Viewing papers 61-90 of 294 for cognitive neuroscience

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Grief Schiz Precautions and Procedures Essay

… As depression itself has become better understood, so have its effects -- such as the potential for suicidal thoughts and actions -- and its mechanisms, and thus more effective ways of handling depression at all ages and for a variety of causes have also been developed (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007). As many schizophrenics are diagnosed in adolescence, a focus on research in handling depression and suicidal tendencies in the adolescent age group was employed, along with specific information regarding depression in schizophrenics (Beck & Alford, 2009; Bhatia & Bhatia, 2007; Wittman & Keshava, 2007). In this way, a comprehensive safety plan was established.

First and foremost, cognitive behavioral therapy is recommended for the treatment of depression in children and adolescents prior…. [read more]

Coping Styles in Middle Aged Essay

… Disability as well as poststroke depression are noted to be consistent determinants of Health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The other determinants being female sex, social support and coping strategies. Poststroke depression has been noted to affect the Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) . cognitive functioning, functional recovery as well as the use of healthcare in most stroke survivors. The stroke caregivers have been noted to have a lower Health-related quality of life (HRQoL), higher prevalence of stress as well as depression, changes in social relationships and higher economic burden. Factors such as advancing age as well as anxiety in patients and their caregivers, poor family support and high dependency are noted as the ones that identify caregivers to be a risk to the adverse outcomes.…. [read more]

Manifestations of Dyslexia Term Paper

… Manifestations of Dyslexia

Dyslexia is considered to be an hereditary and genetic neurobiological disorder (Dyslexia, fluency, and the brain, 1999) whose symptoms frequently include, but are not limited to, difficulties with learning to read, write, spell, and to master various other tasks associated with auditory processing and the learning and usage of (particularly written) language (What is Dyslexia (2005); Dyslexia symptoms and Dyslexia signs (2005); The nature of Dyslexia (2005).

According to the International Dyslexia Association (2002):

Dyslexia... is a specific language-based disorder of constitutional origin characterized by difficulties in single word decoding, usually reflecting insufficient phonological processing abilities. These difficulties in single word decoding are often unexpected in relation to age and other cognitive and academic abilities; they are not the result of generalized…. [read more]

Myth of the First Three Essay

… For instance, they quote the example of the Early Head Start program that led to positive results for children in the United States. They also express partial agreement of the claims made by John Bruer by agreeing that the claims of popular neuroscience may be exaggerated at times, but also claim that the importance of the first three years cannot be dismissed outright. They also point out that Bruer only focuses on intellectual development while ignoring the development of social and emotional capacities during the first three years. They also point out to the negative consequences of ignoring the importance of healthy interpersonal relationships and social environments during the first three years on the subsequent development of the child. In this way, they successfully present…. [read more]

Behavioral Biology Biopsychology Term Paper

… The purpose of genetic engineering has been to eliminate or "insert" specific desired genes in an organism and to allow psychologists to experimentally observe and assess how the change affects the development of psychological traits.

This controversial method is usually performed on invertebrate animals, such as snails and slugs, and lately, on mice (Cooper). It is still in its early stage and already the focus of much debate, but genetic engineering by many bio-psychologists as an important tool in discovering and treating psychological disorders.

Everyone has negative attitudes towards aging, and anyone who is aging has negative attitudes towards it. The processes of aging and how these can be controlled or reversed are, therefore, very significant scientific objectives. Brain aging has been observed to be…. [read more]

Multiple Realizations: Real or Not? Term Paper

… In conclusion, Brian Kelley states in his book that "the irreducibility of psychology and other special sciences gives them a significant degree of independence from lower level, structural sciences. It is the functional language alone that can explain what these entities have in common and express the regularities that exist between them. Any attempt to translate the phenomena into the language of a lower level thereby looses the succinctly stated regularity" (448.) This gives the theory a very strong case for the multiple realization theory to exist because, as we all know, it is very hard o change the human behavior. In the attempt to try and change the human brains functionality, one ends up messing with the whole system at large, and as we…. [read more]

