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Cognitive Neuroscience Term Paper

… Cognitive Neuroscience

Developmental Differences in Cognitive Diatheses for Childhood Depression (Turner & Cole 2002, 15-27) is an empirical research study addressing the issue of the developmental stage of a child and its influence on depression causation. The study attempts to address the problem with the blanket association of adult depression causation to that of children, that often if not always excludes developmental stage from the factors of the work. The study attempts to take developmental level into consideration with regards to factorial causation of depression.

Within the work three research question stands out as the most crucial. 1. Does a child's developmental level (here grade level) effect the interaction of events and cognitive style to elicit or prevent depression in children? 2. Does the emergence…. [read more]

Cognitive Development Essay

… The first study focused on racial attitudes and socially acceptable beliefs for children from 6 -- 16 years of age; researchers manipulated the children's perceptions of accountability for their beliefs and their expressed attitudes were measured explicitly and implicitly. The second study used the same methodology but the focus was on national attitudes between groups. Among other findings, the studies concluded that: children ages 6 -- 9 were highly motivated by external pressures to inhibit their biases; children ages 10 -- 16 were internally motivated to inhibit their biases; children in the racial study you had poor internalization of norms were more controlled by external pressures than were children in the nationalism study; early social cognitive development and social adult cognition are linked (Rutland, Cameron,…. [read more]

Neuroscience and Human Development Research Paper

… In contrast, motor neurons transmit action potentials from the central nervous system toward the periphery (Seeley et al., 2005).

Neurons and their Electrical Activity

The nervous system is composed of millions of nerve cells called neurons. Neurons are the parenchyma of the nervous system which performs every function of the nervous system from simple sensory functions to complex thinking and analysis. Neurons, upon receipt of stimuli, transmit responsive signals to other neurons or to effector organs. Clark (2005) observes that the anatomy of a neuron is composed of four main parts; the cell body, the dendrites, the axon, and the nerve fibers. Given the importance of each of the neuron components, it is important to discuss how each work separately and in tandem to achieve…. [read more]

Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

… Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment. The specific processes involved in cognitive psychology include attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning and thinking.

According to the authors, there are four major approaches to human cognition (Eysenck & Keane, 2005, p. 3): experimental cognitive psychology; cognitive neuropsychology; computational cognitive science; and cognitive neuroscience.

Affective psychology concerns human emotion and the effect of this upon behavior; in other words, the outward expression of inner feelings. According to Brett et al. (2003), many professionals regard the affective domain as including three subcomponents: feeling,…. [read more]

Reductionism in Cognitive Neuroscience Term Paper

… Memory consolidation refers to the early stage in memory formation when a memory can be disrupted through distraction.

The Extended Mind Hypothesis

Anthony Chemero and Charles Heyser present a radical critique of psycho-neural reductionism, claiming that some cognitive processes extend beyond the bounds of the body. In light of this, they argue that cognitive and behavioral sciences are not reducible to neuroscience, even in principle (88).

To illustrate their reasoning, Chemero and Heyser critique a type of memory experiment which has been conducted on rodents. The experiments investigate the animals'exploratory behavior when objects are placed in their environment. When a novel object is introduced to the cage, exploration increases. In order to locate the brain regions responsible for the behavior, experimenters would examine how recognition…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Absolutely Nothing Interests Essay

… Ultimately, it was this adamant denial which allowed for the rise in cognitive psychology which chose to acknowledge the connection (Davenport, 2001).

With the advent of the computer, came a dramatic change in the way psychology is viewed. The technology allowed psychologists to theorize about the internal human mechanisms making decisions regarding behavior as computers used programming to come to logical ends. It was this comparison to the human mind that provided cognitive psychology with a model upon which to speculate about human behavior (Stone, 20011). Thus, this milestone became known in psychology as the computer metaphor (Stone, 2011). While the human brain cannot actually be reduced to mechanistic functions like a computer can be, how a computer operates can help explain how the brain…. [read more]

Evolution and Development of Cognitive Term Paper

… Cognitive therapy is particularly effective in the treatment of panic disorders. Not only is it as if not more effective than a number of other approaches, but it also leads to a significant reduction in antipanic medication usage (Beck, 1993). Eating disorders also respond well to cognitive therapy, though a combination of cognitive therapy and imipramine is more effective than cognitive therapy alone (Beck, 1993).

What is even more interesting is that cognitive therapy has evolved alongside relatively new disorders, such as drug addiction. These are not new disorders, per se, but are disorders that have been newly identified. As such, there is not the same rigid adherence to the established protocols for treating these diseases. In 1993, investigators were studying the efficacy of cognitive…. [read more]

Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence Essay

… Actually, there is an assumption that emotional intelligence is one of the main factors to a peaceful work environment since people work to simultaneously meet individual and group production goals. The peaceful work environment originates from positive work relationships and a generally higher work satisfaction ("Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace Article," n.d.).

