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Cognitive and Behavioral Therapy Term Paper

… This argument should be upheld with resolved consciousness that some culturally held beliefs and assumptions have an inherent persuasion towards one own judgment (Leichsenring & Leibing, 2007). It is imperative for the therapist to appreciate that communications with the patients will require them to remain impartial and sensitive to patient's cultural background.

Therapist Own identity Understanding

Therapist must have an understanding of measures to gauge the level their culture influences their judgment has on the interaction with their patients. This awareness call for a therapist wholesome appreciation own gender, ethical, racial and class identity since they have influence on ones judgments. Awareness of the influences of their identities helps therapist to observe the patient in light of their respective background and not just on the…. [read more]


Cognitive Restructuring Theory Term Paper

… Tom seems to have low Tolerance for frustrations thus; he feels that he does not have to be in a stressful or annoying situation. However, under the cognition therapy he has to rethink his next step before making the next action. Some actions that may result from intense anger may result to unpleasant results or even accidents. The best way to stop anger is to place your hands on your face and by so doing it can help in putting a physical break to your emotions. Another instance breathing deeply also helps in controlling the physical responses to anger. Giving self-peace is another measure that can enable one manages anger. Remaining engaged in the situation only escalate one's anger. The other step is to analyze…. [read more]


Emotion vs. Cognition: Differences Essay

… There are autists who have little cognitive abilities and the lack can frustrate or upset them when they cannot perform tasks or activities that they wish.

Emotions are typically a very sensitive area or issue for most people. There are a number of people who are out of touch with their emotions; they do not know how to identify them or their root causes. This may affect aspects of their cognition such as concentration and attention. The same can be said for pleasant emotions such as excitement or love. Often when people begin a new romance, they are distracted while performing other activities that demand cognition such as schoolwork or their careers. Both cognition and emotions require learning. With cognition, learning seems apparent. It is…. [read more]


Cognitive Psychology Essay

… It is also dedicated to looking at the various mechanisms for an individual to navigate this social world that is complex.

b. The importance of behavioral observation in cognitive psychology.

The observation of the behavior of an individual is important in cognitive psychology since it is the gateway to the inner emotional disposition of the individual or the group that the psychoanalyst is dealing with at that time.

It is through the study of the behavior that the psychotherapist will be able to analyze a behavior and accordingly categorize it and be able to find a possible solution. For instance dysfunctional emotions, cognitions and behaviors can be diagnosed through a goal oriented systematic procedure. It is from here that the correct approach of the Cognitive…. [read more]


Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition Essay

… Cognitive Psychology: Emotions and Cognition

Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that is predominantly occupied with the mental process. These would include how people think, perceive ideas and things, recall and also learn. It is related to other disciplines like philosophy, neuroscience and linguistics. According to Kendra Cherry (2011), cognitive psychology has to do with acquisition, encoding and storage of information in the human brain. It is worth noting at the onset that what makes cognitive psychology stand out is that, different from the behaviorism that predominantly focuses on the behaviors that can be seen, cognitive psychology will go beyond this by taking the observable behavior as a key to the internal mental status which is the main focus of cognitive psychology.

Of central…. [read more]


Cognitive and Affective Psychology Essay

… Cognitive and Affective Psychology

According to Eysenck and Keane (2005, p. 1), cognitive psychology focuses upon how the human faculties make sense of th einvrionment, as well as the processes involved in making decisions regarding appropriate responses to the environment. The specific processes involved in cognitive psychology include attention, perception, learning, memory, language, problem solving, reasoning and thinking.

According to the authors, there are four major approaches to human cognition (Eysenck & Keane, 2005, p. 3): experimental cognitive psychology; cognitive neuropsychology; computational cognitive science; and cognitive neuroscience.

