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Cirrhosis Liver Disease Term Paper

… Cirrohsis (liver Disease)


When liver tissue is damaged by infection, toxin or ailment, it leads to a scarring called Cirrhosis. Cirrhosis is not reversible and is dangerous and it cannot be treated. Diseases of the liver can be instigated by hepatitis, some inherited diseases and alcoholism and in most of the cases, no indications exist for these diseases. Fatty liver refers to liver cells enlarged with fat globules and water and is produced due to too much drinking; this ultimately leads to liver disease, cirrhosis and that of liver failure. (Healthy Steps for Healthy Men) Persistent severe liver diseases lead to scarring of the liver and liver dysfunction. This frequently has many complexities, inclusive of buildup of fluid in the abdomen, bleeding ailments, enhanced…. [read more]

Alcoholic Liver Disease Essay

… This is in combination with enteral nutrition as a suitable preference to corticosteroids in a patient with alcoholic severe hepatitis. Pentoxifylline or PTX was demonstrated to improve the condition of a patient with alcoholic hepatitis through the down regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the same time, it possesses antibiotic effects that respond to disease severity. Furthermore, it asserts antifibriotic effects by enhancing both profibrogenic cytokine and procollagen effects. And lastly, it reduces mortality by reducing the incidence of hepatorenal syndrome by improving renal microcirculation and hemodynamic mechanism (Frazier).

If the patient is a chronic heavy drinker, he is likely to suffer from other disorders related to drinking (Makdissi & Stewart, 2013). A chronic heavy drinker consumes at least 50-60 grams of alcohol daily. These disorders…. [read more]

Sexual Transmitted Disease Term Paper

… Sexually Transmitted Disease

Sexual Transmitted Disease

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) refers to illnesses or infections that are spread through human sexual behaviors and are also known as venereal disease or sexually transmitted infections. These diseases usually occur through a variety of ways including anal sex, vaginal intercourse and oral sex with the most common means being through sexual intercourse with an infected person.

There are various types of sexually transmitted diseases such as gonorrhea, syphilis, genital herpes, Chlamydia, Trichomoniasis, and HIV / AIDS. However, the main causes of sexually transmitted diseases are viruses, parasites, and bacteria. While these diseases affect both men and women, they are usually severe in women than men.

Though most of these diseases are treatable, some of them still lack effective…. [read more]

Hepatitis of the Liver Term Paper

… HCV is a positive, single-stranded RNA virus in the Flaviviridae family. The genome is approximately 10,000 nucleotides and encodes a single polyprotein of about 3,000 amino acids. Host cell and viral proteases into three major structural proteins and several non-structural proteins necessary for viral replication process the polyprotein. Several different genotypes of HCV with slightly different genomic sequences have since been identified that correlate with differences in response to treatment with interferon alpha. [Hepatitis C by Howard J. Worman, M.D.]

The productions of drugs for curing HCV have not been produced however, using excellent diagnostic methods we can examine this type.

Risk Factors for HCV Infection

Approximately 170,000,000 people worldwide and 4,000,000 in the United States are infected with HCV. Primarily blood and blood products…. [read more]

Signs, Treatment and Prevention of Hepatitis Essay

… Infection through bodily fluid exchanges may occur by having unprotected sex with an infected person. In this case the saliva, vaginal secretions and semen act as carriers to the HBV (Copstead & Banasik, 2010).

Signs and Symptoms

The recognizable symptoms and signs of HBV include: dark urine, joint pains, Jaundice (yellowing of the skin or sclera), abdominal pains, fatigue, weakness, fever, appetite loss, Nausea and vomiting, (Mayo Clinic, 2011).These symptoms and signs are not necessarily observable in the early stages of infection. However, as the infection continues to spread in the person's body some of the symptoms and signs are likely to come out clearly (Mayo Clinic, 2011).


Having chronic HBV can lead to serious life threatening complications such as; cirrhosis, liver cancer, failure,…. [read more]

Abnormal Uterine Bleeding and Issues Research Paper

… , et al., 2012).

Vaginitis is one of the most common lower reproductive tract infections; most commonly caused by infections like candida, bacteria, or other bacteria. It is both treatable and less serious than other infections, but has the potential of migrating up the reproductive tract and causing more serious infections. Cervical infection is caused by a variety of pathogens, especially STDs like gonorrhea and chlamydia. These are more severe than vaginitis because they usually reside in the upper reproductive tract and are more difficult to diagnose and treat since they are often asymptomatic (Population Council, 2012).

