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Cognitive Restructuring Theory Term Paper

… Tom seems to have low Tolerance for frustrations thus; he feels that he does not have to be in a stressful or annoying situation. However, under the cognition therapy he has to rethink his next step before making the next action. Some actions that may result from intense anger may result to unpleasant results or even accidents. The best way to stop anger is to place your hands on your face and by so doing it can help in putting a physical break to your emotions. Another instance breathing deeply also helps in controlling the physical responses to anger. Giving self-peace is another measure that can enable one manages anger. Remaining engaged in the situation only escalate one's anger. The other step is to analyze…. [read more]

Cognitive Dissonance Theory and Minimal Essay

… In this way, the voters could either reduce the importance of the dissonance created by voting for candidate A, or change their beliefs to be more in line with those of candidate A; thus reducing the dissonance. In effect, a voter could change their beliefs to be more in line with the candidate that they have chosen.

Cognitive Dissonance Theory is a theory that maintains that a person's ways of knowing, beliefs, judgments, and thoughts, (known as "cognitions"), can become out of balance with their current actions, or beliefs. ("SPC 3210, Chapter 7") This imbalance, in turn, creates "dissonance," or the uncomfortable state of being out of balance, which people are naturally inclined to reduce. This theory is based on three types of relationships between…. [read more]

Cognitive, Social, and Emotional Developmental Theories Term Paper

… Anna can also be assisted by joining group therapy sessions with people suffering from the same ailment. This will aid her open up and share her issues with people suffering from the same. She will also learn how these people deal with their issues and embrace those practices. Increasing her self-esteem will also go a long way in making her a responsible parent and adult. Anna needs to know how to value, love and accept herself thus making her feel good about herself (Shaffer, 2009).

Anna also needs to undergo parental training. Parents play a crucial part in the overall development of their children. Once Anna has learnt how to accept and love herself, she must train herself how to raise her child appropriately. Spiritual…. [read more]

Psychology - Cognitive Learning Theory Term Paper

… These activities might look like a shopkeeper-customer scenario; both students learning math, the names of food, and relevant social skills. The roles reinforce socially appropriate, normative behavior, while the tasks required by those roles cultivate, reinforce and add on to students' already existing technical knowledge. Arguably, the everyday experience of going to the store is relevant to most students, and represents knowledge which is "added onto" in this scenario.

Another way to construct knowledge within a social context is in the form of debate. Students are required to first build their knowledge around factual information and use logic to mold it into a position. Presenting their argument in debate form, students are required to understand their subjects on a detailed level, adding to their knowledge…. [read more]

Cognitive Theories of Development Essay

… Cognitive Theories of Development:

Piaget's Theory:

Given that he was initially trained in biology and philosophy fields, Jean Piaget was mainly interested in the impact of biological influences on cognitive development (Huitt & Hummel, 2003). As a result of his extensive work in this field, he is regarded as one of the most important researchers in developmental psychology. In his theory of cognitive development, Piaget suggests that human beings cannot obtain information that they immediately use and understand. Therefore, human beings develop their own knowledge through experiences which enable them to build mental models in their minds.

During his work in Paris, Piaget noticed that the answer of younger children were qualitatively different from those of their older counterparts. These answers were not because the…. [read more]

Person Centered Theory Cognitive Behavioral Term Paper


The objective of this work is to discuss the person-centered theory and to discuss the cognitive-behavioral theory. This work will examine in detail the concepts of the person-centered theory and as well, the microskills and techniques that students would expect to be effective with this theory.


Person-centered therapy is also known as 'client-centered', 'non-directive' and 'Rogerian' therapy. This approach to counseling and psychotherapy places the treatment process responsibility upon the client while the therapist's role is 'non-directive' in nature. There are two primary goals within person-centered therapy:

Self-esteem increase; and 2) an opening up by the client to experience. (Person-Centered Therapy, nd)

This theory was developed by Carl Rogers, an American psychologist who practiced in the 1930s and…. [read more]

Cognitive Learning Theory Essay

… Cognitive learning theory presents a positive perspective of development that lay emphasis on conscious thinking. This learning perspective incorporates the transformation of information in the environment into knowledge, which is retained in the mind. Consequently, learning takes place when new knowledge is obtained or when the present knowledge is transformed through experience ("Chapter 5 - Learning Theories," n.d.). The cognitive learning perspective basically emphasizes on the active creation of understanding by an individual through conscious thinking.