Affective psychology concerns human emotion and the effect of this upon behavior; in other words, the outward expression of inner feelings. According to Brett et al. (2003), many professionals regard the affective domain as including three subcomponents: feeling,…. [read more]


Cognitive Therapy Research Paper

… Cognitive Therapy is a form of psychological therapy that is based on the premise that (cognitive) thinking processes affect and are affected by our emotions. Emotions like depression and/or anxiety are particularly affective of cognition and the therapist in a cognitive therapy application attempts to aid the client by seeking to link cognitive processes to emotions that are both more productive and affect thoughts in a more positive manner and vice versa. (Sanders & Wills, 2005, p. 3) the commonly recognized progenitor of cognitive therapy in its original form is Aaron T. Beck, working in the 1970s, who developed the idea that our thoughts (cognitions) and emotions and behaviors were integrally linked and that if any aspect of that linked chain were altered (in a…. [read more]


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Combat Term Paper

… Moreover, contrary to myth, patients are not generally unwilling or reluctant to undergo exposure therapy, but are able to recognize that exposure may be necessary to help them move past the traumatic event. The whole thought process behind trauma focused therapy is that by changing thoughts, the therapist can help achieve symptom reduction, and this hypothesis has been verified in a number of studies (Sobel et al., 2009).

Despite the fact that some therapists have lingering, erroneous concerns about trauma-centered therapy, it has long been the preferred approach for treating PTSD. In fact, CPT, a form of trauma-centered therapy is considered the go-to treatment for PTSD. CPT is a counseling-based intervention that generally involves meeting with a therapist on a weekly basis in an effort…. [read more]


Cognitive Theory Term Paper

… Cognitive Theory

Cognition is the process of acquiring knowledge, which includes aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, recognition, judgment and imagination (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC 2006). The philosopher Albert Bandura led efforts in developing a social cognitive theory or SCT in defining, predicting and modifying human behavior individually or as a group (Brown 1999). The theory defines human behavior as a triadic, dynamic and reciprocal interaction of personal factors, behavior and the environment. According to the theory, these three factors uniquely determine an individual's behavior. It strongly emphasizes on the role and power of the mind as an active force, which constructs one's reality, selectively encodes information, performs behavior on the basis of one's values and expectations and imposes structure on its own actions. A…. [read more]


Evolution and Development of Cognitive Term Paper

… Cognitive therapy is particularly effective in the treatment of panic disorders. Not only is it as if not more effective than a number of other approaches, but it also leads to a significant reduction in antipanic medication usage (Beck, 1993). Eating disorders also respond well to cognitive therapy, though a combination of cognitive therapy and imipramine is more effective than cognitive therapy alone (Beck, 1993).

What is even more interesting is that cognitive therapy has evolved alongside relatively new disorders, such as drug addiction. These are not new disorders, per se, but are disorders that have been newly identified. As such, there is not the same rigid adherence to the established protocols for treating these diseases. In 1993, investigators were studying the efficacy of cognitive…. [read more]


Psychology History of Psychology Max Weitheimer (Laws Essay

… Psychology

History of Psychology

Max Weitheimer (Laws of Organization in Perceptual Forms)

Max Wertheimer was one of the principal proponents of Gestalt theory which emphasized higher-order cognitive processes in the midst of behaviorism. The center of Gestalt premise was the concept of grouping. The chief aspects that determine grouping include: proximity which involves elements being grouped together according to their nearness, similarity, where items of similar respect tend to be grouped together, closure where items are grouped together if they tend to complete some entity and simplicity where items will be organized into simple figures according to symmetry, regularity, and smoothness. These factors are referred to as the laws of organization and are explained in the context of awareness and problem-solving. The fundamental character of…. [read more]


Social Psychology Cognitive Processes Essay

… The cognitive, affective, interpretive, and evaluative replies of persons change radically. Additional, if an individual is able to disclosures to a specific situation for a long time she or he will modify to that setting and will feel familiar for that circumstance (Baron, 2005). The environmental inspirations ease bodily and psychological stimulations. The increased stimulations will either expands or damages individual actions. Hereafter, part of setting on the social behavior of specific has turn out to be one of the extremely significant issues of study in social psychology.

Cultural context is however another influence that is responsible for shaping social psychology in that the bulk of individuals that belong to some kind of culture, will concur or become convinced to receive and/or follow what is…. [read more]


Conceptualization of Psychological Distress Psychology Essay

… They suppose that other people are talking and are afraid of madness (Hayes, 2008).