Works Cited

Azim, P., et al. (2011). Evaluation of Abnormal Uterine Bleeding. Isra Medical Journal, 3(3). Retrieved November 2013, from

Davidson, B., et al. (2012). Abnormal Uterine…. [read more]

Hepatitis Thesis

… Hepatitis B is the known as the most serious of the common liver infections in the world. It is estimated that approximately 350 million people are chronic carriers of HBV or the hepatitis B virus in the world and of these more than 250,000 die from liver-related disease each year. (Hepatitis B Overview) The Hepatitis B infection is caused by the hepatitis B virus and it can not only be the cause of serious and chronic liver disease but can "….put people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer." (Hepatitis B: WHO)

Hepatitis B should be understood as an infection that is related to the general diagnoses of and category of Hepatitis. Hepatitis generally refers to a condition of…. [read more]

Neglected Diseases Schistosomiasis Essay

… Schistosomiasis


Neglected Diseases: Schistosomiasis

Schistosomiasis, also called bilharzia, is a blood fluke infection, which can cause serious and long-term illness (DHPE, 2010; DPDx, 2010; Kogulan & Lucey, 2007; Pearson, 2009). It was first identified by Theodore Bilharz in Egypt in 1851 and, thus, named after him in some countries. Blood flukes, which cause schistosomiasis, are parasitic flatworms, called schistosomes. Schistosomiasis is found in Africa, Latin America, Caribbean, Middle East, Southern China, and Southeast Asia (DHPE, DPDx, Kogulan & Lucey, Pearson).

Main Types and Transmission

The three main types or species, which affect humans, are Schistosoma mansoni, Schistosoma japonicum, and Schistosoma haematobium (DPHE, 2010; DPDx, 2010; Kogulan & Lucey, 2007; Pearson, 2009). The flatworms live and thrive in fresh water in these…. [read more]

Acute Renal Failure Essay

… Patients who have experienced trauma to the kidneys, patients in the ICU, patients that have had heart or intestinal surgery or a bone marrow transplant are also statistically more likely to have kidney failure (Epstein 1997).

As well as determining whether acute renal failure has occurred, a through diagnosis also demands determining the type of renal failure that the patient is suffering. "Prerenal acute renal failure is characterized by diminished renal blood flow (60 to 70% of cases). In intrinsic acute renal failure, there is damage to the renal parenchyma (25 to 40% of cases). Postrenal acute renal failure occurs because of urinary tract obstruction (5 to 10% of cases)" (Agrawal & Swartz 2000).

In prerenal acute renal failure, impaired renal blood flow "as a…. [read more]

Sexually Transmitted Diseases Types and Prevention Term Paper


Sexually transmitted diseases (STD) are those that can be transmitted through the organs used for sexual contact: penis, vagina, mouth and anus. STDs can (in one way) be classified based on the type of entity that transmits them. These are bacterial, viral, parasitic, protozoan and fungal. In call cases, if medication is not available (and even if it is) prevention generally involves protected sex and sex between monogamous partners and indulgence in low risk behaviors.

Human Papilloma Virus or HPV: This is a viral infection that is spread through anal, oral and vaginal sex. About 100 different kinds of HPV have been identified and these infect large number of people at some point in their lives. About 30 of the viruses are transmitted sexually.…. [read more]

Human Digestive System Term Paper

… (Roberts, 474)

The most significant prevention measure is sanitation, and the proper disposal of fecal matter, to which the United States initiated a hookworm campaign in 1913, which educated the American people on hookworm infection, as well as medicated those who were currently infected. (Roberts, 474-475) Because of those measures, hookworm disease is no longer as prevalent in America as in other parts of the world. (Roberts, 475) When medical treatment is received, the prognosis is good for someone with the disease.

Vibrio cholerae is the bacterium responsible for the epidemic called cholera. There have been no major outbreaks of this disease in the United States since the year 1911. (FDA/CFSAN) The symptoms of cholera, like most digestive system diseases, can vary depending on the…. [read more]

Hepatitis Term Paper

… 35% have subtype '1a', 15% have '1b', 7% have '2', 35% have '3' (mostly being 3a). The remaining people would have other genotypes." (Hepatitis)

The Replication of Genome provides insights into the Hepatitis C virus which falls under the family of Flaviviridae with a genus of Hepacivirus. "Nearly 4 million individuals in the United States are infected with HCV. About 30,000 new infections are diagnosed each year, and 8000 infected people die." (Burke, Dhopesh, and Taylor)