This learning theory or perspective provides a detailed explanation of the incredible significance of the brain in information processing and understanding in the body as an individual learns things. Cognitive learning theory has widely been used to explain mental process and how they are influenced by the inherent and…. [read more]

Cognitive Development Theories Term Paper

… Cognitive Development

According to Kendra Van Wagner, Lawrence Kohlberg's stages of moral reasoning incorporates six levels, with two stages each. The first level, preconventional morality, focuses mainly on the needs of and consequences for the self. While Stage 2 begins to recognize that others also have needs that are important to them, the primary focus is still the person's own needs and their fulfillment. Level two is conventional morality, in which authority figures and laws are viewed as primarily important. In this, the person's own needs, as well as the needs of others, take a secondary position to the precedence of authority and laws. The final stage is postconventional morality, and refers to an individual's recognition that rules exist to serve society rather than the…. [read more]

Cognitive Therapy Provides a Structured Essay

… This is a much deeper insight than is required for successful CBT. Unconscious processes are at the heart of this therapy. The main assumption is that these processes are the result of past dysfunctional relationship. Hence the focus on unearthing the client's past in order to inform the therapeutic process. What this means is that unresolved conflicts created by these past relationships result in current problematic manifestations such as substance abuse or other psychological disorders.

According to Haggerty (2006), psychodynamic therapy is also the oldest of the therapies used by psychiatrists today. It is therefore a relatively complex system that is based upon complex theories that have developed over time. As such, four major schools of psychoanalytic theory have developed over time since Freud developed…. [read more]

Cognitive Case Analysis: Cognitive Behavioral Thesis

… Literature Review

According to recent research conducted by Kelly, Magill and Stout, empirical reviews that were rigorously conducted reveal that Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) and related 12 step treatment program participation is as effective as other approaches to intervention (AA, 2008, Humphrey's, 2004). AA is the most frequently sought source of intervention in the United States, for those suffering with alcohol related problems (Room & Greenfield, 1993). Intervention provided via AA is reportedly helpful for diverse individuals at various stages of recovery from alcohol dependence (Kelly & Yeterian, 2008; Ferri et al., 2006).

AA participation was compared with a variety of intervention techniques including cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing the frequency and quantity of alcohol use post treatment at intervals of 1 and 3 years follow…. [read more]

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Research Paper

… Cognitive Behavioral Theory

The case of Margarita is not an uncommon occurrence amongst the professional classes in the modern economy. As a Hispanic born living in America and married to an African-American, there are a number of subconscious thoughts and emotions that she may be feeling yet completely unaware. There may be issues associated with her family relations or perhaps work relations that compound a undiagnosed minor chemical imbalance. A minor chemical imbalance in this case would be minor enough to be 'treated' using aromatherapy, psychological counsel and emotionally release.

In meeting with Margarita for several sessions, the understanding is that currently, Margarita is receiving a form of therapy from her husband, whom has become somewhat of a punching bag for his wife. The underlying…. [read more]

Cognitive Effects of Brain Injury Essay

… The type of information processed by these declarative memory networks is relatively lateralized, with verbal information mediated by the dominant hemisphere and visuospatial information mediated by the non-dominant hemisphere (Cozzarelli, 2010). Remembering (retrieval of) declarative information requires the activation of the selected neural networks that originally encoded it. Volitional recall is initiated by prefrontal structures; for a relatively limited period of time after initial presentation, such recall also requires the participation of the hippocampal portion of these representational networks. After memories are encoded and consolidated, however, retrieval becomes less hippocampally-dependent (and, eventually, independent of the hippocampus) and instead is frontallydependent .