Humanistic Psychology Term Paper

… Humanistic Psychology

Theoretical and practical applications in psychology, especially in clinical psychology, have been dominated by a small number of major paradigms. The major paradigms have related offshoots but typically historians consider the first two major paradigms in psychology to have been the psychodynamic and behavioral paradigms respectively (Hall, Lindzey, & Campbell, 1998). The "third force" in psychology was the humanistic movement (Mcleod, 2007). This movement was fueled primarily by Carl Rogers, although certainly other theorists like Abram Maslow were also instrumental in promoting the humanist perspective (Mcleod, 2007). This perspective came about as a reaction to the mechanistic and deterministic stances of the psychodynamic and behavioral models, hence the third force tag. Humanists strongly believe in choice, free will, and self-determination (or self-actualization as…. [read more]

Minors Tired as Adults Term Paper

… Thus, stiffer penalties for minors who commit violent crimes are effective in reducing the reoccurrence of these violent crimes. Moreover, if as those opposed to stiffer sentences state, stiffer sentences do not decrease the commission of violent crime by potential offenders or the recidivism rates of violent offenders is true for all age groups, then the only logical argument to help reduce these violent crimes committed by these offenders would be in keeping these violent offenders incarcerated longer. Thus, the major argument that those who disagree with treating juveniles as adults in criminal court is illogical and counterintuitive to the actual data.

Regarding the argument that juveniles who commit violent crimes do not receive sentences proportional to the crime and data from studies like Ward…. [read more]

Brain Plays a Vital Role Term Paper

… However, Gage's personality suffered severely after the accident, as did his proficiency at his place of employment. Prior to his accident Gage was renowned for his temperament and efficiency at work -- subsequently, he was prone to fits and emotional outbursts that not only affected his judgment but reduced the efficacy of his performance (Kihlstrom, 2010, p. 765). An examination of the specific nature of his injury and its relationship to the cognitive process reveals why.

In a normal brain, the ventromedial frontal cortex contains somatic markers for neurons (Kean, 2014) that take emotional input from sensory perceptions and relates them to positive or negative outcomes based on predictions. Such predictions are greatly formed based on experience and the memories created in its wake, which…. [read more]

Literacy Specialist Who Works Article Review

… This improved understanding of the phonological characteristics of language led, in turn, to improving other aspects of reading ability such as nonword decoding and oral paragraph reading.

The study is helpful in that it provides enhanced understanding of the neural characteristics of adults with dyslexia as well as how to structure interventions that can improve their neural plasticity.

Skalicky, AE. (2002) . The relationship between early visual processing and reading ability: investigation of temporal processing in adults and children . University of Georgia Theses and Dissertations .

Search words: reading + fmri + adults + neuroplasticity; Google Scholar; neuroscience.

5. Turkeltaub et al. (2003). Development of neural mechanisms for reading. Nature Neuroscience 6, 767-773

Search words: reading + fMRI in adults; Google Scholar; neuroscience…. [read more]

Prospective Memory and Aging Term Paper

… Prospective Memory and Aging

Prospective Memory Theories Conflict

Prospective Memory

Prospective Memory in Older Adults

Age Prospective Memory Paradox

Problem Statement Resolved

Four Phases of Prospective Memory

Five Points Supporting Writer's Stance


"Results pertaining to adult age differences in prospective memory performance are conflicting, with some studies reporting no deficits for older adults and others observing significant age-related

(Cohen, Dixon, Lindsay, & Masson, 2003, ¶ 2).

Prospective Memory Theories Conflict

Theories relating to the perspective of how an individual's memory functions, like an individual's perspective on life, can range from reasonably positive to models which are practically negative. In the book, Handbook of Communication and Aging Research, Ann O'Hanlon and Peter Coleman (2004) note that as a person moves chronologically through…. [read more]

Artificial Intelligence Is the Ability Research Paper

… (Russell)

A machine must also be socially intelligent just like the human. The machine should be able to read the emotions of humans and then accordingly adapt its behaviour which is suitable to them. Apart from being socially intelligent the machine must also be creative.

When all the above aspects are merged into a single machine, researchers of artificial intelligence hoped that they will someday be able to make a machine that had general intelligence, one with skills that exceed human abilities at most or all of them.

In the quest to build artificial intelligence machines, the field has split up into different approaches which are based upon methods and theories which are thought to be the most promising. Several theorists emerged, the basic ones…. [read more]

Basal Ganglia the Control Research Paper

… The only accepted treatment for early stage disease is L-dopa, which is a dopamine precursor capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. Unfortunately, the side-effects can be debilitating and its use is therefore limited and no treatment currently exists for the more advanced stages of disease.