As noted, drug use accounts for almost half of all new identified infections on an annual basis and could perhaps add up to well over half of the chronic infections. "Of those with hepatitis C, 20% may develop cirrhosis within the subsequent 10 to 20 years. This susceptibility is…. [read more]

Hepatitis Term Paper

… HepC

Hepatitis C is a potentially fatal liver disease transmitted by a bloodborne virus. In fact, Hepatitis C is " the most common chronic bloodborne infection in the United States," with more than three million exhibiting a chronic infection (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention). All hepatitis diseases refer to the inflammation of the liver, and are caused by viral infections. Hepatitis a, B, and C. are the most common of the hepatitis diseases, but other rarer forms D. And E. do exist. The Hepatitis C virus, abbreviated as HCV, is "among the most serious" of the hepatitis family of diseases because of its deleterious effect on the liver (Mayo Clinic).

Whereas Hepatitis a can be transmitted through contaminated food and drink, Hepatitis C is…. [read more]

Hep B The Causative Agent Essay

… Pathogenesis and Symptoms

After the incubation period, which averages 60-90 days in humans, the disease may only be detectable in serum testing. The presence of HBsAg will denote infection, and the infection may likely resolve itself even before any symptoms are present. Further tests would reveal whether the HBsAg disappears from the serum, and the person is no longer a carrier of the Hepatitis B virus. However, a chronically infected person in whom the HBsAg presence lasts for six months or more will remain infectious and could go on to develop serious liver diseases like cirrhosis.

When symptoms do begin to manifest in chronically infected individuals, the initial phase is known as prodromal or preicteric. This early phase is characterized by jaundice lasting up to…. [read more]

Pathology and Medical Imaging Term Paper

… Pathology and Medical Imaging

MRI Features of Larger Lesions Predict Malignancy in Cirrhotic Liver

The aim of the study by Jeong-Sik Yu et al. (2007) was to establish whether the presence of malignant liver cirrhosis could be predicted by studying the lesions present in the patient through MRI imaging. During the course of hepatocarcinogenesis, premalignant lesions can undergo fatty change preceding hepatocellular carcinoma, and the research studied these changes to establish how this may present in a patient with malignant rather than benign lesions; the predictive value of MRI for diagnosing malignancy was established.

Method total of 38 patients were selected to take part in the study. All patients were selected on the basis of having liver cirrhosis, and also focal lesions containing fat which…. [read more]

Healthcare Alcoholics and Liver Transplantation Article Critique

… Healthcare

Alcoholics and Liver Transplantation

In the article Alcoholics and liver transplantation. The Ethics and Social Impact Committee of the Transplant and Health Policy Center, Carl Cohen, Martin Benjamin, and their associates look at the moral and medical points-of-view for not including alcoholics as candidates for liver transplants and conclude that neither side of the argument justifies a categorical exclusion. There are two arguments that motivate an extensive reluctance to consider people with alcoholic cirrhosis of the liver as contenders for transplantation. This argument states that alcoholics are morally responsible for their condition. Their condition is the outcome of their own bad behavior and such behavior should disqualify alcoholics for contention for organs with others who are just as ill but are not to blame.…. [read more]

Embryonic Stem Cells to Cure Research Paper

… However. still a great deal of research and studies are needed in the order to study the efficiency of stem cells in innervation of the striatum, dopamine release, and relief from the symptoms of Parkinson's disease (Mummery et al. 2002, p. 2736).


Strokes are caused by the blockage of cerebral artery causing focal ischaemia, loss of glial cells and neurons, along with cognitive and sensory impairments. There are no current therapies that can repair the damage caused by the stroke and even if some symptoms are relieved by the help of any minor therapy, it is considered helpful. Certain sources of the stem cells include fetal brain, teratocarcinoma or neuroepithelial cell lines, umbilical cord and bone marrow. These cells have shown great changes in…. [read more]

Chronic Liver Disease Essay

… Usually this is done to see if there is cellular damage to the liver.

CAT Scan -- Computed Tomography is a medical imaging procedure in which a computer based "image" of the organ is created so that the physician has a three dimensional view of the organ in question.


Ultrasound -- used routinely in the evaluation of cirrhosis; sound or elastic waves are bounced off tissues in a non-invasive procedure. This shows irregularities in shape and scaring (Dickerson, 2006).

