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Saint Augustine's Confessions Research Paper

… On the other hand, to Augustine, Christianity then became associated with abstaining from sexual activity. Augustine associated Christianity with the presence of God's love while paganism became associated with the lack of God's love. And as the lack of God's love was the same as evil, paganism became evil in the eyes of Augustine. If paganism was then evil, then the acts performed while a pagan, such as engaging in obsessive sexual activity, would then have to also be associated with evil. The fact that, like many addicts, the more one satisfied the craving the less satisfied they become also seemed to have had an impact on Augustine. The more sex he had the less satisfied he became with his obsession with sex. He could…. [read more]

World War I Term Paper

… An article found in Journal of Women's History reiterates the idea of male chauvinism and sexism that was part of the postwar German culture. In the postwar culture both, the Nazis and the German Christians saw women as inferior beings and that the country needed to be ruled by Aryan Men. The author asserts that this culture of sexism played a role in the fact that Nazis and the German Christians were able to tolerate one another. The book goes on to explain the patriarchal society that existed in postwar Germany and how the German Christian Movement was shaped by these cultural norms.

The book Nazi Terror: The Gestapo, Jews, and Ordinary Germans and the aforementioned article assert that many of the German Christian tactics…. [read more]

Montanism / Theology Book Report

… The famous satirist Jonathan Swift (author of Gulliver's Travels) indeed wrote a satire on pneumaticist beliefs, which owes a lot to the Montanist heresy. Swift's fictional pneumatics are here called the "Aeolists" (after the pagan god of wind) but in any case it is a satire on heretical misinterpretation of the doctrine of the Holy Spirit, and quite similar to the condemnations of the Montanists offered by Saint Jerome and others: [5: Gonzales, 74.]

…some authors maintain these AEolists to have been very ancient in the world, because the delivery of their mysteries, which I have just now mentioned, appears exactly the same with that of other ancient oracles, whose inspirations were owing to certain subterraneous effluviums of wind delivered with the same pain to…. [read more]

Emperor Constantine Term Paper

… ¶ … Christians were persecuted for their failure to practice the Roman civil religion which required public loyalty to the Roman state and the Roman gods and goddesses (Christianity as a cultural revolution). Constantine's victory at the Battle of Milvian Bridge in 312 over Maxentius would mark the first major milestone to reshape the role of Christianity in the Roman Empire. Constantine had attributed his win to a vision of a cross of light at midday bearing the inscription meaning "in this sign you will be victorious." He had then converted to Christiantity and used the symbol of his Savior to represent his army during the battle.

Constantine's conversion to Christainity and power greatly helped to promote Christiantiy (Constantine converts to Christianity). Followers were now…. [read more]

Augustine of Hippo Term Paper

… Augustine of Hippo

Brown, Peter. Augustine of Hippo. Revised Edition. Berkeley: University of California

Press, 2000.

Make me good God, but not yet.' According to Augustine, in his most famous work the Confessions, this was his cry before he experienced a direct revelation from God about God's truth and man's inherent sinfulness. No ancient philosopher was as open and honest about his own life, perhaps, as Augustine. Rather than receiving a picture of the chronology of his lives through the words and images of other, later authors, Augustine penned his own spiritual autobiography. He depicted himself, warts and all, and created the narrative of spiritual progress, from hell to heaven, that still characterizes conversion narrative 'plots' today.

The problem for an aspiring biographer like Peter…. [read more]

Charles Baudelaire the Theme Term Paper

… Examples of dichotomous symbols were the following: "summer freckles here and there" vs. "sweet and fair"; sabots gracefully treaded on vs. The queen's half-graceful carrying of her velvet shoes; and "ribbons carelessly untied" became a pleasant trait -- "reveal to us the radiant pride."

These symbols of beauty and ugliness are part of Baudelaire's general theme of good vs. evil. While ugliness may be perceived as a symbol for deviltry, he actually considered ugliness as beauty and goodness, and perceived beauty as ugliness and deviltry. By assigning these meanings to the poem's symbols, Baudelaire attempts to deviate from society's norms and standards of beauty and ugliness and in general, goodness and evil.