Parkinson's patients reveal cognitive deficits similar to those found in patients with Huntington's disease (reviewed by Stocco, Lebiere, and Anderson, 2010). These include nondeclaritive and working memory deficits, although L-dopa administration can improve working memory. When Parkinson's patients with mild to moderate disease were challenged with a probabilistic category task, they performed significantly worse than healthy controls (Shohamy, Myers, Onlaor, and Gluck, 2004). Performance improved over time for both patients and controls, but patients always performed worse in the task;…. [read more]

Binge Eating Animal Models Essay

… Prior to the DSM-IV the dependence/addiction criteria required that one have the physical symptoms of tolerance and withdrawal, but these criteria are no longer mandatory (Schuckit et al., 2003). Thus, under the new diagnostic criteria for dependence nearly any compulsive behavior can be labeled an addiction if it meets three other relatively subjective conditions. The reasoning for these changes are to allow for the ease of billing to treat compulsive behaviors as addictions and to impose a medical model of addiction (Alexander, 2008). Animal models of binge eating do not meet the criteria for demonstrating that there exists a food addiction for the same reasons that they do not demonstrate addictions occur in animals outside the laboratory conditions and research definitions (which represent operational definitions…. [read more]

Ethics Neurotransmitters One Pill Makes You Smarter Essay

… Ethics


One Pill makes you Smarter: An Ethical Appraisal of the Rise of Ritalin

The number of Americans using Ritalin has soared from 900,000 to almost 5 million

Children from ages 5 to 12

Stimulants have been used to treat children since 1937

Ritalin came on the market in the 1960's to teat hyperactivity

Rationales for Treatment

Growing willingness to treat a serious and common disorder

ADD is under diagnosed

Ritalin use could double

Ritalin very useful in treating ADD

Issues with drugging children

Why should children suffer?

Ritalin as a Means of Enhancement

The term drug carries with it a stigma

Quick fix to solve problems

Give up the rewarding journey

Equality and Competitiveness

Ritalin can provide genuine and legitimate advantages for those…. [read more]

Brain Research and a Brain Friendly (Compatible) Term Paper

… Brain Research and a Brain Friendly (Compatible) Classroom

Review of the Relevant Literature

This chapter reviews the peer-reviewed and scholarly literature concerning recent brain research findings and its sources over the past 10-15 years. Following an overview of the subject, a discussion about the "critical periods" in a child's brain development will show that there is powerful new evidence from neuroscience that the early years of development set the base for competence and coping skills that affect learning, behavior and health throughout life. The findings from this research could be used to enhance or better yet enrich how to better develop the minds so that learning can be maximized in the classroom.

Background and Overview.

The nation's schools are struggling to meet the needs of…. [read more]

Diffentiation in Learning Research Paper

… Subban's literature review produces three principles to bring the above into being Three intersecting principles gleaned from the literature review serve as the basis for this research and development. Firstly, Vygotsky's grounded learning theory maintains that reciprocal social interaction combined with a collaborative relationship between teacher and student will accommodates learning developmentally and historically. Secondly, the learning context is a social one that promotes development of communication skills and cognitive functionality

. Interaction between the student and a knowledgeable adult enhances the possibility of this intellectual activity. Thirdly, research into the workings of the brain and recent findings with regard to multiple intelligences and learning styles provides acknowledgement that there is potential for enlarged earning if the learners are engaged in the process and associate…. [read more]

Medical Disorders Face Recognition Essay

… It is, of course, a mild form of prosopagnosia that she is suffering of. To date, there is no treatment for prosopagnosia, just alleviation methods. Mindick makes a point in admitting that since researches have shown over the years that the incidence of the condition may be as high as over two percent of the total population, even higher in some regions, prosopagnosia may be accepted as "simply another manifestation of the cognitive diversity that characterizes us as a species, and the opportunity to address it a chance to act on our understanding of the talent differences crucial to our communities"(Mindick, 2011)

There is no doubt that the research in the field of the visual impairment known as prosopagnosia is extremely complex due to its…. [read more]

