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Cloning of Biological Organisms Research Paper

… In this process, a set of genes are introduced into a cell type, which send signals for the cell to become a mature stem cell (de Grey & Rae, 152). One of the advantages of this subtype of cloning is that it does not involve an embryo or an egg cell. Because of that, there is less controversy with it. If the effectiveness can be improved, it could become highly valuable.

Of course, there is another type of cloning, and that is the creation of an entire human being who is an exact genetic copy of another human and produced by artificial means (Russel, 25). That is the most controversial type of cloning available, and one that may never be realized in the United States…. [read more]


Cloning Benefits Term Paper

… ¶ … Cloning

History and Background of Cloning.

Possible Negative Consequences and their Consequences.

Alternative Solutions.

Rebuttals of Opponents.

Concusion.

An Analysis of the Potential Benefits of Cloning

The ongoing heated debates concerning the ethical aspects of using human stem-cells, a therapeutic form of cloning, to advance medicine highlight the need for better oversight of science when real people are involved. In reality, though, stem-cells appear positively benign when compared with the potential benefits - and risks some critics say -- to be realized through the cloning of animals and possibly humans. The vivid scenes portrayed in the "Jurassic Park" movies, though, are intended to entertain and shock rather than educate, and many observers may come away from these motion pictures with a skewed perception…. [read more]


Cloning Term Paper

… ." We worry that the market for women's eggs that would be created by this research will provide unethical incentives for women to undergo health-threatening hormone treatment and surgery. We are also concerned about the increasing bio-industrialization of life by the scientific community and life science companies; we are shocked and dismayed that clonal human embryos have been patented and declared to be human "inventions." We oppose efforts to reduce human life and its various parts and processes to the status of mere research tools, manufactured products, and utilities." (Rifkin) This view tends to epitomize the serious concerns that are felt in many sectors about the future implications of cloning.

The fact that has to be faced is that cloning raises many issues that extend…. [read more]


Cloning Our Group Is a Morally Committed Term Paper

… Cloning

Our group is a morally committed organization that has had many successes in preventing various actions and activities when those activities raise moral objections. Among these would be our efforts to lobby for increased recognition of family rights so parents would have to be notified before an underage girl could get certain medical procedures, worked to prevent discrimination against people on the basis of religion in government actions, and work for tighter controls on abortions, though success in this last area has been difficult to achieve. More recently, we are committed to preventing human cloning and to protecting the integrity of human life by banning this dangerous procedure, which also challenges various moral prescriptions and takes the world down a wrong path. The cloning…. [read more]


Cloning the Debate About Human Term Paper

… (Human Cloning - The Ethical Issues)

If it were possible for a parent or parents to select a particular gene for their child, it would have been wonderful. Though loving parents would do anything to achieve such impossibility, though they do quite a lot of things for their children socially, it is just not possible to select a gene, and to reproduce an exact carbon copy of the original. People do believe that cloning would produce something of a replica but in actuality it is not true. Furthermore, cloning in several applications is seen to be on the flip side of logic. Parents can write off a child's upbringing but cannot choose or change their own genes. They think, for e.g., if a child suffers…. [read more]


Cloning Is the Production of Identical Genetic Term Paper

… Cloning is the production of identical genetic copies of cells or an individual. The process occurs naturally when a cell or organism reproduces asexually, through processes such as mitosis, binary fission, budding, sporulation, or parthenogenesis, or when genetically identical twins are produced naturally.

Even the process of horticultural grafting and cuttings are technically cloning as the resultant plant is a genetic copy of the original. However, the debate centering on cloning most often focuses on the cloning specifically of cell, tissue, organ, or an individual, performed by a deliberate human effort ("Cloning"). It is this type of cloning that holds the hopes of the medical future, and can positively affect a variety of other areas, despite the risks critics fear.