'The sick muse" provided another interpretation of Baudelaire's good vs. evil theme. In…. [read more]

Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis Research Proposal

… Ecological Crisis -- Historical Roots

The Historical Roots of Our Ecological Crisis: A Summary

According to White, the word etymology first appeared in the English language in the year 1873. He traced the etymology of ecology back to the marriage of theoretical and sophisticated science to the empirical technology about four generations ago (1203). In an attempt to understand the roots of what is known as the ecological crisis, White discussed three important historical factors:

Western Tradition of Science & Technology. Although modern technology and science have elements from all over the world, technology remained to be Western -- in style and in method. This Western leadership in science has existed way before the Scientific Revolution of th3 17th century. On the other hand, this…. [read more]

Interpretation in Archaeology Essay

… Archaeology is one of the academic disciplines that have undergone major changes in its history. Like many disciplines, it is an evolution of paradigm, by means of which the study of the past is both facilitated and complicated. While some hold that archaeology should divorce itself from the current understanding of life and philosophy, the archaeologist is nonetheless human, and subject to interpretation on the basis of both his or her own belief systems as well as those of others. The difference in interpretation however lies in the recognition of this factor. One might say that archaeology is much like spirituality: each individual will regard different interpretations as important or correct. It is in recognizing that one's own interpretation might not be the only one…. [read more]

Death of King Arthur (La Essay

… And Lancelot comes up short many times throughout the story, but he also never gives up his new quest to live up to Christian ideals. For example, during the siege of Lancelot's castle, Sir Gawain challenges Lancelot to individual combat, even after defeating Gawain, Lancelot refuses to kill the knight even though he had tried to kill him. When asked why he did not kill Gawain, Lancelot replied, "I could not do it & #8230;because my heart, which directs me, could not allow it for anything." (Cable, 1971. p 185) Mercy to one's enemies is at the heart of Chivalry and is based on the Christian ideal to forgive one's enemies.

And it is not only the moral ideals of Christianity which are prevalent in…. [read more]

Protestant Devotion to the Virgin Mary Dissertation

… Protestant Devotion to the Virgin Mary

One of the most controversial topics in religion today is how one should answer the question: does Mary play a significant role in modern Protestant religion? The answer to this question begets several ancillary questions, the most important one being: if Mary does not play a significant role in modern Protestant religion, is this an error? In short, is there a need for a more significant place for Mary in present Protestant liturgical traditions? Some experts believe that giving Mary a more prominent role in the practice of Protestantism would endanger the very nature of Protestantism by introducing an intermediary between God and worshippers. Others disagree vehemently with such statements and suggest that embracing Marian devotion may be the…. [read more]

Paul: The New Identity of a Life Reaction Paper

… Paul: The new identity of a life in Christ

The Apostle Paul was a great sinner and persecutor of Christians who became a great saint. The phrase the 'Road to Damascus' has become a common metaphor of bright flashes of insight, such as what occurred to Saul when he became Paul, and was converted to Christ with a great, shining light. Saul took on a new social identity and name. However, as a Jewish apostle to the gentiles, Paul did not stress that conversion meant that Christians should actively work to bring about the immediate dissolution of the entire world order. Instead, he advocated that Jews remain Jews, keeping to their social, cultural practices (circumcision), while Christians did not have to become Jews to convert.…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast the End of the Roman Empire to Today Term Paper

… ¶ … Roman empire to today

The issue of the decline and fall of the Roman Empire is a source of fascination for both the broad public and the scholarly world. From a European perspective, the fall of the Empire can be regarded as the end of the Classical world as it brought about a decline in literacy, urbanism, and generally all the indicators of civilization. Roman civilization is seen as the golden age of art, literature and law, a period of flourishing culture and development. In fact, both European and non-European societies have adopted Roman architectural, sculptural and legal traditions. The founding fathers hoped that America would revive the virtues of ancient Rome, and would reinvent the Roman Empire under a new formula whose…. [read more]

Islam Select a Religion Essay

… The three religions have a concept of God and that these scriptures were revealed to their respective prophets from God. Furthermore, Islam, Christianity and Judaism, talk about Abraham, Isaac and Jacob, who were the prophets of God. The Jews are referred as Children of Israel in Bible and Quran and are considered to be the direct descendants of Prophet Jacob, who was the grandson of Abraham (McInerney, 2003). All three of the religions have a way of life, which must be followed by their followers. Fundamental concepts such as Day of Judgment can be found in all three of the religions.