Behavioral Psychology the Main Link Term Paper

… (Signmund, 1925)

In the oral stage, the oral cavity is the primary focus of libidal energy. During this period, the infant is preoccupied with nursing and bringing objects to the mouth. Infants who have been refused nursing at this stage, or who have truncated nursing sessions early are characteristically pessimists, filled with envy, suspicion and sarcasm. On the other hand, infants who have over-indulged oral character, through prolonged nursing, are optimistic and gullible. (Sigmund, 1925)

By approximately one and a half years of age, the child enters the anal stage, which is the toilet training period. This stage reflects a conflict between the id, which is the pleasure of getting rid of bodily wastes, and the ego and superego, which is the practical and societal…. [read more]

Theories Presented in Understandable Narrative How Emotion Essay

… Theories Presented in Understandable Narrative

How Emotion Shapes Behavior

The authors (Baumeister, DeWall, Vohs and Zhang) claim that the popular theory about emotion -- that the primary function of emotion is the "direct causation of behavior" -- is an incomplete understanding of emotion. They believe that emotion is in fact a "feedback system" and that the feedback influence on human behavior is "indirect" (Baumeister, et al., 2007). In other words, the theory rejects the idea that the purpose of emotion is to cause behavior "directly." Going further into their theory, the authors believe that emotion operates in order to "stimulate" a learning process. For example, a person in early evolutionary history confronts a tiger -- or another dangerous predator -- for the first time. Certainly…. [read more]

Emotion Recognition Research Paper

… Emotional Recognition

Recognition of written expressions vs. facial expression of happiness

The expression and recognition of human emotions is universal in all normally functioning human beings (Frank et al. 1993; Elkman 1994). Emotional displays and signs of recognition have also been exhibited by primates, suggesting a possible evolutionary basis for the commonality of facial expression and other displays of emotion found across all known cultures (Kano et al. 2008). Many anthropologists and psychologists have disagreed with these assertions in the past, but increasing evidence drawn from preliterate societies has confirmed the universality of the facial expression of emotion and its recognition (Elkman 1994).

Despite being managed and controlled by every human culture in different ways, the expression of emotion through conscious and unconscious control of…. [read more]

How Memory Functions Term Paper

… ¶ … Memory Functions

Memory is a function of the human brain that is highly debated, multi-faceted and nonetheless crucial to human existence. To create memory is to learn and to learn is the ultimate goal of education. According to Paul Chance in his highly acclaimed work Learning and Behavior "Learning is a different sort of mechanism from inherited behavior. Learning does not give the species the tendency to behave a certain way in a particular situation; rather; it gives the individual the tendency to modify its behavior to suit a situation. Only learning enables the individual to adapt to rapidly changing conditions." (1999:19) Without memory, learning would not be possible. To facilitate learning the educator must go to the core of the process, and…. [read more]

Music Term Paper

… In this instance, the message is only stimulation -- there is no particular message, only from the doctor to stimulate the patient, something that will begin the recovery process.

Understanding how communication works is valuable not just for selling things, but to overcome challenges in communication all over the world. In a situation where brain damage is causing blockages for certain channels and messages, music is a means to break through, and the core message of stimulation can be received. This allows for the superior recovery that researchers have found with respect to the use of music therapy for brain injured patients.

Works Cited:

Bradt, J., Magee, W., Dileo, C., Wheeler, B. & McGilloway, E. (2010). Music therapy for acquired brain injury. Wiley. Retrieved April…. [read more]

Starting From 19th Century Psychology Essay

… Due to review of Chomsky, paired with neglect of Skinner to some extent, verbal Behavior possessed uncharacteristically slow reception to rebut or address any condemnations from Chomsky. Peers of Skinner might have acted slowly in adopting and considering the convention in Verbal Behavior because they did not have experimental evidences, contrary to empirical density that marked the prior work of Skinner. Though functional analysis of verbal behavior from Skinner encounters resurgence of interest within setting that are applied, Dixon, M.R. & Hayes, L.J. (1999).