DNA cloning technology has been…. [read more]


Cloning Today Man Has Progressed Term Paper

… Cloning

Today man has progressed so much in the field of science that it has claimed to possess the power and knowledge to duplicate any living organism. In the year 1997, scientists at the Roslin Institute, Scotland, announced that they have successfully cloned a sheep. Proudly naming it "Dolly," this event led to a series of concerns all across the globe. Many rejoiced at this effort and were supportive while others felt that man was trying to play God. Debates on ethical and moral aspects of this achievement were conducted and people including religious sectors denounced this process. It should also be noted that Dolly was not the first animal to be cloned. The first animal to be cloned was a tadpole done more than…. [read more]


Cloning Is Among the Feats Term Paper

… If this is what is going to occur, cloning therefore is a threat on every aspect of living. It endangers the existence of naturally born human beings and on the peace of society because cloning can present different kinds crimes such as falsification of identity.

Aside from the social problems that cloning presents, it can also bring more problems in the health of humans. Any mistake in genetic engineering can present new kinds of diseases because genetic engineering is considered as a process of "trial and error," without any assurance of success. Such problem can be inherited by future generations and can bring more problems to the already existing ones. A cycle of solving medical problems through genetic engineering and enhancements would only mean a…. [read more]


Cloning in 1997 Term Paper

… Ever since agriculture and the domesticated raising of animals, man has been modifying the genetic make-up of animals by selective breeding. For example, livestock of superior quality could be cloned for farmers. Such livestock would yield higher quality meat, milk, and wool.

People could also clone animals that produce human proteins and other substances used in medical drugs. Another possibility for the use of cloning is the generation of genetically modified animal organs that are suitable for transplantation into humans. At present, thousands of patients die each year before a replacement heart, liver, or kidney becomes available (Wilmut, 1998).

Although genetic disorders represent a small fraction of the total burden of ill health, genetic engineering in the form of "gene therapy" could be used to…. [read more]


Cloning Is No Longer Term Paper

… However, for this to proceed, therapeutic cloning must distance itself further from reproductive cloning (Butler Pp). Robin Lovell-Badge, head of developmental genetics at the National Institute for Medical Research in London, feels that this should not be a problem, "You can get to the blastocyst stage without stringent reprogramming, but to go on to the stem-cell line stage is harder, you need a lot more genes to be programmed correctly" (Butler Pp).

With fresh competition from overseas scientists, such as South Korea who reportedly cloned human embryos in 2003, U.S. cloning advocates are highlighting the boosts that the technology could give to the American research community and to economic development (Munro Pp). In January 2004, the New Jersey Legislature approved a law banning cloning to…. [read more]


Human Cloning Essay

… (Mappes 568) He asserts that clones would not have the freedom to choose their future, but have their future controlled by another, something that Kass believes is "despotic."

One of Kass' main objections to cloning deals with the issue of identity, and what he calls being "saddled with a genotype that has already lived. He will not be fully a surprise to the world…." (Mappes 568) But Robert Wachbroit rightly points out that a clone is not the result of "asexual reproduction," but simply a twin who's birth has been delayed. Kass believes that the clone will somehow live a repeat of the life of the DNA donor, but Wachbroit explains that because the clone is a delayed twin, it "would be a separate person…. [read more]


Cloning Creating Controversy Among Scientists Term Paper

… All cloning presents an ethical problem. Why, with two options in front of us -- one that we knew would definitely lead to problems, and one that we know would definitely not lead to problems -- would we choose the option that definitely lead to problems? It would be illogical.

Works Cited

Best, Megan. "Human Cloning Is Unethical." Opposing Viewpoints: Genetic Engineering. Ed.

Louise I. Gerdes. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005. Opposing Viewpoints Resource

Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Blackwelder, Brent. "Human Cloning Represents a Lack of Respect for Nature." At Issue: The

Ethics of Human Cloning. Ed. John Woodward. San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2005.

Opposing Viewpoints Resource Center. Gale. FRANCIS LEWIS HIGH SCHOOL. 9 Jan. 2010 .