There are several differences between Islam, Judaism and Christianity. Islam believes that there is only one God and that the Prophet Muhammad is…. [read more]

Post Enlightenment Political Thought Term Paper

… ¶ … post-enlightenment period we see the increasing acknowledgment, both for better and worse, of groups who had historically been marginalized or ignored by traditional European political thought. Where before Jews had been marginalized due to religious Christian anti-Semitism, now they were being marginalized because they had introduced conscience and dampened man's natural ardor. Ironically, post-modernist analysis has contributed to and/or exacerbated persecution of Jews in the post-enlightenment period when liberalism has been the most widespread by giving anti-Semitism a patina of intellectual respectability. Indeed, the earlier anti-Semitism was very simply based itself in religious exclusion. Now, Jews were subjected to this philosophical ghettoization in the garb of sociology and economics.

While on both extremes of the argument there is an attempt to lionize or…. [read more]

Holy Saturation Research Paper

… Holy Saturation

The traditional, or Orthodox view, is that the church is a necessary medium between the laity and God, and that without the church and the hierarchy of clergy, the congregation would be unable to attain the wisdom of God. They saw the coming of god's kingdom as a literal event. They also saw it preposterous thought to separate the body from human life. That is, they saw Jesus as both flesh and spirit that were inseparable. The Orthodox considered the crucifixion of Jesus as a historical account. They viewed Jesus as a martyr that sacrificed his life so that we may live. It was believed that the martyrdom of Jesus allows for the forgiveness of sins and ensures resurrection and our life everlasting;…. [read more]

Role of Religion Term Paper

… He seems to be somewhat free of the strict codes of conduct designated by class and Christianity that permeated most other Victorian novels. Most significantly, the novel breaks from Victorian tradition in its almost overt paganism. To Hardy and many later modern writers, Christianity is abandoned, but the major questions surrounding spirituality remain the same.

Religion, though no longer an oppressive force violently imposing itself upon civilization, still offers solace to those seeking a substantive understanding of the infinite: "The explicit and manifest function of religion is to offer men the prospect of salvation and to provide them with appropriate guidance for its attainment." (Wilson, 27). For a time, the powerful structure of the Church violently rooted-out literary, scientific, and philosophical musings regarding spirituality that…. [read more]

Koriun Vardapet Was an Armenian Term Paper

… Of these other historical works one such other, "The History of Agathangelos (5th century), is about the struggle against paganism in Armenia, and about the acknowledgement of Christianity as a state religion in 301. This primary source about the first period of Christianity has several editions in different languages. Some of this editions and the Armenian original have been lately translated into Italian (1843), Swedish (1860), French (1867), English (1976)" (Matenadaran, 2003).

Koriun's contribution to Armenian literature is on a small scale compared to these other historical works for the period, but Koriun documented a biography of the man who helped create a future for Armenian literature by creating an Armenian alphabet.

Koriun's other contributions as a "Holy Translator" in church, and in translating the…. [read more]

God: Review of Karen Armstrong Term Paper

… Armstrong's theory does not credit Man with original thought and places little value on Man's ability to rationalise or theorise on the concept of God and a life beyond the corporeal that has nothing to do with demanding gratification or continuous proof of existence. Armstrong places little importance on faith but more on interpreting surrounding events with one's own bias.

Another core theme of the book relates Armstrong's less controversial belief that Judaism, Christianity, and Islam possess similar characteristics and have also influenced one another.

