one 'who has been instructed, or who is wise or prudent (for such qualifications are deemed evil by us); but if there be any ignorant, or unintelligent, or uninstructed, or foolish persons, let them come with confidence.'

He condemns Christians for not giving rational justifications for their beliefs but instead saying '"Do not examine, but believe!" and, "Your faith will save you!" And ... such also say, "The wisdom of this life is bad, but that foolishness is a good thing!"

He urges people to reject such teachings and…. [read more]


What Is the Origin of Islam in What Ways Does it Differ From Christianity? Term Paper

… Islam

Author David Shasha writes, "The story of Islam is one that reflects the emergence of religious obscurantism worldwide" (Shasha). Islam derives its name from the Arabic word 'salam,' which means peace, however some claim 'submission' is a more accurate translation (Introduction). A follower of Islam is called a Muslim, which is an Arabic word that refers to someone who submits to God's will (Introduction). The Arabic word, 'Allah' refers to 'the One True God.' Among the world's largest religions, Islam is the youngest. Islam and Christianity share similar beliefs, including the belief in one supreme God.

Most scholars believe that Islam was founded sometime during the early part of the 7th century, around 622 C.E., by Muhammad the Prophet, who lived from roughly 570-632…. [read more]


Gnosticism Early Christian Polemicists Term Paper

… In reality, the polemicists provided an extremely distorted image of Gnosticism since they also regarded Christ as a savior rom ignorance "that must be enlightened with true teaching" (King 27). They asserted that their interpretations were also based on apostolic traditions, while some even believed that salvation would be universal in the end, without any Last Judgment or separation between the saved and the damned. This was the message of the Gnostic Apocryphon of John, for example.

In the first three centuries, Christianity began to separate from Judaism while also selectively incorporating the Jewish Scriptures and laws that it regarded as most useful, as is clear from the Didache. It did not accept the Gnostic argument that the creator mentioned in Genesis was a lesser…. [read more]


Shakespeare Play Macbeth Showing All the Characteristics of Angle Saxon Period Term Paper

… Macbeth Showing all the Characteristics of the Anglo-Saxon Period

Anglo-Saxon Culture in Macbeth

The tragedy of Macbeth took place in Scotland at the end of the medieval period of Europe. It was based on real accounts of a Scottish Thane who murdered his Lord. William Shakespeare was known for his poetic language, which helped framed the dramatic and tragic story of Macbeth, (Nostbakken 14). By highlighting elements of the Anglo-Saxon culture which existed in that area and later influenced future generations, Shakespeare creates a world torn by war and ruled by fate. Several aspects of Anglo-Saxon culture are prevalent in the tragedy, including religious implications, the unique interpretation of the idea of faith, and the social customs which ruled over the people of early Britain…. [read more]


Constantine Flavius Valerius Aurelius Constantinus Term Paper

… Although he himself followed another religion, he maintained its own for the empire, for everyone has his own customs, everyone his own rites. The divine mind has distributed different guardians and different cults to different cities. As souls are separately given to infants as they are born, so to peoples the genius of their destiny.

In the essential Roman legions, however, Christianity was unpopular because it accepted women, and the soldiers followed Mithras and Isis. Since the Roman Emperors ruled by "favor from the Gods" and stayed in power through the support of the legions, it was important for them to be seen visibly aiding the cause of religion. The insolence of the Christians consisted in their public refusal to sacrifice and build idols, which…. [read more]


Unmasking the New Age Term Paper

… Unmasking the New Age

The opening line of the Foreword to Douglas R. Groothuis' Unmasking the New Age reads, "Advertising that it can transform people and society worldwide, the New Age movement is spearheading a comprehensive attack on many of the highest values of both the Christian church and Western culture," (9). In this book, Groothuis illustrates the basic manifestations of the New Age movement, such as holistic healing and transpersonal psychology, and shows why they run counter to a Christian worldview. He urges his readers to think critically about New Age tenets such as monism and challenge their validity and supremacy. With unmasked scorn for the collection of varied beliefs categorized as New Age, the author concludes that any "faithful Christian community dedicated to…. [read more]


Shape and to Create Essay

… William the Conquerer was a rule who made it clear that he was to be treated as one more powerful and more popular than the pope, and that even the pope's envoys needed to enter England with the permission of William and that same permission was needed in order for members of the papal group to publish.

