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Roman Catholicism Is the Oldest Term Paper

… ' Be silent therefore, and do not chatter about God, for by chattering about him, you tell lies and commit a sin. If you wish to be perfect and without sin, then do not prattle about God. Also you should not wish to understand anything about God, for God is beyond all understanding. A master says: If I had a God that I could understand, I would not regard him as God. If you understand anything about him, then he is not in it, and by understanding something of him, you fall into ignorance" (Davies 236-7). The arguments surrounding the existence of God and the understanding of God have usually ended in these sorts of logical contradictions. Yet, it has generally been agreed that when…. [read more]


Debating on the Existence of God Term Paper

… Existence of God

For centuries there have been arguments centering around the existence of a Divine Creator. These ideas about God have been debated far earlier than the Christian world, and actually seem to form the basis of philosophical thought -- what is knowledge and where do we get it? How can there be evil in a world created by an omnipotent God? If God exists, who or what created God? In 1948 the British Broadcasting Company hosted a debate between Father Frederick Copleston, a Jesuit Priest, and the agnostic philosopher Bertrand Russell.

Both agree that Christianity is a term than implies the belief in God and immortality of the saved soul, and that Christ is the Savior of humans and the wisest of men.…. [read more]


Christian Books Essay

… ¶ … Christian Books

How the First Christian Books Were Written, Preserved and Collected

Paul Barnett (2003) states that from the time that the last the text of what became known as Sacred Scripture was written to the time that Constantine legitimized Christianity in the Roman world, a virtual "avalanche of early Christian books" had already been produced: "Christian intellectuals and leaders had been writing books defending and explaining the faith. Their collected writings comprise the ten large volumes of the Ante-Nicene Fathers library, each volume being several times longer than the whole New Testament" (p. 46). Indeed, the Ante-Nicene Fathers, apart from the authors of New Testament Sacred Scripture, may be said to be the ones to generate the very first Christian books. Thanks…. [read more]


Attitudes Towards Dance Research Paper

… At that time, the only dances that were allowed were funeral processions. The complete rejection of dance was the result of the Protestant Reformation's leaders desire to do away with those church customs that were solely tradition and not exclusively Biblical. They, therefore, "sought to suppress the use of icons, the worship of saints, and pilgrimages and processions. They preached the renunciation of the world and intensified the struggle between soul and body by placing greater emphasis on the mind. The connection between the body, dance and eroticism was openly acknowledged, and Christians were taught not to glorify the body."

The protestants were not the only ones to restrict the use of dance. The Catholic Church also followed suit first by increasing its general restrictions…. [read more]


Bible Galatians 4:4-5 Refers to the Incarnation Essay

… Bible

Galatians 4:4-5 refers to the incarnation of Christ as (a) a physical event, alluding to the mysterious and dual nature of the Christ; (b) a fulfillment of not only prophecy but of law; (c) a sign of grace and God's redemption; and (d) a socially, politically, and culturally meaningful event. As a physical event, the incarnation of Christ is described in two ways. On the one hand, Christ was "born of a woman." This suggests that Christ is most certainly flesh and blood. As God in human form, Christ has the power to change the minds of disbelievers. Moreover, Christ is the fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy as being in the direct bloodline of David and the Jewish kings. The incarnation is a physical…. [read more]


Evolution of Religion in America Essay

… Evolution of Religion in America

There have been numerous historical works on the Great Explorers, Columbus, DeSoto, Cortes, Pizzaro, etc. But one thing that emerges from their accounts of the New World was that North America was populated sparsely and by groups of unorganized "tribal" cultures with no written language, no large architectural monuments, and no advanced civilization. However, new excavations and scholarship shows this to be a falsehood: North America was vase, and there were numerous indigenous cultures that had significant architectural technology and more (the Anazai, Cahokia, and literally hundreds of tribal cultures). The fallacy came about with the view that North American "history" began in 1492, forgetting that many cultures had already passed their peak in North America prior to then and…. [read more]


Nicola Pisano and Claus Sluter Essay

… Nicola Pisano and Claus Sluter

Nicola Pisano's pulpit in the Pisa Cathedral and Claus Sluter's "Well of Moses" are divided both by over 100 years and by geographical and cultural factors. In terms of the temporal elements, Pisano's pulpit belongs to an Early Renaissance in Tuscany and embodies many of the characteristics of the mid-1200s in sculpture, including a powerful relationship with architecture: the pulpit can be considered an "architectonic sculpture" to a better degree than Claus Sutter's, especially through the grandiosity represented through the three different levels of representation.