The other strength of emotional intelligence in relation to modern organizations is that it enhances job performance based on the impact of regulating emotions on the quality of social relationships. As compared to employees who display fake emotions, employees who develop and demonstrate genuine emotions elicit more favorable reactions. Therefore, employees with genuine concerns regarding the problems of coworkers should develop stronger relationships than those with relatively less genuine concerns. A worker who…. [read more]

Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Review Essay

… Therefore, the therapeutic technique is not the same as one would expect in a different type of treatment-focused intervention, because its goal is generally to prevent relapse.

However, it is also important to keep in mind that mindfulness is a very popular self-help technique. MBCT is considered a way to help people achieve a greater degree of happiness and success in their lives, even if those people do not actually suffer from a disorder. This is an important concept to keep in mind for the practitioner who may be more comfortable with treating a disease, rather than treating an individual. MBCT can help even those people without a disorder or a diagnosis achieve a greater degree of personal satisfaction in their lives, so that treatment…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Essay

… It is also dedicated to looking at the various mechanisms for an individual to navigate this social world that is complex.

b. The importance of behavioral observation in cognitive psychology.

The observation of the behavior of an individual is important in cognitive psychology since it is the gateway to the inner emotional disposition of the individual or the group that the psychoanalyst is dealing with at that time.

It is through the study of the behavior that the psychotherapist will be able to analyze a behavior and accordingly categorize it and be able to find a possible solution. For instance dysfunctional emotions, cognitions and behaviors can be diagnosed through a goal oriented systematic procedure. It is from here that the correct approach of the Cognitive…. [read more]

Neuroscience Hormones and the Nervous Term Paper

… At times, the manner in which things are accomplished seems almost arbitrary due to the complexity of the body's operations. That is, the many different individual hormonal mechanisms and the complexity of their interactions with the electrical triggers sent by the nervous system seem to have occurred almost through happenstance. A more direct and consistent system for creating responses and achieving certain functions would make more sense, it would seem, yet the body has evolved specifically to coordinate and successfully manipulate a range of chemical and electrical messengers instead. I'm sure that a more in-depth study of the endocrine and nervous systems and their interactions than what is supplied in the text (and the brief supplemental online research that I engaged in) would make these…. [read more]

Cognitive Testing Sage Research Paper

… , 2014). There was extensive research conducted by Dr. Scharre at Ohio State, but also elsewhere in different research labs. According to the research, "to validate the exam's findings and accuracy, Scharre and other researchers at Ohio State evaluated study participants using SAGE, and then evaluated the same subjects with a battery of other established and well-documented assessment tools" (Alzheimer's & Dementia Weekly, 2014). Study participants first took the SAGE test at their own leisure in the setting of their own homes. These tests were then scored by their physicians. The same individuals then took more clinical cognitive scales meant to detect early signs of Alzheimer's and dementia. The results found that "SAGE scores compared favorably with the mini-mental state examination (MMSE), a brief questionnaire…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition Essay

… Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that is predominantly occupied with the mental process. These would include how people think, perceive ideas and things, recall and also learn. It is related to other disciplines like philosophy, neuroscience and linguistics. According to Kendra Cherry (2011), cognitive psychology has to do with acquisition, encoding and storage of information in the human brain. It is worth noting at the onset that what makes cognitive psychology stand out is that, different from the behaviorism that predominantly focuses on the behaviors that can be seen, cognitive psychology will go beyond this by taking the observable behavior as a key to the internal mental status which is the main focus of cognitive psychology.

Of central…. [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline Essay

… Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline

The advancement of cognitive psychology since the era of Thomas Aquinas, who was the foremost person to divide behavior into two distinct areas; cognitive and affective has tremendously evolved. The lodging of research on the field provides practitioners a clear view of the subject matter. Cognitive psychology has been existent for centuries in diverse forms based on its defining culture (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). As science progressively gets sophisticated, numerous theories and beliefs have fallen aside in favor of more legitimate evidence towards contemporary developments in the discipline. Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. During the nineteenth century, cognitive psychology became an emergent theme of concern in the discipline of psychology. This epoch saw numerous psychologists…. [read more]

Processes of Cognitive Thesis

… Cognitive

Processes of Cognitive

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive Processes

Cognitive science is the study of the way that we perceive, think and understand the warlord around us. There are diffident processes that lead to cognition and understanding. These include the way that human beings perceive, analyse and filter information and data from their environment. The literature in this field clearly shows the complexity of the cognitive processes and the unconscious and conscious factors that play a vital role in cognitive development. This study discusses three of the central cognitive processes. These include patterning in perception, sensory memory and aspects of the social cognitive process. These are discussed in relation to various studies and their methodological aspects. What becomes clear from this research is the importance of…. [read more]

Cognitive Therapy: New Developments Research Paper

… Psychopharmacological research includes the consideration of complex factors like neurotransmitter functions. For instance, different levels of transmitters are found across various regions of the brain. This suggests a complex interplay between drug administration and baseline levels. However, although some cognitive functions improve with the administration of drugs, they may worsen in others because they depend on the levels of neurotransmitters in play. In order to increase one's brain chemistry, methods like animal models and imaging techniques, drug dosage, individual differences and the complex roles played by the pre-existing baseline levels are becoming apparent (Sahakian & Morein-Zamir, 2011).