Treatment Options

Nutritional Based -- Balanced diet including an excess of fresh vegetables; broccoli and green leafy vegetables especially; plenty of complex carbohydrates and avoid simple sugars; adequate protein but not excessive -- proteins should be from plant, rather than meat, sources. Replacement of certain…. [read more]

Pathophysiology of Liver Disease Term Paper

… It is also a part of the metabolic process for digesting lipids and carbohydrates. Since cirrhosis is when the normal liver tissues are replaced by damaged, scarred tissues, this blocks the flow of blood through the organ and prevents the body from functioning normally. Cirrhois leads to stellate cell, which causes the obstruction of blood flow and circulation.

The human body needs DBP which is a vitamin D-binding to bind, to serve and to neutralize extracellular monomeric actin released from necrotic cells (Gressner et. al., 2009). Studies have shown that patients with liver disease such as cirrhosis have decrease levels of DPB, which could "potentially contribute to the thrombophilic predisposition frequently observed in patients with chronic fibrogenic liver disease and HCC" (Gressner et. al., 2009).…. [read more]

Hepatitis B Screening for Health Term Paper

… (Joint Advisory Notice, 1987) The diagnosis of the disease is in stages. At the start is the checking of Hepatitis B surface antigen presence in blood tests of the infected individual as the first viral marker. This stays in the only for a period of 1 or 2 months. The next stage, after the appearance of hepatitis B surface antigen is the detection of hepatitis B core antibody or Anti-HBc. This happens within one or two weeks. (Hepatitis B: For evaluation of patients at high risk for hepatitis B infection, there is a single test called HBcAb, or Hepatitis B core antibody that is the best. When the results of the test are negative, the patient should receive the vaccination for hepatitis B A…. [read more]

Patient History the Patient's Medical Case Study

… Hepatocytes are therefore unlikely to be affected in this patient by whatever is causing these symptoms.

Preliminary Diagnosis

The 6-fold increase in ALP levels over the upper limit of the normal range for a female between 61 and 65 years of age suggests the presence of disease in a number of different organs and tissues, but the normal AST levels eliminate hepatocytes as a possible source. The combination of high ALP levels and mild hyperbilirubinemia, in the absence of high AST levels, is consistent with a diagnosis of cholestatic disease. Given the patient's gender and age, a diagnosis of primary biliary cirrhosis is certainly possible (Tietz, 1999, p. 1162), but given her history of colorectal cancer, other possibilities need to be explored as well. These…. [read more]

Management of Immunocompromised Patients Essay

… Bacterial infections usually cause between 80-90% of all infections that are associated with fevers Sung, Wong, Sanderson, Li, & Kwok, 2002.

Therefore the first course of action will be to give the patient and antibiotic regimen which is broad spectrum in order to fight a wide variety of bacteria which can bring an infection to the patients. If the infection does not clear up in a few days, the next course of treatment would be a broad spectrum antifungal which is used to treat fungal infections. If the patient is severely infected, they may have to receive replacements of white blood cells.

Those patients who develop specific infections such as bacteremia, which is the condition whereby bacteria enter the blood, sinusitis, liver infections, gastrointestinal disorders,…. [read more]

Hepatitis Thesis

… Hepatitis C: A sobering look at an elusive virus

Anatomy of hepatitis C

One of the most critically dangerous aspects of the hepatitis C virus is that it is stored in the RNA, not the DNA of the victim. The structure of the hepatitis C virus takes the form of a core of RNA surrounded by a protective shell of protein encased in a fatty envelope of cellular material. In contrast to the relatively stable DNA molecule, RNA is a quite volatile and makes frequent mistakes during the replication process, averaging one mistake per 10,000 nucleotides each time it is copied. This makes mutation quite common and treatment quite difficult. The viral RNA is read by the host cell's ribosomes, "functioning like the normal mRNA…. [read more]

Hepatitis: General Health Overview Term Paper

… Hepatitis: General Health Overview

Hepatitis is a potentially serious, virus-caused disease of the liver that appears in humans in five distinct variations. Several versions of Hepatitis are chronic diseases, because their symptoms persist throughout life after infection. Other forms of the disease are strictly acute, because their symptoms are of relatively short duration and leave no lasting effects. Several types of Hepatitis are extremely contagious through contact with infected blood, requiring health care workers to perform diagnostic and other medical procedures with great care to avoid possible contamination (Taylor, 2005).