Claus Sluter belongs to the Late Middle Ages and has created his "Well of Moses" towards the end of the 14th century. With that respect, he brings to the art world some of the naturalism…. [read more]


Beowulf the Power of Beowulf the Epic Thesis

… Beowulf

The Power of Beowulf

The Epic's Importance in Both Anglo-Saxon and Modern Times

By modern standards, Beowulf has all the makings of a bestseller or a blockbuster hit. In fact, the epic has been made into a film several times, the most recent being a sci-fi -ike production that was released in 2007. Beowulf has action, excitement, a likeable hero, and a demonic, otherworldly nemesis. In the tradition of other epics, Beowulf features a hero whose might and strength allows him to fight the forces of evil for the good of the community. At first glance, Beowulf seems to contain the comic book-type drama and action that pleases audiences without making them think too much. A primary reason for this is the character of…. [read more]


Secular Judaism Research Proposal

… Secular Judaism

Malkin, Yaakov. Secular Judaism: Faith, Values, and Spirituality. London, Valentine Mitchell,

Judaism has an unusual status in the annals of world religions. It is one of the major faith traditions of the Western World, and has spawned two other major traditions that do it homage in their literature, that of Christianity and Islam. It also has problematic relations with these religions that lay claim to Jewish teachings within their own respective canons. Unlike Christianity and Islam, Judaism is not a religion solely of scripture. It is tied to a particular land and ethnic heritage, an explicitly defined culture and history as well as faith. Many Jewish people call themselves secular Jews, and it is possible, in many individual's estimation, to not subscribe to…. [read more]


Western Sahara Conflict Research Proposal

… Western Sahara Conflict

In the early years of civilization in the Western Saharan regions, civilizations used trade and exchange of services as a means by which to maintain the peace, and to meet the economic and social needs of their expanding civilizations. The Western Sahara was, then, and is today rich in minerals and other resources, not the least of which is oil. For the past thirty years, there has not bee peace in the region, largely because of the natural resources that are worth billions of dollars. The aid that has been sent to the region to assist those people of all nationalities who have become caught up in the violence and greed of the area's leaders, has been embezzled, and it is one…. [read more]


Paul and His Journey in Corinth Essay

… ¶ … Wisdom imparts itself into people's lives on a daily basis through experiences. Sometimes people need to have these experiences take place in the shape of a journey. Various people undergo trials and journeys as they grow. This is especially true in the Bible. Paul for example or Saul was an ignorant man that with the experience of meeting Jesus, became a wise man. His diligence came from spiritual wisdom and his folly came from obeying the rules of the world.

Although Paul's journey was met with many obstacles, he learned and grew in wisdom with every, passing day. Paul began his missionary work in several places. One of these places was Corinth. In Corinth, Paul showed how individuals during that time period, created…. [read more]


Heidegger and Hitler Proponents Term Paper

… Thus, it could be embraced by one and all -- and even by Heidegger, the sometime Catholic sage.

Heidegger's Vision and Hitler's

In Being and Time, Heidegger attempts to recover a metaphysical sense of "being" -- once possessed by him as a Catholic, now lost as a modernist. In Mein Kampf, Hitler attempts to recover a sense of Germanic pride -- once possessed by Germany under during the majestic era in which its leader took the title Holy Roman Emperor, now lost as a country defeated by a new alliance of powers.

Heidegger sought to recover the sense of "being" he once possessed not by embracing the orthodoxy he once accepted but rather by "deconstructing" the philosophies that had clouded the concept of "being" in…. [read more]


Freud Civilization and Its Discontents Essay

… Freud's theory about the discontentment associated with society's quest for the restriction of human aggression was put to the test by a society in which human aggression was not denied but promoted and rewarded. Nazi Germany was a society in which the more aggressive members of society were allowed to thrive and prosper at the expense of the weak. Freud's contention that humans were naturally aggressive and destructive once again seemed to be exemplified by the Nazi's and their aggression toward the rest of the world.