The interest in Cognitive enhancement

It is increasingly becoming a mode of treatment for methylphenidate especially in the western countries. Perhaps, the use increases concentration, help one study,…. [read more]

Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Research Paper

… In his work, Wundt embraced introspection as a research methodology based on his belief that adequately trained psychologists should make observations of their experiences in similar ways to those of properly trained physicists. By using objective measures of performance like reaction time, the main focus of this psychologist was on the conscious experience that heralded the response. However, he was not concerned with the unconscious processes that are used to respond to simple stimuli i.e. The speedy information-processing operations because he regarded these factors as aspects of physiology rather than psychology (Braisby & Gellatly, n.d.).

Kulpe, the leader of Wurzburg school of introspection opposed Wundt's perspective by developing the other concept of conscious experience that could be revealed by introspection. Unlike Wundt's perspective, Kulpe stated…. [read more]

Cognitive Changes Developmental Cognitive Occur Essay

… The second stage is the achieving stage where one's task during early adulthood is to apply his or her intelligence so as to attain career and family goals.

The third stage is the responsible stage that's between early adulthood and middle adulthood where one's task is safeguarding family and career.

The fourth stage is the executive stage where one's task is to shift focus to the community level, this occurs later in the middle adulthood but it's said to be a common trait in all adults.

The fifth stage is the reiterative stage one's task at this stage will be applying intelligence to issues of great personal concern during late adulthood (Schaie, 2000, p 257- 266).


The human life and body goes through various…. [read more]

Cognitive Science Theoretical Investigation of Mind Modularity Term Paper

… Cognitive Science

Theoretical Investigation of Mind Modularity

This paper first provides some background information on cognitive science and the Representational Theory of Mind (RTM), then examines the question of the way the mind functions, whether it is modular or a highly plastic general purpose organ. Theories are examined and evidence presented in support of the second theory of plastic adaptation.

Background Information in Cognitive Science

Cognitive science is aimed at understanding the mind. Neurosciences, cognitive psychology, linguistics, physics, computer science (artificial intelligence) and even philosophy have contributed to cognitive science. The functioning of the brain and the mind, which are inescapably connected, is studies via experimental techniques in brain research, biophysical models at the level of single cell, statistical methods applied to the recurrent neural…. [read more]

Psychology History of Psychology Max Weitheimer (Laws Essay

… Psychology

History of Psychology

Max Weitheimer (Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms)

Max Wertheimer was one of the principal proponents of Gestalt theory which emphasized higher-order cognitive processes in the midst of behaviorism. The center of Gestalt premise was the concept of grouping. The chief aspects that determine grouping include: proximity which involves elements being grouped together according to their nearness, similarity, where items of similar respect tend to be grouped together, closure where items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity and simplicity where items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are referred to as the laws of organization and are explained in the context of awareness and problem-solving. The fundamental character of…. [read more]

Educational Neuroscience the Last 20 Essay

… Simply understanding how the synapses of the brain function when engaged in a particular activity does not necessarily mean that, for example, a teacher can design a lesson plan to correct the problems a dyslexic may have with visual processing.

At present, there is a disconnect between our current knowledge of the relationship of brain functioning to behavior and the ability to alter brain functioning, based upon changing learning approaches. "Brain-based research has also looked at areas as diverse as the cognitive mechanisms that underlie arithmetic abilities, social communication in autism, brain activation during facial processing in children with Williams Syndrome, MRI findings for children exposed to maternal alcohol intake before birth, and the list goes on" (Tommerdahl 2008).