While these moves might appear incredibly controlling, William was one of the people who was able to push England into being an ideal European nation, a nation that was simply better organized and more powerful. And part of these achievements were connected to the fact that he took power away from the papacy and some of their more archaic tendencies for ruling and controlling -- old fashioned regimes…. [read more]


Literature and the Occult Essay

… Occult Representations in Film

The concept of the occult in literature and film shares similarities and parallels. The occult is often represented by activities and beliefs that, relative to the mainstream, are marginal and associated with magic and nefarious elements. The occult is often perceived by the average person, as represented in fictional literature and narrative cinema, as something to be avoided. Protagonists in occult films shown over the course of the semester demonstrate how they are often unwilling participants in occult plots, or that they have been duped or manipulated into a role in an occult plot. Some characters seem to have an unconscious desire and unexplained longing or attraction for the occult and as a result are drawn into an occult plot. The…. [read more]


Sir Gawain Religion Features Prominently Essay

… Gawain's ability to remain chaste is testimony to his Christian faith and morality. Gawain's Christianity is underscored in his incessant prayers, and in the fact that his prayers seem to be "answered" at the very time he needs it, when he is seeking the Green Knight. Gawain reveals Christian sentiments in his attitudes toward sin and repentance.

At the same time, Gawain does retain some allegiance and respect for the old religions that Christianity supplanted in English territories, such as the "pentangle" and the "endless knot" motif, which were derived from pre-Christian and Gaelic cultures. "The five pointed star dressed the front of his shield and the arm of his coat, and was therefore evident that he held high regard for its symbolism and meaning,"…. [read more]


African Post-Colonial Piece of Jewelry Interpretation Term Paper

… (http://www.eurozine.com/articles/2008-01-09-mbembe-en.html).

The necklace is a throwback to that past, in that it present one with an image of a humanized person.

In that way, it manifests numerous messages just as post-colonialism itself is an ideology that is replete with numerous meanings.

The post-colonial reaction is the act of replying to the colonial legacy by writing back to the center, to a previous time when the colonized people had their own history and traditions, and using the colonizer's language and symbols (e.g. English and, in this case, Christianity) for that purposes. The necklace featured in this essay is a good example of such an instance.

Sources

Eeden, JV (2006) Land Rover and colonial style adventure. Int. Fem. Journal of Polictis, 8, 343-369

Etsy African Primitive Ethnic…. [read more]


Western Religions Given the Remarkable Diversity Term Paper

… Western Religions

Given the remarkable diversity within each Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, it seems silly to generalize about the broader differences between the three "religions of the Book." Yet even though Judaism, Christianity, and Islam all stemmed from the same geographical area and to an extent, the same ideological and theological foundations, the three religions of the Book have diverged from one another theologically and culturally so much so that major wars have been fought -- and continue to be fought -- between them. The similarities between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam have become nearly superficial, such as the belief in one and only one God. Monotheism alone cannot unify three such distinct traditions, and the differences between the religions of the Book far outweigh their…. [read more]


Buffy the Vampire Slayer as a Goddess Term Paper

… ¶ … Buffy the Vampire Slayer & the "Goddess Concept" of Christianity, Hinduism, and Wiccan Paganism

In the popular television series "Buffy the Vampire Slayer," the lead character of Buffy as the vampire slayer provides the viewers of a human savior in the persona of a woman. Born as belonging to the "line of the chosen ones," Buffy as the vampire slayer is projected as the Chosen One whose responsibility is to slay not only vampires, but also other forces of evil that intend to destroy the existence of humanity on earth. Although evidently a product of popular teen culture, Buffy's character bears significant resemblance to the 'hero idols' that various societies worship or give homage to, most especially religious idols whom people believe and…. [read more]


Paul Is Often Considered Second Essay

… ¶ … Paul is often considered second only to Jesus in his contribution to Christianity. Be Specific.