Cross-cultural and historical evidence shows how the mainstream society feared and excluded the psychologically distressed persons. In the mid-eighteenth century, it is evident that fear emerged in medical terms but moral myths animated them. At the same time, the fear of madness developed as the dread of unreason (Lebow, 2012b). As a result, the two forms of obsession, dependent on each other, advanced to reinforce each other. Longitudinal studies in remote areas of France demonstrate the persistence of exclusionary and alienating practices towards psychologically distressed despite their official and deinstitutionalization integration into the society. The rhetorical acknowledgement of such individuals in the society has not been aligned with the reality of…. [read more]


Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy: Review Essay

… Therefore, the therapeutic technique is not the same as one would expect in a different type of treatment-focused intervention, because its goal is generally to prevent relapse.

However, it is also important to keep in mind that mindfulness is a very popular self-help technique. MBCT is considered a way to help people achieve a greater degree of happiness and success in their lives, even if those people do not actually suffer from a disorder. This is an important concept to keep in mind for the practitioner who may be more comfortable with treating a disease, rather than treating an individual. MBCT can help even those people without a disorder or a diagnosis achieve a greater degree of personal satisfaction in their lives, so that treatment…. [read more]


Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline Essay

… Evolution of Cognitive Psychology as a Discipline

The advancement of cognitive psychology since the era of Thomas Aquinas, who was the foremost person to divide behavior into two distinct areas; cognitive and affective has tremendously evolved. The lodging of research on the field provides practitioners a clear view of the subject matter. Cognitive psychology has been existent for centuries in diverse forms based on its defining culture (Eysenck & Keane, 2005). As science progressively gets sophisticated, numerous theories and beliefs have fallen aside in favor of more legitimate evidence towards contemporary developments in the discipline. Cognitive psychology is the study of mental processes. During the nineteenth century, cognitive psychology became an emergent theme of concern in the discipline of psychology. This epoch saw numerous psychologists…. [read more]


Diverse Nature of Psychology Essay

… These are most often examples of clinical psychology, where psychologists "assess and treat mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders" which can range from "short-term crises, such as difficulties from adolescent rebellion, to more severe, chronic conditions, such as schizophrenia" (Landrum 2010 p 14). Behaviorism focuses on understand reasoning for particular behaviors within groups in vastly different settings. Behavioral theories can aim to explain as diverse actions as aggression, cheating, and even binge drinking. According to behaviorism, there are a number of elements that can combines depending on the specific situation to produce very unique behaviors. Thus behavior is the result of very diverse factors functioning together to create very specific results.

Additionally, there is the genre of cognition within modern psychology that often deals with subcategories…. [read more]


Cognitive or Perceptual? Researchers Essay

… Periods of national unrest, for instance, stimulate stricter anti-immigration laws prompted by a more restless society and appraisal of immigrants is, in return, harsher as it is of Islams (for instance -- as represented by Islamaphobia) during a time of fundamentalist Islamic terrorism. All of this is cognitive rather than situational

Appraisal in short depend on context in that sometimes mood, tenor of place, abrupt impression of person makes the impression more distorted than it would have otherwise been under different conditions. Impressions are also influenced by priority -- or primacy effects as for instance Anderson and Barrios (1951) showed . In short, components such as primacy effect, context, and previous impressions, as well as certain diagnostic criteria all culminate in forming instinctive appraisals and…. [read more]


Psychology Treatment Thesis

… 29).

A crisis in mental health care funding is approaching rapidly given that the Baby Boomer generation will retire over the next twenty years and expenditures for older Americans with major psychiatric disorders will double. There will also be a serious lack of mental health services, providers and funding. About 20% of all adults over age 55 have major mental illnesses such as depression and dementia, although these are often under-reported and under-diagnosed (Bartels et al., 2010, p. 261). Medicare and Medicaid expenditures for nursing homes, outpatient and inpatient services, pharmacy and emergency room visits always "increase with advancing age" especially for those age 85 and over requiring "acute and long-term care." These expenses increase further for patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, although elderly…. [read more]


Cognitive Behavioral Therapy With Classical Essay

… This would be done by focusing on thoughts and behavior either to encourage a closer connection between child and parent or to help either deal with their current situation and both to move on.