In the Roman Empire, Christianity was first seen as a branch of Judaism, but when Christians made it clear that they were no longer members of the synagogue, they were regarded with contempt as a religion of fanatics who had…. [read more]

Ancient History the Ancient Histories Term Paper

… After serving as consul in the late years of the Republic, Octavius assumed the title of Emperor and was renamed Augustus by the Senate. In 23 CE, Augustus renounced his position of consul to glean more political powers. Rome was already experiencing internal conflicts between the plebeians and the patricians. His reign included some significant reforms such as altering social services and creating a police force. When Augustus died, he named a successor, a starkly different procedure from the elections of the senators and consuls. Tiberius succeeded Augustus and like his predecessor, ruled in a time of relative peace and stability. However, public officials and relatives of both men were murdered.

Caligula and then Claudius followed as emperors. Under Claudius, Rome conquered Britain and some…. [read more]

Agora Film Agora ) Essay

… Davus also takes part in the mob action against the Jews, when the Christians cut them down in the streets, but he tries to hide his face in shame when Hypatia sees him with a bloody sword in his hand. Obviously Cyril has never taught him the words of Jesus that those who live by the sword shall also perish by the sword, although the pagan Hypatia seems to have a far better understanding of this.

Cyril has had enough of Hypatia's continual criticism and attempts to obstruct his plans for Alexandria, and finally preaches a sermon against her using the letter of Paul to Timothy. Not surprisingly, he shares Paul's ideas on the inferiority of women, and insists that they be covered and silent…. [read more]

Medieval Leaders Constantine: Although Constantine Lived Term Paper

… Medieval Leaders

Constantine: Although Constantine lived more than a hundred years before the traditional beginning of the Middle Ages, he and his reign significantly impacted

Christianity and society in Medieval Europe.

Constantine was born at Nis in what is now Yugoslavia, son of the commander

Constantius Chlorus (later Constantius I) and Helena (later Saint Helena), a camp follower. Constantius became co-emperor in 305. Constantine, who had shown military talent in the East, joined his father in Britain in 306. He was popular with the troops, who proclaimed him emperor when Constantius died later the same year. Over the next two decades, however, Constantine had to fight his rivals for the throne, and he did not finally establish himself as sole ruler until 324. (CONSTANTINE THE…. [read more]

Religion in the Leviathan Term Paper

… Religion in the Leviathan

The Leviathan is one of western philosophy's most interesting commentaries on religion. But before understanding Hobbes' comments on religion, first we must tackle his overarching principles in constructing the work in the first place.

Hobbes in Leviathan argues that civil peace and social unity are best found by the construction of a commonwealth through social contract. Hobbes' ideal society is ruled by a sovereign power tasked and empowered to protect the commonwealth's security and is assigned absolute authority to ensure the common defense.

Indeed, Hobbes invested so much in his idea of the commonwealth that he calls the commonwealth an "artificial person" and finds it a body politic that actually mimics the human body. Hence, the name Leviathan, or sea monster.…. [read more]

Role of the Church in Colonial Latin America Thesis

… Church and Colonial Latin America

The relationship between the Catholic Church and Latin America is one that goes back to the earliest history of European Spain's first explorations of South America. The Church has had an integral role in the development of Latin America in an economic, political, and social capacity that continues to be reflected in Latin America today. It began with the conversion of indigenous peoples during the colonial period, which was the most pivotal period in gaining control of Latin America. The indigenous people had, as we know from archeological artifacts and study, a sophisticated society, albeit different, but nonetheless comparable to that of the Europeans with the exception of Catholicism (Lockhart, James and Schwartz, Stuart, 1983, 1). Therefore, it was essential…. [read more]

Influence of the Bible on Christian Mission Term Paper

… ¶ … Bible on Christian Mission

In the early 1960s, there was concern about the direction of the Christian mission in the world (Anderson, Gerald, 1961, p. 3). The reason for this concern arose largely out of events that were taking place in many of the "super power" nations around the globe; especially in America, where the "counter cultural revolution" was being waged against everything establishment from the Vietnam War to cutting down the rain forests in South America, and even God. But it was the relationship between Christianity and other cultures that was at the forefront of Christian mission thinking, and Christian missionaries were driven by what they perceived as their evangelical mission around the world. Presenting the Gospel and testifying to others as…. [read more]