In addition to their amenability to volitional recall, declarative memories are highly associative and their recall can be triggered by activation (via external or…. [read more]

Piaget's Cognitive Development the Webster Research Paper

… In the concrete operational stage, the child starts to distribute with intellectual concepts such as relationships and numbers. At this are children learn mastery of classes, relationships, how to reason and numbers. Furthermore in this level the child increases the aptitude to decenter and comprehends the idea of preservation. This change from not understanding preservation to understanding it is not unchanging. Certain facets of preservation happen before others. They construct onto one another in a process that is hierarchal (Poulin-Dubois, D. 2011). Since the child has established a forward-thinking way of calculation, he is able to understand the perception of conservation and clarify how it works too. Also in this phase, the child move beyond the idea of animism and starts to reason more like…. [read more]

Cognitive Social Learning Theory Journal

… ¶ … Cognitive social learning and related perspectives on drug craving" attempts to define relationships and draw parallels between cognitive social learning and the craving of foreign substances. Although the nature of the subjects examined and the various models and theories demonstrated in this article can apply to all drugs, they mostly pertain to nicotine and conventional cigarette smoke. Drug use is considered both in terms of addiction (including relapse) and in casual, social settings. The theoretical approach for examining the phenomenon of drug use, however, is not limited to cognitive social learning theory; the author analyzes this phenomenon in relation to others typically associated with this action that involve information processing and biological aspects. Specific cognitive processes considered include high-risk situations (which are defined…. [read more]

Perceptual / Cognitive Appraisal Theory Essay

… Cognitive/Perceptual Appraisals

Appraisal theory, which has been based largely on cognitive theories, also seems to imply that appraisals can be both cognitive and perceptual -- or even that the two go hand-in-hand. The whole of appraisal theory stems from the notion that our emotions come from our "appraisals" of situations (i.e. how we perceive situations and the emotions that those appraisals then elicit). These appraisals will be different for each individual. For example, one person may view the idea of a large party as fun, exciting and a chance to meet new people while another person may view the idea of a large party as too noisy and intimidating. Each individual perceives the event based on cognitive history (what happened at a large party in…. [read more]

Psychology Cognitive Term Paper

… Cognitive Psychology


The different theories of famous psychologists Sigmund Freud, Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow all can be used to interpret and analyze certain characteristics and human behavior. In the example provided, John's anxious, frustrated and overly critical behavior as well as his lack of self-discipline and failure to plan ahead can be analyzed to support different explanations under the theories of Freud, Rogers and Maslow. This paper will explain his behavior under the contrasting views of psychodynamic theory, humanistic theory and social cognitive learning theory.

Maslow's theory is a theory of human motivation, which centers on the theory of "physiological needs." Maslow believed that if left to their own devices, animals will tend to eat and drink things…. [read more]

Cognitive Development Essay

… The first study focused on racial attitudes and socially acceptable beliefs for children from 6 -- 16 years of age; researchers manipulated the children's perceptions of accountability for their beliefs and their expressed attitudes were measured explicitly and implicitly. The second study used the same methodology but the focus was on national attitudes between groups. Among other findings, the studies concluded that: children ages 6 -- 9 were highly motivated by external pressures to inhibit their biases; children ages 10 -- 16 were internally motivated to inhibit their biases; children in the racial study you had poor internalization of norms were more controlled by external pressures than were children in the nationalism study; early social cognitive development and social adult cognition are linked (Rutland, Cameron,…. [read more]

Cognitive Development Term Paper

… Where Piaget seems to be showing children becoming progressively more human (after a fashion) as they go through various stages to reach adult-like thought, Bruner seems to suggest that both children and adults have similar mental capabilities and structures, and a child's lack of cognitive development may be more attributable to unfamiliarity with the world than to lack of biological development. So where Piaget would suggest that children are not capable of abstract thought or higher-order thinking until they were in the final stages of development (around 11-12 years of age), Bruner might admit that a younger child with n exceptional degree of familiarity with a given topic could approach it from a more abstract perspective. More importantly, where Piaget would claim that a child…. [read more]

Cognitive and Emotional Intelligence Essay

… Actually, there is an assumption that emotional intelligence is one of the main factors to a peaceful work environment since people work to simultaneously meet individual and group production goals. The peaceful work environment originates from positive work relationships and a generally higher work satisfaction ("Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace Article," n.d.).