However, I must agree with those who claim that Freud is being too pessimistic toward humanity, and feel that he does not include man's ability to overcome his violent tendencies. There is a reason humans have striven for peace…. [read more]


Dante and Beatrice an Analysis Essay

… But it reflects much of the way Dante's relationship with Beatrice went on in life: she was always at one remove from him, and if he loved by way of a third party. Her interest in him was no more than what her Christian duty owed, and it is only now, moved by Christ's mother, that she is provoked to action. Dante's prayers for help have been heard first and foremost not by Beatrice, as she herself confesses, but by the Mother of God. Thus, Beatrice reveals a definite hierarchy in Heaven, and shows that she herself is not the greatest, nor on a level with the Blessed Virgin, but sits rather with Rachel, the wife of Jacob and mother of Joseph and therefore the…. [read more]


Rome One Could Be Important Essay

… I picture myself being led on into vaster...depths with every forward step. The task undertaken seemed to grow less with the completion of the early stages; now, in anticipation, it seems almost to increase as I proceed (ibid., 288)"

Foreign affairs (Rome's expansion) shaped the social order at home (the struggle of the orders), and vice versa. For instance, in Mellor, Livy, ambassadors were sent out from Rome to Athens to study their laws, a situation that led directly to the formation of a law code in Rome which helped to quell domestic disturbances (ibid., 215-217). Livy's thesis of a struggle of the orders is an over- simplification of a highly complex series of events that had no single cause. This can be seen as…. [read more]


How Luther Rice and Adoniram Judson's Commission to Foreign Mission Impact Baptist Churches Term Paper

… Luther Rice and Adoniram Judson

The history of the Baptist Church in the United States reached a profound turning point when it began to pay attention to the issue of overseas missionary work. Particularly, the pioneers in the field, Adoniram Judson and Luther Rice provided a and unprecedented pathway in terms of enthusiasm and fervor not only for their faith, but also for the souls they felt obliged to attempt to save. The extraordinary vision that helped these men inspire many others to follow their footsteps appears to be cultivated since the years of their respective childhoods and early education. These visions culminated in their calling to the ministry, and ultimately to missionary work. What made both Rice and Judson pioneers in their field is…. [read more]


Was Josephus a Historian? Term Paper

… Flavius Joephus

Much of the Jewish history during the 1st century comes from the works of the Jewish historian Flavius Josephus. Many scholars extol Josephus for his documentation of these times, since they are the only ones that depict the historical events occurring during this turbulent time.

For example, Schurer (1994) writes of Josephus as "The best known historian of Jewish affairs in the Greek language" (221-222). He says that one major work is Comprehensive Delineation of the Entire Jewish History from the beginning to Josephus' own time, which is "the most extensive work on Jewish history in the Greek language" that has "retained the lasting favor of Jewish, heathen and Christian readers, as to have been preserved entire in numerous manuscripts" (221-222). Not everyone,…. [read more]


Does a Person's Religious Identity Effect Their View on Abortion? Thesis

… ¶ … Person's Religious Identity Shape Their View on Abortion?

Abortion is one of the most passionately argued debates in America, and both sides of the argument have strong political lobbies, and strong social support. The position a politician takes on this issue can alone be a determining factor in whether or not he or she will be elected to the public office they are seeking. Looking at the large numbers of people on either side of the debate, all of whom feel compelled to support or protest abortion, gives rise to the question of what drives the protesters, and what compels the supporters. Is there a single factor in the multi-layered debate on abortion that can be identified as a common factor that causes…. [read more]


Knighthood Medieval Knighthood or Chivalry Term Paper

… Knighthood

Medieval Knighthood

Knighthood or chivalry has a very interesting and tumultuous history, which begins in feudalism and continues in the Medieval Age. In England, evidences of chivalry appear only after the Norman Conquest. In the beginning, the term "knighthood" was merely used to indicate the investment of arms of a young man after his training was over. For the first two centuries, chivalry continued to denote proficiency in the art of fighting on horseback. It is only later that this merely social role of the knights was rounded with a specific ideology, which soon become a code of honor. With the spread of Christendom, there appeared different orders of knights, each with their characteristic goals and ideals.