Fitzgerald, Kevin…. [read more]


Science Marches Forward, Reproductive Cloning Essay

… There are a range of various opinions about this practice, however in many jurisdictions judges are recognizing it as a best practice and the development is growing exponentially (Edwards, 2008). It has shown promise to also help in cases where there is either child abuse and/or neglect in an array of circumstances. It seems to be the best fit when both parents are committed to changing their behaviors for the purpose of the child's best interest. If there is not a commitment from both parents for change, then the matters are most likely best handled in an alternate venue. Children can potentially be involved in certain circumstances if they are of the aged in which they can fully communicate their positions, such as teenaged children.…. [read more]


Cloning, and Especially Human Term Paper

… Cloning, and especially human cloning, is a hot political topic. Raising a litany of legal and ethnical questions, cloning is also an issue that has become shrouded in fallacy, myth, and misunderstanding. Media attention to cloning has in many cases distorted the issues, making it seem as if science labs are manufacturing monsters and mutants. Moreover, cloning is a broad term that encompasses a range of related yet categorically distinct scientific enterprises. Narrowing the definition of cloning is essential for public policy and legislative intervention. According to the Human Genome Project, cloning can be easily broken down into three types: recombinant DNA cloning; reproductive cloning; and therapeutic cloning. Of the three, the media focuses the most attention on reproductive cloning, the technology used to create…. [read more]


Cloning Dolly, the World's First Term Paper

… On a related note, perfecting the cloning procedure would enable gay couples to become biological parents. Currently, gays are restricted from adopting children and are even prohibited from marrying in most states and countries. Cloning would allow gay and lesbian couples to have children and overcome some of the legal obstacles standing in their way.

One of the most promising applications of cloning is medical research. Through cloning, scientists can grow organs and tissues that can be transplanted into sick people. Spinal cord injuries, Down's syndrome, kidney, liver, and heart disease, and even cancer can be potentially cured through cloning. Cloning can also be used to heal severe burns or as an adjunct in plastic or reconstructive surgeries. Cloned body parts can serve in a…. [read more]


Cloning? Cloning Is the Exact Term Paper

… He opined that the cloning technology was not 'evil' as stated by some individuals, nor was it morally wrong, as looked at by some others. Therefore, imposing restrictions and banning it would serve no good purpose other than create a controversy, said the Professor. When taken in the proper sense, the cloning technology could serve many important purposes, like for example, if a couple both suffer from the disease referred to as 'cystic fibrosis', which means that both the lungs and also some other organs within the body will be filled with mucus, and therefore would have a chance of passing it one to their offspring. However, if their offspring were to be cloned, then the risk of the child carrying the disease of cystic…. [read more]


Morality of Cloning Term Paper

… This is, of course, because genes which encourage preference for their own genetic contributions consistently reproduce more successfully and pass on to the next generation. So it is completely natural for individuals to prefer to give birth to their own genetic offspring and to children which share parts of the same genetic code. Cloning allows one to birth and parent a child that carries one's own genetic code, and therefore allows one to fulfill one's genetic need and desire to pass along one's one genes.

Idealist would of course say that such a contribution to the next generation should be made through sexual reproduction. However, in some cases this is either not feasible or not commendable. For example, one might consider the example of a…. [read more]


Therapeutic Cloning Recent Years Term Paper

… Another counter to therapeutic cloning is the possibility of alternative methods to reaching the same goal, methods such as the use of adult stem cells or even the use of stem cells from umbilical cord blood have no moral stigma attached to them. Secondly, there is promising research work being done in these areas. So why experiment with human embryos and run the risk of these being specifically created for destructive experimentation? (The Age, March 2002)

Besides such obvious negatives, another ethical dilemma raised by the subject of therapeutic cloning is the fact that it violates a basic tenet of nature. Currently, establishing a human embryo naturally, or by any of the standard artificial reproductive technologies, involves the fusion of a sperm with an egg.…. [read more]


Ethics of Human Cloning Term Paper

… A woman carrying a cloned child risks the effects of hormone manipulation and possible multiple miscarriages. A potential child faces the possibility of severe physical and developmental abnormalities.