Paul vs. Jesus: The proselytizing and the religious interpretations of the Apostle Paul

Jesus died a practicing Jew, yet gave birth to a religion that became separated, and then polarized from the Jewish faith. Part of the reason for the separation of Judaism from the ethnic community that produced Jesus has to do with the framing of Jesus' teaching through the perspective of the Apostle Paul. The Apostle Paul was born a Jew, like Jesus, and even persecuted Jesus' followers in his old identity as Saul. Once converted, Paul became an eager proselytizer of his version of the Gospel. Paul's specific focus was to bring the words of…. [read more]


History of Judaism: From Biblical Term Paper

… Then, after he had destroyed them in a flood, he was sorry that he had been so impulsive. And he promised never to do it again. And in order to be sure that he wouldn't forget, Yahweh put a sign up in the sky, a rainbow, as a sort of divine mnemonic device.

Finally, in the Tower of Babel story, humans try to establish themselves and make a name for themselves. Yahweh is disturbed by this activity and seeks to confound their efforts so that they will not threaten him. In this heist successful.

The "piety of early Israelite families projected on to the patriarchs is not yet the real beginning of the history of Israelite religion." In the turmoil of the exodus a unique…. [read more]


Slavic God Dazbog Term Paper

… Dazbog (Serbian: Dabog / Polish: Dazbog, also Dazhbog) is one of the main Slavonic gods in Slavic Paganism. Dazbog, the "god of gifts" (as one account translates it) was a sun deity and the center of a fertility cult. He was also called the "Giver of Riches." He was a rock star: provider, protector and fertility god.

It's uncertain what Daz means, but bog means "god." Some scholars translate it as "day god," and others as "war god" (though the latter isn't a popular theory).

In Slavic mythology, Dazbog is the sungod is reborn every morning. During the day, Dazbog rides in his diamond wagon (aka the sun) through the sky. At the day's end, he has become an old man, and he dies when…. [read more]


Wanderings of Oisin by W. B. Yeats Thesis

… ¶ … Yeats' the Wanderings of Oisin

William Butler Yeats' the Wanderings of Oisin is an epic poem told in three parts, or books. These three books reflect the stages of Oisin's life and journey -- his time with the immortals, his attempts to return to Ireland and the adventures he encounters, and his eventual journey back to and time in Ireland. The metrical structure changes from book to book, as well, with four, five, and six metrical feet per line, respectively. The first two books have no regular number of lines per stanza, but the third book has more regularity with four lines per stanza. These structural elements are used to organize a complex story into more manageable chunks.

The poet's decision to divide…. [read more]


Foreign Idea of a Cosmic Book Review

… Characteristically it is a this-worldly which reveres nature and its forces, and also forms a basis for popular religiosity. Pieris points out that cosmic religiosity is present in many forms throughout the world for it represents a basic psychological posture that homo religiosus adopts subconsciously toward the mysteries of life." [footnoteRef:1] The key term here is "this-worldly." Many of the peoples wanted this type of religion because it was something that thye understood better than the metacosmic types. "Cosmic religiosity offers spirituality which does not focus on some 'metacosmic' beyond but rather on contemporary reality: the sacred, the womanly, the earthly."[footnoteRef:2] From this reality Oakley said, "there existed a consubstantiality between God, nature, and man, a divine continuum as it were."[footnoteRef:3] This means that all…. [read more]


Multiculturalism in a World Community Each Day Term Paper

… Multiculturalism in a World Community

Each day brings the world closer together in a world community. A world community is the concept of countries without borders, where the populations and governments of individual countries join forces to overcome the problems and to face together the challenges preventing humanity from achieving its highest goal, highest reward, through ultimate maximization of the quality of life. That is, to ensure that all people, globally, have access to shelter, healthcare, nutrition, and education in order to be productive and proactive partners and participants in the world community. A world community involves, too, the concept of celebrating cultural diversity and traditions. A multicultural world community makes incumbent upon its members the responsibility to provide multicultural instruction to the various communities…. [read more]


Papyri Awakening Osiris: The Egyptian Term Paper

… When one compares it to more technical translations, such as those of Budge, there are some obvious differences which in the former translation served to obscure the actual mystical meanings of the text. Taking the book of "Becoming the Heron" as an example, one can see drastic linguistic differences with much the same sentiment. Budge gives merely the most obvious, literal translations, as when in the end of this book he reports "The truth is hidden on the eyebrows. [By] night [I] sail up the river to keep the feast of him that is dead, to embrace the Aged God, and to guard the earth..." (Budge) Normandi takes the same symbols and describes them more deeply, bringing in not only the alphabetic meaning on the…. [read more]

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