Thus, first of all, a knight had…. [read more]


Raphael's School of Athens Term Paper

… Raphael's "School of Athens"

Biography: Artist History

Who: Raphael (a short Biography)-1

Where: Rome: The Stanza and the Vatican-1

What: "The School of Athens"-2

Composition: Organization of Elements

Medium and Support-2

Space-2

Shape and Form-2

Light and Shadow-2

Color-3

Iconography: Mythology, History, Philosophy

Message 1: Philosophy is Fresco-3

Object 1: Raphael's vision of the Renaissance-3

Object 2: The different schools of philosophy-3

Person 01: Plato-3

Person 02: Aristotle-3

Person 03: Apollo-3

Person 04: Minerva-4

Person 05: Pythagoras-4

Person 06: Euclid-4

Person 07 Ptolemy-4

Person 08: Zoroaster-4

Person 09: Socrates-4

Person 10: Xenocrates-5

Person 11: Epicurus-5

Grouping: What groups can be identified - who is part of these groups?-5

Aspects of Non-Verbal Communication -5

Body language-5

Facial expressions-6

Physical contact-6

The Gaze-6

Conclusion-6

Images-8

Bibliography-18

Raphael's…. [read more]


Renaissance Sculpture the Division Term Paper

… Michelangelo's David seems completely serene and confident. Donatello did not carve detail in the eyes of David, while Michelangelo did render the iris. Moreover, Donatello found it striking to have David proudly display the vanquished Goliath. This echoes the classical stance of victor standing atop the vanquished. While both Davids are influence heavily by the classical arts and humanist philosophy, it is clear that by Michelangelo's time, all Gothic remnants were cast off of Italian sculpture.

Michelangelo ascribed to what Trewin Copplestone calls "the criteria of classical excellence," (21). The art of the High Renaissance was a culmination and successful combination of the classics and Christianity. Moreover, art became endowed with spiritual power during this time. Just as Vasari deferred to Michelangelo as "Il Divino,"…. [read more]


Bible and Science Essay

… The study is very informative. It also makes sense of the passages in Proverbs and Luke. Luke was, after all, said to be a physician. "Plummer suggests that he may have studied medicine at the famous school of Tarsus, the rival of Alexandria and Athens, and possibly met St. Paul there" (Knight, 2011). Plus St. Paul (Colossians 4:14), the early Church historian Eusebius, St. Jerome, and St. Irenaeus all state that St. Luke was skilled in the practice of medicine, so it is telling that Luke should remind us of this connection between spirit and body, too.

Holy Bible, New Living Translation. (2004). IL: Tyndale House Publishers.

Knight, K. (2011). Gospel of Saint Luke. New Advent. Retrieved from http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/09420a.htm

Kyziridis, T. (2005). Notes on the…. [read more]


Skin Shows: Gothic Horror Essay

… 7). The discerning reader will agree with the author that this wearing away of the skin so that the true monstrosity found in the Gothic horror -- which is in certain tales within the monster -- is revealed is one of the most enduring aspects of this genre.

It was also extremely interesting to read about the role of women in the Gothic tradition, especially in the contemporary variety of gothic films and books. One of the most elucidating statements that the author made was the fact that historic gothic literature prior to the 20th century encompassed a variety of points of deviations such as race, class, religion, sex/gender, whereas contemporary Gothic film focuses almost exclusively on gender issues. Specifically, contemporary Gothic films routinely exploit…. [read more]


Pindar and the Olympian Ode Essay

… Syracusan knight and king, blazoned with glory in the land of Pelops: Pelops, whom earth-cradling Poseidon loved, since Klotho had taken him out of the pure cauldron, his ivory shoulder gleaming in the hearth-light (Stand 1, lines 23-25).

