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Cognitive Social Learning Theory Journal

… ¶ … Cognitive social learning and related perspectives on drug craving" attempts to define relationships and draw parallels between cognitive social learning and the craving of foreign substances. Although the nature of the subjects examined and the various models and theories demonstrated in this article can apply to all drugs, they mostly pertain to nicotine and conventional cigarette smoke. Drug use is considered both in terms of addiction (including relapse) and in casual, social settings. The theoretical approach for examining the phenomenon of drug use, however, is not limited to cognitive social learning theory; the author analyzes this phenomenon in relation to others typically associated with this action that involve information processing and biological aspects. Specific cognitive processes considered include high-risk situations (which are defined…. [read more]


Cognitive Social Learning Theory Research Paper

… Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Social learning theories came into sight along with behavior and learning tradition. These theories were well-demonstrated by three renowned psychologists i.e. Albert Bandura, Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel. However, the three great theorists have not followed the reactive mechanical model of behavior introduced by Skinner who has viewed the individual/person as an agent or instigator of experience. Instead, they have reestablished internal cognitive variables including a person's "subjective interpretation of the environment, into the stimulus-response formula (S-R)" (Engler, 2009).

Albert Bandura was the one who developed social cognitive theory as "a versatile model of psychosocial functioning that highlights the human capacity for self-regulation" (Lent & Brown, 1996). It was a framework for the analysis of human stimulus, thinking, and act and…. [read more]


Theories on Classroom Management Essay

… d.). The strategy would also help to accommodate Carol's abilities, interests, and learning styles to promote effective teaching and learning. If this instructional intervention is applied in Carol's situation, she would become self-motivated and actively engaged in the learning process. This is primarily because the visual aids would help her focus and maintain that focus on class work.

Application of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation:

In light of her concentration problems, Carol would benefit from the application of different principles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, which will help in promoting effective learning. The application of these principles would help in effective learning through enhancing self-motivation, encouraging positive social interaction, and promoting active engagement in learning activities. Generally, the principles of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation include purpose,…. [read more]


Constructivist Computerized Learning Constructivist Theories Essay

… "E-learning" is a broad appreciation for the use of electronic materials to support and reinforce all parts of the educational experience, from being the student to being the instructor and connecting to the world (Koohang et al., 2009:91). Most of us have accepted that e-learning is part of our life. And even young people already engage in it during their free time when more and more of them are active online. Koohang et al. (2009) have used this awareness to outline in some detail an instructional plan that walks people through what it might be like to use online experiences in constructivist ways. They focus, for example, on having students keep journals based on the types of sites and experiences they have on the Internet…. [read more]


Learning Through Play Essay

… Moreover, as children play, they learn fine motor skills and hand eye coordination that makes it easier for them to absorb skills and learning throughout their lives.

Play also supports learning by enabling children to see for themselves the cause and effect of their actions immediately, catering to their short span of time, and making them remember the impact for a long time. As it is a fun way of doing things, children are more involved in the activities and their concentration for these tends to be more, indicating that the children retain more of what they learn through play.

Take for example the 'Montessori' method that was proposed by Dr. Maria Montessori who developed certain play things such as the red rods and the…. [read more]


Learning Style Inventory My Results Essay

… There is a great deal of interrelation between kinesthetic and visual learning styles, given that both emphasize 'hands on' activities. Making use of these techniques is suggested to kinesthetic learners, to make their learning style more amenable to the classroom: "writing and drawing diagrams are physical activities, so don't neglect these techniques. Perhaps use big sheets of paper and large color markers for your diagrams. You then get more action from the drawing" (Overview of learning styles, 2013, Learning Styles Online). As a visual learner, I would also find these devices helpful.

In contrast to some of the other learning styles, the logical learning style is extremely comfortable with and fluent in an abstract understanding of the physical world: there is little surprise that persons…. [read more]


Learning and Teaching Identify Essay

… This is especially important with habit-forming drugs like painkillers and the like (Kreitner & Luthans, 1984).