Being that I am more action-oriented and practical as per personality, leaning to the possibility of choice and preference of action and being future-oriented as opposed to mussing about and dwelling in the past, I would prefer the CBT approach.

What I would do here would be to deal with both parent and child in both family and individualized sessions, showing them how their thoughts direct the situation, helping them formulate changes that they want effected in their lives, and showing them how they can effect these changes via thoughts and…. [read more]


Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (Eq) Durrenmatt Term Paper

… Psychology Testing: Psychometric Emotional Intelligence (EQ)

Durrenmatt (1996) may have had it right when he said, "Emotions have no place in business, unless you do business with them." Or perhaps, he was wrong. Only the test of time, however, will tell. At this time, nevertheless, this researcher proposes to invest time to:

Define EQ and expand on its role in today's global world.

Compare questions asked in EQ tests with questions asked in IQ Tests.

Identify current tests and/or theories are available for assessing EQ.

Assess accuracy of EQ's assumptions for individuals.

Examine numerous studies testing the reliability of EQ.

This research is expected to gather and assess relevant data from literature related to EQ to determine its scope of accuracy, acceptability and availability. Determinations…. [read more]


Cognitive Theory Essay

… Cognitive Theory and Social Work Treatment

Relevant Points

The following reviews Jim Lantz's chapter in Mattaini and Lowery (2007). The chapter discusses cognitive theory as applied to social work treatment and is summarized below.

Although Beck (father Aron and daughter Judy) is the name typically associated with cognitive theory, its origins predate Beck. Its application today owes much to such individuals as Alfred Adler, Albert Ellis, William Glasser, Arnold Lazarus, and Viktor Frankl.

Cognitive theory's expansion into social work owes much to Harold Werner's pioneering efforts, which were fiercely resisted by psychoanalytically oriented social workers.

The central concept of the cognitive approach to social work practice is that a person's emotions and behavior usually result from what he thinks, tells himself, assumes, or believes about…. [read more]


Cognitive Counseling Research Proposal

… Cognitive Counseling

This is a template and guideline ONLY. Please do not turn in as final paper.

What is It?

Cognitive counseling, as defined by most of the experts in the field, consists of a therapy which emphasizes observing and managing a person's thought patterns. It focuses on decreasing negative thinking to the point that the basic thought patterns change to result in more positive feelings. The therapy also attempts to alter the "tone of voice" the individual uses for thinking.

That our thoughts are bonded to our emotions or feelings is the basis of cognitive therapy. There are four defined cognitive therapies: Cognitive-Behavioral, Rational-Emotive, Reality, and Transactional Analysis. Counselors in these fields help patients (or clients) to clarify their distorted thinking and to solve…. [read more]


Psychology on a Medical Radiologist Term Paper

… This will help with developing understanding and a good working relationship. I can also use what I learnt about personality and behavior to understand how my superior reacts to things and to find hidden meanings. For example, I have been in other work situations where a boss has said everything is fine, when really they are unhappy about something. By using my knowledge of psychology I can assess my superior's real feelings. This will help me to deal with situations, rather than have a situation occur where the relationship becomes strained.

Secondly, I will have to develop relationships with peers and people in other departments. My knowledge of perceptions, communication, personality and behavior will all help manage these relationships. I can use empathy to consider…. [read more]


Psychology Cognitive-Behavior Therapy Cognitive Behavioral Research Paper

… It is thought that more than seventeen million adults go through at least one incident of major depression every year. Of those who seek help, just forty to sixty percent will react to initial therapy. Cognitive behavior therapy is a type of psychotherapy that is often utilized to take care of patients with depression, anxiety or other issues. It entails helping people to recognize negative patterns of thinking and reacting, and then replacing them with more productive options. Study findings have shown that CBT has a very precise action on the brain's control of its emotional reaction. While health professionals have known that psychotherapy was normally helpful for depression, they have not known before how targeted its effects have been (Fahy, 2006).