Non Canonical Books Essay

… Non Canonical Books

Introduction study of the non-canonical books, those books left out of the Old and New Testaments of the Bible, stands informed by the books that were included in the Old and New Testaments. The question must be asked, "What was the purpose of the books of the Bible?" In answering that question it then becomes possible to understand why the non-canonical books were left out of the Bible. In asking the question of purpose, it becomes obvious with a study of the Bible: The purpose of inclusion in the Old and New Testaments were that of community, law, and social order. The books included in the Bible are intended to address those issues that the community leaders perceived to be problems of…. [read more]

What Are the Similarities and Differences Between Navajo Witchcraft and European Witchcraft Beliefs? Term Paper

… Navajo and European Witchcraft: A Brief Study

As might be expected, there are some similarities to be found between Native American Navajo witchcraft and European witchcraft. The reason being, of course, that "witchcraft" denotes a term that is supernatural in nature, unique as to the individual or individuals possessing that nature or power, and because it is a condition that suggests people who do not possess that nature or power might be fearful of that which they do not know or understand, it empowers the person who does possess the witchcraft to in some ways manipulate or control others. In this way then we might expect to find some similarities as well as differences as suggested by the term between two distinctly different cultures and…. [read more]

Pope St. Leo 1 The Great Term Paper

… ¶ … life of Pope Saint Leo the First (Leo the Great). Specifically it will include a short biography and center on his achievements and accomplishments. Leo the Great is known as one of the greatest Pope's of all times for a number of reasons. In fact, he was the first Pope to be called "Great." One historian writes, "Such a pope was Leo I (440-461). The first to be given the surname of 'Great' as an expression of the people's admiration and gratitude, he signifies for us the high point of the papacy in Christian antiquity" (Schnurer, 1956, p. 118-119). He ruled the Church for twenty-one years and set a mark for other Popes to match, and only one other (Gregory the Great) has…. [read more]

Church Fathers Bring Order Essay

… One of the most important of all the Church faterhs was Augustine, who had a specific and distinct way in which he was able to bring a strong sense of order to the church as a whole. Augustine spent decades refining the most appropriate interpretations of Christian theology, and was one who was able to craft the first autobiography in western history (Kreis, 2006). More than that, Augustine was able to refine the ideas, values and beliefs that continued to shape Christianity through his writing. For example, the book "City of God" is one which was written by Augustine and which had a massive impact on the development of the church. "The City of God was written to show that it was God's plan that…. [read more]

Art History Medieval to Renaissance Term Paper

… Church Wall Paintings in Early Christianity

Visual Analysis and Discussion of a Work of Art

Artwork found in the churches and remains of churches of early Christianity is an expression of the morals and beliefs of the early Christian Church and doctrine. Looking to the work titled "fresco wall painting in the apse of a church," depicts a scene of the risen Christ who is above the church, the angels in heaven, and first and beyond all other earthly creatures. The work, in addition to being art, is a visual rendering of the doctrine and faith, and, in early Christianity, art on church walls, according to Pamela Sheingorn's (DATE) translation of the Book of Sainte Foy, and Rudolph Carel Goldschmidt (1940), served to create a…. [read more]

Song of Roland or La Chanson Term Paper

… ¶ … Song of Roland or La Chanson de Roland, whose author is unknown, is the greatest, oldest and a very popular medieval epic poem in French, believed to have been written between 1098 and 1100. It relates and presents events that supposedly happened several centuries earlier and during the reign of the Christian emperor Charlemagne (Crosland 1999) as a narrative that omits and ignores historical records. This study will investigate and analyze the epic as a literary work and as a propaganda material. It will explore its historical authenticity as well as establish its literary worth. Previous studies found that the first extant version was rewritten to inspire a holy war against the Muslims of Spain and that this finding is replicated today in…. [read more]

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