Potential Social Harm

Critics of cloning also believe that cloning technology has the potential to cause greater social harm on two levels.

First, critics like Leonard Kass, a molecular biologist, argue that cloning saddles a child with unrealistic and hurtful expectations by adults. Kass believes that cloning is "inherently despotic, for it seeks to make one's children...after one's own image" (93). For a cloned individual, the technology itself further raises issues regarding identity and individuality.

This presents a significant degeneration in the parent-child relationship. When parents decide to procreate, there is a tacit acceptance "to having whatever…. [read more]


Human Cloning Essay

… If cloning technology is allowed to continue, the future may produce technologies wherein a person's own organs can be cloned from their own genetic material ensuring a match and a good likelihood that the body will accept the organ (Clone 2009).

There are many reasons that individuals might desire to have themselves or a loved one cloned. The most common justifications for cloning fall under the categories of utility and autonomy. Utility arguments include the desire to make more of yourself in order to have a larger impact on the world, replacing a dead child with a genetic duplicate, making a clone to provide bone marrow or organs to an original person, or producing individuals with higher or lower mental capacities to perform designated tasks…. [read more]


Dangers of Cloning Life Is Precious Thesis

… ¶ … Dangers of Cloning

Life is precious. This is what proponents of human cloning fail to accept. While cloning holds promise in theory, the idea fails in practice -- almost every single time it is attempted. While many see the experiment as a great challenge, they overlook the implications that cloning will have on society and the cloned individual. The dangers associated with human cloning are linked to the high failure rate among cloning experiments, the moral issue associated with the act of creating another human through means which are not natural, and the high probability that the cloned individual would probably suffer some sort of abnormality. If we are to glean any knowledge from previous cloning experiments with animals, we know that cloning…. [read more]


Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic Term Paper

… Speech on the Benefits of Therapeutic and Reproductive Cloning

Introductory Statement:

I would like to start this presentation with one very simple ethical principle that I believe should applies to any view of ethics in society and another equally simple principle of American life that is guaranteed by the U.S. Constitution: (1) Any technology whose potential ability to help human life far outweighs its potential harm should be pursued aggressively, and (2) Religious beliefs should never be allowed to affect legal decisions, because the Constitution guarantees the separation of church and state in this country.

First Point - Separation of Church and State and Cloning Technology:

Both of those concepts are central to the issue of cloning technology, because the therapeutic potential of cloning technology…. [read more]


Against Human Cloning Term Paper

… The issue of lineage becomes more problematic when a third person's DNA is used in lieu of an anonymous embryo donation. In this example, the couple will gestate and rear a child with whom they have no genetic connection. The party who consents to be cloned will have a later born genetic twin with whom s/he has no rearing or social relation. The genetic parents of the donor child will likewise have. no rearing or social connection with the clone of their offspring ( Keough, 2003)."

CONCLUSION

Cloning is a topic that is currently heating up on the debate circuit. At first glance cloning looks like a positive step in medical science, as it will allow the parts to be grown that will save lives.…. [read more]


Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering Annotated Bibliography

… Human Cloning and Genetic Engineering

The subject of human cloning is one of the most controversial subjects being debated today. It is also one of the most scientifically fascinating subjects, because it is the first to bring science and God together. Whether or not human creation belongs to the realm of God, or to the realm of science, has created a science conscience that did not previously exist in science before human cloning and genetic engineering became a reality. As a result of the science that now exists, and which makes possible genetic engineering that can alter and improve the human condition, and perhaps even more importantly, the cloning of existing human perfection, which can go beyond that perfection with additional genetic engineering, we are…. [read more]