According to a…. [read more]


Evolution of Cognitive Psychology Essay

… Evolution of Cognitive Psychology

Cognition is a term that means "the process of thought." It has been at the very basis for science, philosophy, and cultural debate since societies came together to form groups that differentiated individuals and allowed some to ponder the eternal questions: how do humans think? Is what we think reality? How do we gather information? Cognitive thought then, refers to a link of the mind with groups, organizations, the ability to conceptualize the unknowable, and the desire and ability to form groups based on what is possible, not what is reality. In a sense, then, cognition is a way to understand and make sense of the world (Van Wagner, 2008).

Cognition occurs in various levels naturally -- it is not something…. [read more]


Consonant and Dissonant Cognitions Term Paper

… 3).

TWO: analyze the influence that consonant and dissonant cognitions have on attitudes and behavior: Dissonance becomes apparent when two cognitions "…generate mutually incompatible behavior dispositions," Frijda writes on page 188. Two incompatible behaviors could be the tendency to both avoid and approach the same object: an alcoholic experiences dissonant cognitions when he sees a vodka drink being poured by a bartender; he remembers how good the taste of alcohol was and yet he knows he can't go back to his days as a lush.

Author Bertram Gawronski explains that when a dieter (trying hard to lose weight) polishes off a "fattening meal, he would likely be in a state of dissonance" because his cognitions as to his recent behaviors "…are most resistant to change"…. [read more]


History of Social Psychology Research Paper

… The Supreme Court as evidence to prove that segregation would generate a feeling of inferiority later cited these results. Clark was also the first Africa American elected as President of the American Psychological Association.

Evelyn Hooker studied the psychosocial adjustment of gay men out of prison or hospital. She was the first social scientist to conduct such a study. The results of her study demonstrated heterosexual and gay men did not have any difference, which challenged the antigay stereotypes. Her results eventually led to the removal of homosexuality as a mental disorder from the American Psychiatric Association diagnostic manual (Baumeister & Finkel, 2010). Albert Bandura brought in the notion that it is possible to model behavior in the social world. He developed the social learning…. [read more]


History of Psychology Research Paper

… History Of Psychology

Psychology is a science that grew out of other pursuits, including philosophy and physiology. Throughout its history, there have been a number of philosophers and scientists who have made significant contributions to the development of psychological thought and research and who have shaped the fundamental debates that inform the field. From the very beginnings, the argument of nature vs. nurture can be found in the differing perspectives of Rene Descartes and John Locke (Goodwin, 1999). It is difficult to select a single era of psychology's history that could be considered the most influential with respect to modern psychology, especially considering that modern psychology itself is made up of many different areas of research and investigation. However, if one area were to be…. [read more]


Emotion Recognition Research Paper

… Emotional Recognition

Recognition of written expressions vs. facial expression of happiness

The expression and recognition of human emotions is universal in all normally functioning human beings (Frank et al. 1993; Elkman 1994). Emotional displays and signs of recognition have also been exhibited by primates, suggesting a possible evolutionary basis for the commonality of facial expression and other displays of emotion found across all known cultures (Kano et al. 2008). Many anthropologists and psychologists have disagreed with these assertions in the past, but increasing evidence drawn from preliterate societies has confirmed the universality of the facial expression of emotion and its recognition (Elkman 1994).

Despite being managed and controlled by every human culture in different ways, the expression of emotion through conscious and unconscious control of…. [read more]


Educational Psychology Essay

… 210)

One of the problems that Wolf cites in both the theory and praxis of applied behavioral analysis (and its close cousin cognitive behavioral therapy) that has remained an issue in the intervening decades is that because this technique is focused on the observable, there is no way for either a clinician or a researcher to make an accurate assessment of the internal state of a subject.

Behavioral researchers have reported many examples of a lack of correspondence between client-reported data and observer-obtained data. Patterson (personal communication, 1974) for example, described discrepancies between parental reports of improvements in the child's behavior, while objective data obtained by observers did not support these claims. Conrad and Wincze (1976) reported that clients undergoing orgasmic reconditioning verbally reported favorable…. [read more]

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