The other strength of emotional intelligence in relation to modern organizations is that it enhances job performance based on the impact of regulating emotions on the quality of social relationships. As compared to employees who display fake emotions, employees who develop and demonstrate genuine emotions elicit more favorable reactions. Therefore, employees with genuine concerns regarding the problems of coworkers should develop stronger relationships than those with relatively less genuine concerns. A worker who…. [read more]

Cognitive Social Learning Theory Research Paper

… Cognitive Social Learning Theory

Social learning theories came into sight along with behavior and learning tradition. These theories were well-demonstrated by three renowned psychologists i.e. Albert Bandura, Julian Rotter and Walter Mischel. However, the three great theorists have not followed the reactive mechanical model of behavior introduced by Skinner who has viewed the individual/person as an agent or instigator of experience. Instead, they have reestablished internal cognitive variables including a person's "subjective interpretation of the environment, into the stimulus-response formula (S-R)" (Engler, 2009).

Albert Bandura was the one who developed social cognitive theory as "a versatile model of psychosocial functioning that highlights the human capacity for self-regulation" (Lent & Brown, 1996). It was a framework for the analysis of human stimulus, thinking, and act and…. [read more]

Cognitive Theory Term Paper

… Cognitive Theory

Cognition is the process of acquiring knowledge, which includes aspects such as awareness, perception, reasoning, recognition, judgment and imagination (Lexico Publishing Group, LLC 2006). The philosopher Albert Bandura led efforts in developing a social cognitive theory or SCT in defining, predicting and modifying human behavior individually or as a group (Brown 1999). The theory defines human behavior as a triadic, dynamic and reciprocal interaction of personal factors, behavior and the environment. According to the theory, these three factors uniquely determine an individual's behavior. It strongly emphasizes on the role and power of the mind as an active force, which constructs one's reality, selectively encodes information, performs behavior on the basis of one's values and expectations and imposes structure on its own actions. A…. [read more]

Theories of Human Development and Counseling Term Paper

… ¶ … Counseling Services Benefit People Based on Theories of Human Development

The objective of this study is to examine how counseling services benefit people based on theories of human development.

The view of counselors is that people grow and develop throughout their entire lifespan. The theory of human development psychology is something that counselors understand and that assists them in effectively establishes relationships with individuals from a diversity of backgrounds. Professional counselors are skilled in assessing individuals and situations and in treatment and diagnosis of mental illness and disorders. As well counselors are skilled in applying cognitive, as well as effective, behavioral and systemic strategies to assist individuals in bringing about change in their lives.

Lifespan Development and Health Emphasized

It is reported that…. [read more]

Piaget's and Bruner's Theories Essay

… Piaget's theory compels children to make use of what they have obtained from their interaction with the world. This theory then asks them to impose the acquired concepts onto the world so that some sense could be made out of those ideas. Simultaneously, Bruner's theory demands the same by forcing learners (children) to utilize the acquired skills that could help to assign meaningful stimuli to everything. Another similarity is that both Piaget and Bruner have put emphasis on the importance of language and the interaction with other human beings (William).

As far as the differences among the two theories are concerned, the most noticeable one is the disagreement regarding progression. According to Piaget, human beings experience a cycle of change that is set and automatic…. [read more]

Cognitive Processes the Development of Psychiatry Term Paper

… Cognitive Processes

The development of psychiatry since the 1920s has seen many leaps. This has benefited humanity in such a way that people are now able to better understand themselves and others. Mental illnesses today can also be treated in a much more effective way than a century ago. It is also true, however, that some of the theories created by Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung and his contemporaries are still used today to effectively understand the way human beings think and behave. One such theory is the types of cognitive processes. Jung identified eight of these types (Nardi, 2007). Three cognitive process types are Extraverted Sensing (Se), Extraverted Intuiting (Ne), and Introverted Feeling (Fi).