As a whole, the available knowledge…. [read more]

Drugs Marijuana in Depth Research Paper

… Among the specific interventions recommended by the National Institute for Drug Abuse (2010) include a rewards-incentive system in which a counselor provides a reward for stopping smoking. However, community organizations can offer the person activities that help take their mind off using the drug. There are many ways a person can replace the habit of smoking marijuana with creative and fun pursuits ranging from art and music to sports and dancing. My personal observation has shown that people who are physically active tend to use fewer recreational drugs than people who are more sedentary in their lifestyle. Therefore, a treatment program that includes some kind of physical activity will help. Additionally, yoga and meditation might help take the place of the calming effect that some…. [read more]

Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct Term Paper

… Emotional Intelligence: Issues in Theoretical Construct and Measurement

Business Administration)

This dissertation proposal examines the relationship that exist between the role of 'emotional intelligence' and 'effective leadership and job success.' In the terms of conceptual definition, Peter Salovey of Yale University and John Mayer at the University of New Hampshire view emotional intelligence as a set of skills hypothesized to contribute to the accurate interpretation and expression of emotion in oneself and others; also the effective regulation of emotion, and the use of feelings to motivate, plan and achieve success. The better known Daniel Goleman has popularized emotional intelligence to a more vast audience outside the world of academia. The definition applied to 'emotional intelligence' by Goleman is 'the ability to rein in emotional impulse,…. [read more]

Sensory Systems Involved in Visual Processing Term Paper

… Sensory Systems

Systems involved in visual processing are constantly being bombarded with various stimuli. In order to function effectively, these systems must selectively attend to information that is pertinent to the task at hand. Several biological and cognitive functions are employed or implemented for the execution of any visual task. Moreover, the visual system does not passively absorb all external stimuli, but instead introduces systematic bias in order to attach meaning to stimuli, or process raw visual data into usable information (Rosenzweig et al., (2004). Several factors influence the process of visual information, including visual masking (Macknik, 2006), spatial location and color of stimuli (Grabbe & Pratt, 2004), the manner in which stimuli are grouped (Min-Shik & Cave, 1999), as well as expectation of the…. [read more]

Humor Stress and Cognitive Appraisals Article Critique

… Humor, Stress, Cognitive Appraisals

There have been a number of scientific studies that seem to buttress the argument that "laughter is the best medicine." Humor seems to activate the brain's reward centers, producing a number of neurochemicals that flood the brain. In addition, humor seems to have a relative effect upon cognition, the ability to handle stress, and an individual's sense of self when faced with new or extraordinary stimuli.

Type of Article -- The article under review, Coping Humour, Stress, and Cognitive Appraisals (1993), is an investigative study that describes the relationships between humor and the way the mind cognitively deals with stressful events using humor as a mitigating or coping mechanism.

Major Underlying Theories

Humor contributes to the Mind/Body Balance -- Easies pain…. [read more]

Strengthening Social and Emotional Competence in Young Children Term Paper

… Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

Children's ability to control their emotions depends on their upbringing and training. Emotional and behavior management is a step towards good social skills and the academic performance. This article describes problem-solving skills that focus on skills like emotional literacy, communication skills, and anger management. Training children on the basic social skills are important for behavioral adjustments and academic success because good behavior facilitates cognitive development. The authors of this article suggest cognitive-behavioral therapy that would help children overcome their negative thoughts (Webster-Stratton, 2004).

Positive parenting is important in helping children develop social behaviors. Parents need to know the range of their children's emotional stands. In order to understand this, the parents need to work with their children and provide them with preschool…. [read more]

Personality Theory Term Paper

… In a way the domains of individual differences which have similar surface manifestations are differentiated by the Big Five. Although it has only just started that we have begun to explicate the processes and structures which are underlying them. "Explication in explanatory and mechanistic terms will change the definition and assessment of the Big Five dimensions as we know them today" (as cited in John and Srivastava, 1990, p. 44).

Describe, compare and contrast the Big Five factors and the Big Three factors; the areas of experience, behavior and life that have been found to be related to each; and what relationships have been found in these areas.

Like its name, there are three broad superfactors whose importance is emphasized on in the Big Three…. [read more]

Etiology of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Term Paper

… Amytrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Cognitive Deficits In Amytrophic Sclerosis

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) refers to a progressive neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive loss of the upper and the lower neurons in the spinal cord and the brain. It affects the motor neurons that control the movement of the body's voluntary muscles. Destruction of these muscles results in an increase in the muscle and body weakness and consequent loss of the control of the discretionary body movements. The loss of the voluntary muscles causes a state of muscle paralysis. The prognosis of ALS is extremely variable. On average, the affected might survive for a period of three to five years following its diagnosis. Although the ALS is considered as a rare disorder, the condition commonly causes the…. [read more]

Perception and on the Circumstance Essay

… FMRI will be used in preference to PET since it is not only faster but also more accurate. It uses the same equipment as MRI and similarly measures blood activation in the neural region, but is faster, has higher spatial and temporal resolution, and is thought to be safer (Glass, 1982). It is also sensitive to function.


I expect to note activation in the occipital / visual regions of the brain as indicated by Glaser (1992) when he noted that pictures (i.e., evaluative images) have a faster response to forming impressions. Many recent studies too have found that the early stages of selective attention, or neural modulating to perception, start in the visual processing pathways. This does not mean that attention always selects, but…. [read more]

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