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Correlation Between Male Competition and the Objectification of Women Term Paper

… Objectification of Women

Correlation Between Male Competition and the Objectification of Women

This paper outlines and discusses four studies conducted to examine the correlation between male competition and the objectification of women. Two studies (Study 1 and Study 3) involved observation followed by interviews with observed parties. These studies attempt to identify behavior, both male and female, that leads or may contribute to the objectification of women. Two additional studies (Study 2 and Study 4) involved direct interviewing or questioning with no observation. The first of these involved college females chosen randomly from dorm residents. The purpose of this interview set was to identify what female ideals or opinions might reinforce male behavior, in specific the objectification of women. The second interview study involved a…. [read more]


Women Objectification Women Research Paper

… These findings support objectification theory (Frederickson & Roberts, 1997) in that the process of evaluating one's internal value based primarily on external appearance leads to negative consequences.

In order to further examine the role of self-objectification on eating disorder pathology, Calogero, Davis, and Thompson (2005) conducted a study with 209 women in a residential treatment facility for eating disorders. They found that exposure to media ideals of appearance alone did not account for eating disorder symptomology, namely drive for thinness. Internalization of these ideals and self-objectification, however, were linked to these factors and was shown to contribute to drive for thinness. This suggests that viewing of sexually objectifying images of women is linked to the internalization of these images, which may contribute to chronic viewing…. [read more]


Women and Feminist Studies A-Level Coursework

… ¶ … women studies at a time when the interdisciplinary willpower and its concepts were getting institutional identification. Women's studies provided me with an exclusive place to take up the positions of the student, the instructor, the practitioner, and the subject researcher. Nowadays, questioning the mettle of women's studies is far from over (Darraj, 2010).

One of the things that I learnt and amazed me the most about women issues was the way the media portrayed them as objects. I did not understand that the press reveals everything from the men viewpoint or the "male gaze." In most cases, women have adjusted to living with such maltreatments. After taking this course, I usually evaluate women's positions in the advertisements and on television from a feminist…. [read more]


Oppressed Edible Woman Essay

… The shift to third person in the middle part of the story is a stylistic way for Atwood to convey Marian's feelings that she has become swallowed up by the expectations of others and of society. Marian feels objectified as though she was a possession or a thing that is known by the fact that it is "engaged." The most unsettling aspect of Marian's transformation is that it comes on the heels of her acquiescence to a socially approved role -- a woman engaged to be married is, by Marian's definition, a "sensible girl." But Marian's behavior and her methods of coping are not sensible. In fact, as Marian moves to the brink of insanity, her behavior becomes more bizarre and she is increasingly confused…. [read more]


College Males Tend to Objectify Women Term Paper

… College Males Tend to Objectify Women

No matter what the atmosphere might have been at home, at college, the American male finds himself in an environment where he is surrounded with sexually-explicit stimuli, such as advertisements, posters, magazines, music and media. The age of the typical college male is when he finds himself dealing with raging hormones (both in himself and in his fellow female students). Pornography is readily available, as are female students; experimentation is the norm and aggressive sports are played or talked about. All of these have an effect on the general attitude of college males toward females.

The Women's Center at the University of Connecticut informs that after viewing pornography, men are more likely to report decreased empathy for rape victims,…. [read more]


Virginia Woolf's View on Women Research Paper

… Virginia Woolf's View of Women in a Room of One's Own and its relevance today"

The issue of women in literature dates back to the earliest written word. Perspectives change over time and across cultures. Literature and the roles of women are no different. There are many challenges that have faced women throughout our existence, but perhaps more so in the last couple centuries. Virginia Woolf, the author of a Room of One's Own, felt that literature was "impoverished beyond our counting by the doors that have been shut upon women" (Woolf 59)*

That was the sentiment of many women just a century ago, but as the roles of women within societies have evolved so have the societies themselves -- perhaps in part to accommodate…. [read more]