Rereading this section it is interesting to note the term "earth-cradling" for Poseidon, who was the God of the Sea and lived in the ocean. Instead, Poseidon is coming onto land to capture Pelops out of the cooking pot (cauldron) and we must presume naked because his "ivory shoulder" is gleaming with either perspiration or cooking juices in the light of the fire. This eroticism goes with Pindar's theme of appeasing the Gods through sport in that Klotho was one of the Three Fates who was responsible…. [read more]


Sign and Symbol, by John Essay

… , and elevation to heaven

Paris 12-13th centuries -- new School of Paris -- Gothic emphasizing "mystical signification" more lightness in the design, less materiality

Also shift away from Roman style, which symbolized paganism

Pointed forms, evoking "convergence of branches," capitals and pinnacles with leaves, now flower symbolizes living church

15th century Italy starts to abandon Gothic architecture

16th century shift of economic, political power away from church -- impacted architecture-made it more geometric, rigid to impart law and order -- symbolizing the keeping in check of economic and political power

19th century, After 1800- France uses Egyptian symbols in cemeteries bc symbolize death; Islamic symbols in England represent "wayward lifestyle" -- diverse styles used

20th century -- International Movement, Le Corbusier -- concrete, steel,…. [read more]


Brazilian Culture Brazil Essay

… In towns with a significant Amerindian population, their culture as well has been lent to carnival.

Popular Culture

One of the criticisms of Freyte's work is that it glossed over the issue of class in the formation of Brazilian society. The racial blending that made Brazil a more tolerant place than most other parts of the world originally occurred when the white privileged class mated with slaves and servants of other races. Arguably, Freyte's ideas sought to bring pride to what in some other countries was seen a shameful origin for a person. By accepting racial mingling, one would naturally have to accept class mingling as well, since class lines were typically drawn by race. The carnival reflects the breaking down of class barriers.

First,…. [read more]


Silent Film and How Critical Research Paper

… A good example of the first movement would be Robert Wiene's The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari." (Blakeney, 2009) Blakeney write that the films' atmosphere and plot are through visual means almost entirely revealed through use of sets that are "wildly abstract and dramatically exaggerated makeup." (Blakeney, 2009) The film is reported to unfold "in an enthralling completely artificial environment where even the movements of the actors echo the distorted angular shapes of their setting." (Blakeney, 2009)

According to Blakeney (2009), Bazin is correct in the statement that films such as the Cabinet of Dr. Caligari are "an entirely separate art form. The story is conveyed through the intricate interactions between images, lighting, composition, and movement. If The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari was suddenly flooded with…. [read more]


Economics in Ancient Civilization Literature Review

… Source: Stein, Kenneth, 1995.

Egyptologists point to the extent by which tributary construction was attributed to leaders of Ancient Egypt is evidence that continuity was sought in proclamations of economic and political stability; composed in perpetuity as a standard of perfection dictated by those rulers. Tomb paintings referencing elaborate banquets and trade activities in the afterlife, give some inference into the sophistication of everyday economy in the region (de la Croix and Tansey). Mummies provide important support of this fact, and dietary assessments reveal much about the abundance and fortitude of Ancient Egypt at a time when the inhabitants of Europe were largely migratory with caves as the only source of protection from the elements.

According to Wharburton (2000) in Before the IMF: the economic…. [read more]


Wanderer (Qanda) Based on the Poem Research Proposal

… Wanderer (Q&A)

Based on the poem, how would you describe/characterize the narrator?

The wanderer is an old or aged man who is mourning the loss of his lord, friends and family in war and in exile.

"But he who this wall'd place wisely devis'd, and this dark life profoundly contemplates, wise in spirit, afar oft remembers (90)

his many battles, and these words utters:

Where is horse, where is man? where is the treasure-giver ?

where are the festive sittings ? where are the joys of the hall?"

He must have been a favored valiant warrior of his lord who had seen some glory in the battlefield but his experiences after the years of battle which left him aged and generally friendless, perhaps due to…. [read more]


Early British Literature Term Paper

… ¶ … British Lit

Legends, tales about heroes and their supernatural thrilling adventures have always attracted people regardless of the age. Heroes originate in the mists of time and myths. Morton W. Bloomfield states that "the original hero in early literature was probably based on a king who died for his people, the warrior who defeated the tribe's enemies...These men...were celebrated in song and story and...presented again to the people so that they could participate in their magic" (Bloomfield, p 30).

This outlook of the people who regarded the hero as the savior of his own kind dominates the early medieval epics such as Beowulf and The Song of Roland.

Beowulf is the largest and most famous Anglo-Saxon heroic poem and due to its large…. [read more]

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