Behaviorist - Decrease

A behaviorist approach to DECREASE a behavior would be the inverse of the last paragraph but would obviously manifest differently. The current behavior that is not desirable could be documented and explained and it could then be shown and proven through family members or others in the same precise predicament that their actions and behaviors have caused them great harm and then this could be compared to people that faced the same dilemma and made the right choice. For example, a type II diabetes patient that is near death due to their bad choices could be compared to someone who technically has type II diabetes but…. [read more]


Learning Theories to Current Education Research Paper

… The students who experienced peer models perform best on a subtraction post-test, as well reported greater confidence in their subtraction ability. The outcome were interpreted as backing up the hypothesis that supposed correspondence of the model to the learner raise in self-efficacy, resulting to more efficient learning of modeled behaviors. It is believed that peer modeling is specifically effective for students who posses low self-efficacy.

Over the decade that has passed, a lot of research activity in educational psychology has concentrated on developing self-regulated learning (SRL) and metacognition theories. These theories operates from the central premise that effectual learners are active agents who create knowledge by setting goals, analyzing duty, planning strategies and keeping eye on their understanding. Research has showed that learners who are…. [read more]


Learning Theories Research Proposal

… Learning Theories

Abstract, Learned Phenomena

Unlearned Phenomena

Methods of Assessing Learning

Transfer of Knowledge, Skills, Strategies

Vygotsky Views

B.F. Skinner

Albert Bandura

Cognition and Learning

Prominent Theories of Learning

Contextual Influences

Strategies and Metacognition

Self-Regulation in Learning

Motivation

Having knowledge of learning theories and is an imperative in today's teaching environment. This paper introduces, critiques and reviews a number of learning theories and strategies from some well-known and some not-so-well-known scholars and educators. But the key to the issue of learning theories is for a teacher (and a student that is truly motivated) to implement any one or a blend of several to meet the appropriate classroom challenge.

Instances of Learned Phenomena:

In music, when a person achieves an "absolute pitch" that is a learned…. [read more]


Learning and Cognitive Critique Essay

… Shaffer and Kipp (2013) argue that evolution of learning has required scholars to develop independent ideological positions in their central school of thoughts. Besides, learning is justifiably positive if it has the power to merge internal and external reinforcements (Guavain, 2007, p. 25).

Skinner' behavioral approach appears pragmatic on first encounter; however, its rigidity limits further development. It is admissible that Skinner's rapid behaviorism is based on archaic approaches. The underlying reasons are based on the role behaviorism in developing redundant brains. Duplication of information does not energize civilization, a vital prerequisite in the current learning age. Therefore, while seeking solutions for tasks X, Skinner's behavioral approach will attempt to visit the brain's archive and compare similar situations with the task. On the other hand,…. [read more]


Learning? What Role Does Behavior Essay

… The older individuals, were at one time, taking unfamiliar information and using previous knowledge. However, the younger individuals, due to technology, have now developed new schemas. They are now applying unfamiliar information in new and innovative ways. As a result, their overall learning has been altered for the better. They are more competitive in regards to early cognitive development because they are evolving new and unique schema. Through the use assimilation, individuals are aiding there overall cognitive development. Because this is occurring at an early age, individuals have more opportunity to learn even more schema that can directly be applied to a profession or a trade throughout their life. More important, these individuals can learn skills that will be important in the coming wave of…. [read more]


Cognitive Theory Term Paper

… Cognitive Theory

Cognition is the process of acquiring knowledge, which includes aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, recognition, judgment and imagination (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC 2006). The philosopher Albert Bandura led efforts in developing a social cognitive theory or SCT in defining, predicting and modifying human behavior individually or as a group (Brown 1999). The theory defines human behavior as a triadic, dynamic and reciprocal interaction of personal factors, behavior and the environment. According to the theory, these three factors uniquely determine an individual's behavior. It strongly emphasizes on the role and power of the mind as an active force, which constructs one's reality, selectively encodes information, performs behavior on the basis of one's values and expectations and imposes structure on its own actions. A…. [read more]