Vaccinations are available for several types of the disease, and other types are prevented by implementing hygienic drinking water supplies and ensuring that food and water do not become contaminated, particularly with sewage waste, which…. [read more]

Hepatitis C And Cellular Biology Term Paper

… , 2009). Therefore, the researchers developed a production system for a secreted form of E2 ectodomain from mammalian cells (Whidby et al., 2009). This was demonstrated to be effective in blocking infection by cell culture-derived hepatitis C virus, which may lead to further advances in the development of vaccines and entry inhibitors for the virus (Whidby et al., 2009).

Belon & Frick (2009) suggest that antiviral therapies specifically targeted for hepatitis C will prove to be the most effective treatments, replacing presently used therapies. These include all new antiviral agents that act upon the proteins that are involved in the replication of the virus (Belon & Frick, 2009). These researchers looked specifically at compounds that seem to inhibit catalyzed reactions of the hepatitis C virus…. [read more]

Alcohol Disease Term Paper

… Alcoholism as a Disease

Throughout many parts of the world, alcoholic consumption is often a part of social gathering like picnics, graduations, sporting events, and many more. Alcohol consumption is a risky behavior because of health and social situations caused by intoxicating, toxic, and dependence-producing entity (World Health Organization, 2011). People who drink a large amount of alcohol are susceptible to chronic illnesses over a number of years; the use of alcohol is also related to an increased risk of acute health conditions, such as bodily injuries, including traffic accidents (World Health Organization, 2011). The World Health Organization (WHO) states that "the harmful use of alcohol results in 2.5 million deaths each year, 320,000 young people between the ages of 15 and 29 die from…. [read more]

Hepatitis D, Hdv Term Paper

… The genome that the HDV contains is an RNA virus, negative, single stranded, circular, rod structure. Besides the RNA genome, the protein coat of HDV contains a single protein, in two forms: small (195 aminoacids) and large (214 aminoacids) forms of the antigen encoded by HDV. The approximate length of the genome is 1,7 kb (Handa, Yamaguchi, 2006). So far, it is the only human disease associated virus that is similar to viruses associated with plant diseases (idem, 2006).

The genome is replicated by cellular polymerases.

"Replication of HDV. Viral particles consist of HDV RNA (black lines) and HDV antigen (blue) encapsidated by HBsAg (red). Picture From: Heller T, Hoofnagle JH. (2003). Denying the wolf access to sheep's clothing. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 112: 319-21"…. [read more]

Digestive System Diseases and Disorders Research Paper

… The "common culprits" that make people sick from food are bacteria, parasites and viruses. Getting Foodborne sickness is most often the result of "harmful bacteria," the NLM reports. There may be bacteria on the food that is bought at the store or the farmer's market (which is it why it's important to wash produce thoroughly); and in terms of raw meat, it may have become contaminated when it was slaughtered or it may have been left out at room temperature once it was brought home to the kitchen, the NLM information continues.

The immediate treatment one should go through when sickened by Foodborne illness is to "increase your fluid intake," the NLM explains. When it becomes serious, hospitalization becomes a priority. Most often a…. [read more]

Health Is Affected by Behaviors Essay

… It was noted that since 1980, "Hispanics in the U.S. has grown five times faster tan the rest of the population, making the United States the third largest Spanish-speaking country in the world. Seventy percent of U.S. population growth is the result of immigration, with 50% coming from Hispanic immigrants - a trend that is forecast to continue for the next two decades" (U.S. Consumer Demographics, 2011). Furthermore, Midwestern states have a larger amount of elderly inhabitants, thus reduced number of workers, which has encouraged the migration of immigrants to settle outside the East and West coasts. An example is that from 2000 to 2005, the immigration to parts of the Midwest exceeded 50%. Moreover, Wilmoth's (2006) study suggested that there will be "diversity that…. [read more]

Adult Liver Transplantation a Study of the Lived Experience of Patients Waiting Chapter

… Post liver transplant patients how does lifestyle modification such as physical activity compare to sedentary lifestyle affects patient quality of life within 4 months

Overview of Evidence

Search Strategy

Quality of Life in Post Liver Transplant Patient

Quality of Life for Those with Liver Issues

Pivotal Examinations Linked to Physical Activity in Transplant Patients

Physical Activity and Quality of Living

Interventions: Dietary Counseling After Transplantation

Quality of life measures.

Strong point of the Evidence

The purpose of this quality improvement project was to look into post liver transplant patients and to see how does lifestyle modification such as physical activity compare to sedentary lifestyle affects patient quality of life within 4 months. Quality of life has been shown to improve dramatically after liver transplant, as…. [read more]

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