Extraverted Sensing

Extraverted Sensing is a term used to describe the…. [read more]

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs. Psychoanalytical Therapy in Sex Offender Treatment Term Paper

… Cognitive Behavioral Therapy vs Psychoanalytical Therapy in Sex Offender Treatment

The overall goal of sexual offender treatment programs is to reduce the likelihood that the offender will engage in future acts of sexually abusive behavior. Research has proven this goal an unenvious task because the variables leading to sexual abuse are not yet fully understood and there is often considerable resistance on the part of the offender to become engaged in the treatment process. Cognitive behavioral therapy has been the modality of choice for sex offender treatment, however recent studies indicate an increase in the acceptance of psychoanalytical therapy. This article will describe the benefits and limits of psychoanalytical and cognitive therapy while contrasting the use of these theories in treating sex offenders.

Background of…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Borrows Heavily Essay

… Another key milestone in the development of cognitive psychology as a discipline is the development of generative grammar in linguistics. This was done by Noam Chomsky. Chomsky's publications in the late 1950s heavily impacted the nascent cognitive psychology (Chomsky, 1959). His 1957's Syntactic Structures focused on the mental structures needed to represent the needed to represent linguistic knowledge a competent speaker of a language ought to have (Schacter, 1987). He averred that associations and phrase structure grammars hardly represent an individual's knowledge of syntax and that a component capable of transforming one syntactic structure to another was integral. Chomsky's proposals changed the intellectual landscape of linguistics and indeed introduced the psycholinguistics concept. His Verbal Behavior publication reviewed B.F. Skinner's language learning. This review undermined behaviorism's…. [read more]

Cognitive Development in Toddlers Research Paper

… Work Cited

Adolph, K.E. (1997). Learning in the development of infant locomotion.

Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 62 (3,

Serial No. 251).

Bjorklund, D . F. (Ed.). (1990).C hildren'ss trategies:C ontemporaryv iews of cognitive development Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

Connolly, K.J. (1986) A perspective on motor development. In:

Motor Development in Children: Aspects of Coordination and Control (eds M.G. Wade & H.T.A. Whiting), pp. 3 -- 21.

Martinus-Nijhoff, Dordrecht, the Netherlands.

Edelman, G.M. (1987) Neural Darwinism. Basic Books, New York,


Getchell, N., McMenamin, S., & Whitall, J. (2005). Dual motor task coordination in children with and without learning disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 22,

21 -- 38.

Gleitman, H. (1981). Psychology. New York:

W.W. Norton and Company.

Gottlieb, G. (1970)…. [read more]

Cognitive Psychology Absolutely Nothing Interests Essay

… Ultimately, it was this adamant denial which allowed for the rise in cognitive psychology which chose to acknowledge the connection (Davenport, 2001).

With the advent of the computer, came a dramatic change in the way psychology is viewed. The technology allowed psychologists to theorize about the internal human mechanisms making decisions regarding behavior as computers used programming to come to logical ends. It was this comparison to the human mind that provided cognitive psychology with a model upon which to speculate about human behavior (Stone, 20011). Thus, this milestone became known in psychology as the computer metaphor (Stone, 2011). While the human brain cannot actually be reduced to mechanistic functions like a computer can be, how a computer operates can help explain how the brain…. [read more]

Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Case Study

… The therapist would help David reverse the process of generating self-hatred as the only psychological alternative to the conscious acceptance that his mother was genuinely a horrible parent.

Sexual Inadequacy and Projecting a Fear of Rejection

Finally, the other principal goal of David's therapy would be to help him recognize that the source of his perceived inadequacy with women in general and with his sexual role in particular are both functions of the explicit messages from his mother to his father that David used to overhear and of those directed at him by his mother. The therapist would help David learn to reject those premises and also to recognize that his marriage was likely a failure because David was drawn to a woman who exhibited…. [read more]

Cognitive Processes God Has Created Research Paper

… Extraverted Intuition

Unlike sensation, intuition is the way of processing information by means of impressions, possibilities and interpretations. People with this function in dominance, look towards different possibilities in any picture and draw deep interpretations. ENTP and ENFP are the main personality types of this function.

ENTP are known for being the "Originator." They are inventive, logical and curious. They are capable of understanding difficult topics as they go into their depths by looking in the possibilities. People with this kind of trait usually get into the arguments so as to show up their skills.

ENFP are the "Advocate." They are thoughtful, social, values oriented and very expressive. They love to share views about their beliefs and thoughts so that to promote them what they…. [read more]

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