Learning Styles Cognitive Learning Styles and Nonverbal Communication Essay

… Learning Styles, Cognitive Learning Styles and Nonverbal Communication

Bilingual education and learning styles: Personal reflections

Learning a new language is by definition a multisensory experience. One of the difficulties some new students of a language have is the challenge of understanding the idioms, body language, and intuitive aspects of language that cannot be learned from a book. Bilingual education in all phases must incorporate visual as well as verbal media to be truly effective. That is why watching a video of two people communicating is so much more effective in reinforcing lesson concepts vs. simply listening to a recording. Just reading the dialogue is often the least effective method of all. For any discipline, deploying multiple types of learning methods that use different learning styles…. [read more]


Learning a Second Language Psychological Term Paper

… 2. Personality Types: Personality type is also an important dimension for learning the second language. Experts (Ehrman and Oxford, 1990) have found a strong relationship between the type of personality and the ability to learn L2 language. Personality types can be divided into different categories: intuitive random vs. sensing sequential personality, extravert vs. introvert personality, feeling vs. thinking personality and open vs. closure/judging personality.

3. Desired degree of generality: This dimension distinguishes between the learners who focus on the main idea with the learner who emphasizes on the details. Holistic learners also known as global learners are those who have interest in the communicative activities and social events in which they can focus on the main idea and ignore the grammar details. Analytical learners in…. [read more]


Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury Essay

… The type of information processed by these declarative memory networks is relatively lateralized, with verbal information mediated by the dominant hemisphere and visuospatial information mediated by the non-dominant hemisphere (Cozzarelli, 2010). Remembering (retrieval of) declarative information requires the activation of the selected neural networks that originally encoded it. Volitional recall is initiated by prefrontal structures; for a relatively limited period of time after initial presentation, such recall also requires the participation of the hippocampal portion of these representational networks. After memories are encoded and consolidated, however, retrieval becomes less hippocampally-dependent (and, eventually, independent of the hippocampus) and instead is frontallydependent .

In addition to their amenability to volitional recall, declarative memories are highly associative and their recall can be triggered by activation (via external or…. [read more]


Learning: Concepts and Theories Term Paper

… Here, the learner is constantly classifying objects and phenomenon and thus that object or phenomenon can be known through comparison of what is already known. Thus, the concept learning approach also taps into the developmental theories of Jean Piaget in his psychological development theories. Piaget presented the concept of learning as a comparison to other schemas within the young infants mind. Here, a new phenomenon would present itself, and the learner wither assimilates this new phenomenon into the already existing set of schemas, or accommodates what he or she knows to meet the new requirements of a new phenomenon that cannot be explained by the schemas already present (DeVries, 2005). This works with many other theories that state that the learner uses his or her…. [read more]


Learning Theory Several Theories Term Paper

… Learning Theory

Several theories are suggested for the best way to help students learn in a classroom setting, such as constructivism, brain-based learning, attribution theory, emotional intelligence and multiple intelligences. There is also the concept of "learned helplessness" that places a barrier on learning. It is important for teachers to consider each one of these methods and how if fits into their own educational gestalt. The students need to be motivated to gain as much knowledge as possible, yet the teacher has to feel comfortable about that style of learning to attain the maximum results.

The theory of constructivism (Piaget, 1950) is based on observation and scientific research and the way that people learn. It recognizes that individuals construct or build their own understanding and…. [read more]


Learning Power-Myth of Educational Empowerment Term Paper

… This is crucial especially at a time where the poverty levels are on the rise as well as the gap between the educated and the uneducated is widening hope only lies on the improvement on the schools that are publicly supported. These institutions offer opportunities that are equitable for achievement.