Influence in education

Education and psychology has been influenced by Skinner. Skinner said that teachers are supposed to learn the way it is suppose to be taught and ways of teaching it effectively. He emphasized that positive reinforcement is highly efficient…. [read more]

Music Therapy and the Child With Learning Disabilities Term Paper

… Music Therapy in Autistic Children

Autism is a relatively low-incidence developmental disability that, according to Frith (1991), results in impairments of socialization, communication, and imagination. In an article describing her experiences, Donna Williams (1994a), a person with autism, defined the disability as a pervasive developmental disability affecting recognition and comprehension including proprioception, kinesthetic sense, sense of self and other, visualization, sequencing, synthesis, analysis, and retrieval. People with autism often exhibit significant language problems such as delayed or absent speech, perseveration, and echolalia. Solitary, repetitious, patterned behaviors are often favored from infancy, sometimes to the exclusion of explorative and social behaviors (Wing, 1991). The majority of people with autism are thought to have severe intellectual disabilities (Yeung-Courchesne & Courchesne, 1997). Most people who are so labeled…. [read more]

Alcohol Mankind Has Endured Term Paper

… Reckless people, inclusive of those suffering from ADHD, do not appear to be capable of performing this very well compared to others. (Cognitive neuroscience takes on alcohol)

The linkages between antisocial behavior during adolescence and alcoholism might be explicated by defects in the frontal limbic system that seems to result in dull emotional reactivity. Scientific findings indicate that some behavioral patterns displayed by kids and adolescents having conduct problems-like persistent impulsive aggressive behavior, absence of obedience to rule of the society, and so on -- might be a pointer for fundamental difficulties in emotional reactivity and associated damage in frontal limbic procedures. This basic dysfunction in the main processes catering to the emotional reactivity, noted as poor self-control, weakened decision making, and poor behavioral coordination,…. [read more]

Earlier This Month an Italian Research Paper

… In the "trolley dilemma" an individual is asked to decide between two terrible choices, with a runaway trolley speeding towards five potential victims, and the subject capable of throwing a switch to divert the trolley by sending it toward a single potential victim instead. The researchers randomly exposed each of the test subjects to both the textual and virtual reality version of the "trolley dilemma," with an experimental control provided by having half of the subjects view the text version first, while the other half participated in the virtual reality component before reading the text. A battery of tests were performed during the experiment in order to assess electrodermal activity, response time, and a number of other critical variables. As the authors state in the…. [read more]

Sleep Deprivation and Its Neurotransmitters Research Proposal

… REM Sleep Deprivation

The complex neurochemistry of the sleep wake cycle has been researched much over the last few decades. It is clear that REM deprivation causes the brain cellular machinery to trigger various neurobiological responses involving selective expression of genes, down regulation and upregulation of neurotransmitters, as well as reorganization of excitatory synapses.

Sleep is an indispensable physiological function for all living beings. The rejuvenating and refreshing effects of sleep are well-known and over the last few decades there have been numerous research on sleep. The negative effects of sleep deprivation or sleep restriction have been analyzed by many researchers and we now understand some of the basic neurological mechanisms of sleep. It is well-known that sleep deprivation affects the thalamocortical circuits that are…. [read more]

Biopsychological Approach? A Physiological Assumption Multiple Chapters

… What are the major underlying assumptions of physiological psychology? First, behavior is a result of physiological processes. Second, animal models of behavior can mimic or approximate the behavior of humans. Third, human behavior is inferred via a comparative method. Fourth, the understanding of neural control of behavior can be inferred from animal models (Pinel, 2012).

What effect do these assumptions have on psychology? Nearly every field of psychology now considers the neural mechanisms that are involved in behavior due to the influence of physiological psychology. The neural control behavior is considered to result from a combination of inherit or genetic factors as well as experience that influences neural development and neural proliferation (plasticity). The nature vs. nurture debate has been largely replaced by an interactive…. [read more]

Children, Especially Teenagers, Are at a Vulnerable Essay

… Children, especially teenagers, are at a vulnerable age where desires for acceptance and love reach beyond their families, resulting in a risk that did not exist before. With the increasing popularity and lack of monitoring of the internet within the United States, there is an ever growing risk of internet predatory action, resulting in an increased victimization of children. One of the greatest concerns is the lack of control and protection available to parents and the inability of parents to adequately protect children from these predators.

Children are at a greater risk than ever before for internet predatory actions. With the increasing amount of online social networking sites, including many that are specifically geared toward young children, more and more time is being spent socializing…. [read more]

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