Human Cloning Is a Controversial Subject Research Proposal

… Human cloning is a controversial subject in today's world and for good reason. In a UNESCO report published in 2005 it is related that cloning" may seem to be a relatively recent laboratory phenomenon, but the word itself derives from antiquity: the Greek word klwn for 'twig'." In fact, the use of the term in the beginning was applicable to "...early 20th century botany, designating plan grants. 'Clone' eventually came to be used for micro-organisms as well. Then by the 1970s the word came to designate a viable human or animal generated from a single parent. Over the last few years, cloning has come to mean any artificial, identical genetic copy of an existing life form." In the case where the cloning is by nuclear…. [read more]


Genetic Engineering Cloning Term Paper

… Cloning and Human Engineering

The controversy about cloning and human engineering has resulted in heated debate and discussion across a broad spectrum of disciplines and views. While cloning is essentially a scientific and medical discovery, yet the implications and the affects of cloning as a means of human engineering have wide ramifications and implications for society as a whole. The subject of cloning has also affected philosophy, religion and politics. This paper will attempt to provide an overview of cloning and human engineering as well as discuss the various arguments for and against cloning in practice and theory.

Cloning: A brief overview

The main reason for the controversy surrounding cloning is that it challenges many of the moral, ethical and religious norms and views in…. [read more]


Cloning Bioethics Term Paper

… This type of information transfer between individuals is a lot farther from reach than mere physical duplication. It would therefore be unrealistic to expect clones to replace the original individuals.

Nature clones people all the time. Approximately one in 1000 births is an identical twin. However, despite how many or how few individual characteristics twins have in common, they are still different people. They have their own identities, their own thoughts, and their own rights. They enter different occupations, get different diseases, and have different experiences with marriage, alcohol, community leadership, etc. Twins have different personalities, as would cloned individuals. Even if someone cloned several Napoleons, each would be different and even more unique than twins; the cloned child would be raised in a different…. [read more]


Human Cloning: The Ethical Debate Term Paper

… That would end abortion, in vitro fertilization, and many types of prenatal genetic testing in the United States.

There are many reasons why human cloning is unethical, but, in my opinion, the greatest reason is that it would destroy the way that families and children are created and built. However, looking at the issue from a scientific perspective, the possibilities for humanity outweigh the risks. Human cloning research would allow doctors to determine the cause of spontaneous abortions, give oncologists an understanding of the rapid cell growth of cancer, allow the use of stem cells to regenerate nerve tissues, and advance work on aging, genetics, and medicines (Jones, 1998).

Opponents and supporters agree that at the current time the technology is not safe enough to…. [read more]


Ethics of Human Cloning Genetic Term Paper

… What is required to ensure the welfare of society are laws that prohibit only the unethical misuses of new technology, without unnecessarily interfering with the uncontroverted applications of scientific progress that improve human health and well-being.

References

Bronowski, J. (1965) Science and Human Values.

Harper & Row: New York

Horgan, J. (1997) The End of Science: Facing the Limits of Knowledge in the Twilight of the Scientific Age. Addison-Wesley: Reading, Mass

Ladd, J. Ed. (1979) Ethical Issues Related to Life and Death.

Oxford University Press: New York

Kaku, M. (1997) Visions: How Science Will Revolutionize the 21st Century.

Doubleday: New York

Krock, L. (xxxx) On Human Cloning: Three Views. (NOVA/PBSonline)

Accessed July 23, 2004, at www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/baby/cloning.html

Ramsey, P. Shall We "Reproduce"? The Medical Ethics of…. [read more]


Human Cloning Term Paper

… The early experiments with animal cloning suggest that human clones would be born with physical defects or mental maladies. This is cruel enough and painful enough to witness in our animal friends. To create a physical, sentient being knowingly prone to illness or defect would be inhumane and destructive. It is also a highly selfish endeavor. Many scientists seem to covet cloning for personal gain. Others seem to desire to create a stash of human clones in a futile search for immortality. Instead of creating clones, scientists should spend more time and research on curing AIDS and cancer. The government, too, can devote money to much greater causes. You as a major media source should take a definite and fearless stand on this controversial issue.…. [read more]

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