Among the main goals of public education in democracy include preparation of people into becoming responsible citizens. People who go through public education are expected to act responsibly towards each other and the society in general. The other goal is the improvement of social conditions, public education aims to ensure that those who go through the systems end up being better people socially. Therefore public education aims to people who live in a society that…. [read more]


Apply a Social Psychological Theory to a News Event Essay

… Cognitive Dissonance, Social Comparison Theory, & a Norwegian Mass Murderer

Most people require a stable sense of identity to be comfortable with themselves. For such individuals, when they perform an action that is outside of the realm of what they call their identity, cognitive dissonance occurs. When acting or behaving outside of how they believe to be, people demonstrate cognitive dissonance by being uncomfortable to the point that they are motivated to alter their behaviors or attitudes or both.

Social comparison theory is a theory that explains how people perceive themselves through the actions of others. This theory posits that humans learn about who they are from themselves and from others. People learn more about their identities and perceptions of themselves by gaining that self-knowledge…. [read more]


Learning: Cognitive Theory Term Paper

… ¶ … Learning: Cognitive

Cognitive Theory of Learning

The cognitive theory of learning states that memory and prior knowledge play active roles in learning, which requires that researcher look beyond different types of behavior to learning that is based in the brain. If memory promotes learning, both long-term and short-term memory will be important and significant to theorists, researchers, and educators focused on cognitive theory where education and learning are concerned.

The major principles associated with this theory involve memory and prior knowledge (experience). What a person experiences, and what he or she remembers about those experiences, shape how that person lives and what he or she learns during his or her time in an educational setting. Instructors must learn how to use this in…. [read more]


Examples of Learning Theories Applied in the Classroom Term Paper

… Theories

The behavioral theory integrates behavior and reinforcement in order to achieve a change of that behavior in the classroom. Students consistently have their good behavior reinforced while suffering the results of their bad behavior. Behavioral work is distinguished by its focus on specific behaviors and its emphasis on the immediate environment in which the student is interacting. Often times instead of a deductive learning basis, behavioral theory uses the inductive.

To integrate the behavioral theory in the classroom the student and the teacher must first interact with one another by defining goals and objectives in the form of modifying behavior. Both teacher and student have certain responsibilities that are agreed upon in advance. The student willingly acknowledges and accepts that he/she is responsible for…. [read more]


Learning and Development Critique Essay

… Again the entire Intel-Hybridism theory applies to this approach, since the brain at a certain maturity level of development responds best to this type of conditioning stimulus. Furthermore, behaviorism is influenced, by association, in terms of increasing recall and actions that are used in tandem to enhance the learning experience.

Specifically, Hull mentions the stimulation of synapses with repeated stimulation. This creates a platform for both the stimulation of desired behaviors that are associated with the learning processes, as well as with cognitive development, which is based upon the learned behaviors.

When applied in terms of motivation and self-regulation, the maturity level of cognition is again applicable. A very young learner would not have as high an ability as an older learner towards motivation and…. [read more]


Learning Theories and Models Research Paper

… Also, consistent with developmental theory, he did not regard all learners as blank slates, but believed that past social influences had an impact upon learning. The sociability of individuals had an innately positive effect in most instances, as children could learn a great deal from modeling others in their peer group and elsewhere. This person is known as the more knowledgeable other (MKO) and can help the child learn and move beyond the zone of proximal learning (McLeod 2007). In the workplace, this is often an older, official mentor rather than a teacher.

Humanistic theories of learning, in contrast, stress that learning itself is not necessarily the goal of instruction. Rather, learning itself should be a rewarding process, not the gold stars emphasized by behaviorism.…. [read more]


Different Preferences in Learning Between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting Dissertation

… ¶ … Preferences in Learning between American and French Learners in a Multinational Corporate Setting

The way training is delivered in a corporate environment has a tremendous effect on results. This study investigates the role of culture in the learning styles of adult French and American students enrolled in online training programs at an international university. Using Kolb's learning style inventory, the learning style preferences of respondents in both cultural groups will be classified as divergers, convergers, accommodators, and assimilators, reflecting their general tendencies toward learning environments as conceptualized by Kolb (1985). The assumption is that Americans prefer to learn from action-oriented methods and are more comfortable learning from activities that are not job related, such as role plays and games, than do their French…. [read more]


Serial Learning Term Paper

… With his calm logic, he is able to cram and learn more than me.

SECTION EIGHT

Learning in pre-natal Stage

In the ignorant eras, where science and technology were obsolete, it was considered a fact that human beings started the learning process after birth. However, now the studies show clearly that learning is a process that is initiated during the prenatal stages of human development. However according to the theory of Dr. Montessori it is now known that the children start their learning process, nine months before they come into this world. In the past the unborn child was considered a non-thinking, unfeeling entity that only started its emotional development once brought into the world. However Verney (1981) presented the theory that a fetus is…. [read more]


Psychology Learning Experience Understanding Term Paper

… Conditioned Stimulus: Petrol will be the conditioned stimulus. Since it possesses the chemical agent, petrol will act as a conditioned stimulus. The response that the body generated for the chemical agent will slowly began to be the response that the body generates for petrol.

Conditioned Response: The conditioned response will be the feeling associated with the chemical agent. You no longer have to provide the chemical agent to get that response, petrol will do the trick.

Similar to the example given above, it is important to understand that classical conditioning can be applied in different ways. For example, if you want a response towards petrol pump to be learned then you can keep petrol as the unconditioned stimulus and petrol pump as the conditioned stimulus.…. [read more]


Learning and Cognition Essay

… Consistent changes are not always permanent alterations but he or she always has that learned or prior experience for an activity. There are certain forms of learning that can't be explained, but only through principles of classical conditioning. Therefore, behaviors are also partially the product of cognitive processes since the stimulus-stimulus or S-S theory involves cognitive activity, in which the conditioned stimulus is associated to the concept of the unconditioned stimulus.

Cognition is any mental activity in the representation and processing of knowledge, for example, thinking, remembering, perceiving, and language use. Edward L. Thorndike discovered learning was an association between stimuli in the situation and a response that, for example, an animal learned to make, which was known as the stimulus-response or S-R connection. Learning…. [read more]


Learning That Is Imparted Term Paper

… Instructing English in a work-based environment may increase chances of professional growth. The participants of work-based learning programs get a whole new world of resources accessible by learning a language that has noteworthy professional importance. Rosen (1999) reported ESL as being the most taught language surpassing Spanish in all centers of Berlitz in the U.S. English for reading purposes, English for communication within organizations, and English for developing basic writing skills by the secretaries and lower administrative staff will also increase in the industry called English for occupational purposes (EOP). Actionbased (Cunningham, Dawes & Bennett, 2004)and project based (Wrigley, 1998) have become two important methodologies for ESL in work-based environments. Their acceptance from the employers is more as compared to other class room-based methods.

2.1.3-…. [read more]


Cognitive Learning Theory Essay

… Cognitive learning theory presents a positive perspective of development that lay emphasis on conscious thinking. This learning perspective incorporates the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge, which is retained in the mind. Consequently, learning takes place when new knowledge is obtained or when the present knowledge is transformed through experience ("Chapter 5 - Learning Theories," n.d.). The cognitive learning perspective basically emphasizes on the active creation of understanding by an individual through conscious thinking.

This learning theory or perspective provides a detailed explanation of the incredible significance of the brain in information processing and understanding in the body as an individual learns things. Cognitive learning theory has widely been used to explain mental process and how they are influenced by the inherent and…. [read more]


Learning Due Primarily Essay

… Under this scenario, unlike the other learning theories, the educator focuses on building intelligence and cognitive development.

Cognitively the student benefits as more information is retained over time which can then be utilized at will. By focusing on the how the individual learns, the cognitive theory relies on the students strengths. The approach is also very holistic as it incorporates many different concepts that will develop over time. Life is constantly changing. Children enter high school, get their first job, date the opposite sex, and marry one another. Each experience is dynamic in that it increases cognition in each respective step. However, in many instances, these experiences are unique to the individual. Specifically, cognitive theory argued that reality involves transformations and states of mind and…. [read more]

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