Race Gender and Class Essay

… Race, Gender, And Class

The work of Coy (2009) reports that popular culture is characterized by the contemporary "sexualization of culture" which provides a description for the "current saturation of erotic imagery, particularly of women, in popular culture" and the example cited is that of "advertising and music videos." (Coy, 2009) Several themes are described in the work of Gill (2007) stated to be defined as "prevailing in contemporary mass media" and to include: (1) women can use their bodies for profit as a means to power; (2) the importance of individual choice and makeovers as a reinventions of the self; and (3) a focus on the biological differences between women and men. (Coy, 2009) All are reported as being stratified by "social factors such…. [read more]


Culture and Media Worlds Term Paper

… Culture and Media Works

Sexual Objectification of Women in Media

Media today is one of the most common grounds used to communicate or get a message across. It has readily increased its accessibility and its reach to people with phenomenon of globalization. Any individual who has access to any form of visual media today knows how the issue of "sex" has become a common term in the media. It is used in different ways and on different levels in different countries but it is reasonable to state that the sexual objectification is being used in media today and is presented in such an open manner that it can simply not be disregarded anymore (Hall, 1998).

Be it television, billboards, movies, TV shows, magazines or any…. [read more]


Gaze and the Culturally Essay

… Her subsequent analysis of the gaze, and especially what she calls "face-off" ads, in which the male model stares back at the viewer, hints at this phenomena by describing its inverse, that is, the returned male gaze, but for some reason she does not bother delving into whether or not ads which challenge the viewer with "primal" displays of dominance are actually successful (Bordo 188). However, she does at least acknowledge how the gaze of the viewer, whether or not they intend to reinforce the cultural codes being exhibited in any given image of the human body, ultimately cannot do anything but reinforce those codes, because one cannot make meaning out of these images without first determining the intended meaning. Thus, while Bordo's analysis is…. [read more]


Gender Norms in Films Article Review

… Gender Norms in Films

Male and female relationships in cinema: How much has changed since the 1970s?

Powers, Stephen, David J. Rothman, & Stanley Rothman. (2003). Transformation of gender roles in Hollywood movies: 1946-1990. Political Communication, 10 (93): 259-283

Some film scholars have suggested that the ways in which women are conceptualized in cinema has undergone a profound shift in recent decades. According to Stephen Powers, David J. Rothman, & Stanley Rothman's article entitled "Transformation of gender roles in Hollywood movies: 1946-1990" the ideology of mainstream Hollywood films has changed from one which views women who succeed in traditionally male occupations as unnatural to an aesthetic which is far more accepting (Powers, Rothman & Rothman, 2003, p. 268).

Powers and Rothman argue against the thesis…. [read more]


Real Cool Killers: Evaluating Essay

… After the cops leave Granny's house, Sheik demands her to strip tease for him, which she does, much to the dismay of Sissie.

Sheik tells her "Come on, baby, strip" and she does (Himes 2011). Sugartit and Sissie are later the objects of a hostage situation, where Sheik threatens Sugartit in order to get the police off of his back. However, her family -- Coffin Ed -- comes to her rescue and saves her from being violated. In many ways, this is a savoir of an entire generation. Yet, it is at the hands of a man, and not Sugartit herself. Coffin Ed pulls her out of the situation, potentially ending her oppression; but, at the same time that is not necessarily genuine because it…. [read more]


Simone De Beauvoir Quote False Essay

… Working women do not have wives at home to manage the household, and now neither do men. Some people insist that men and women will never reach such a social consensus, due to their extremely divergent natures. Others continue to regard the social stage as an exclusively masculine preoccupation, and the household scene as purely feminine territory. Though there is no point in denying the obvious challenges, men and women have to unite in striving for a better human condition, simply because they both belong to it.

In regard to women's influence and added-up potential to produce large-scale change, it can be asserted that they have far more political power than they realize. To name an important example, women elected Bill Clinton as president of…. [read more]


Sexuality and Self-Image Term Paper

… Sexuality and Self-Image: Women in Eastern Asia and the United States

While sexuality has been a widely accepted topic of research, published material, and the media in America for many decades, in parts of Asia open discussions of sexuality have only recently gained concession among the general public (Micollier, 2003). This was partly due to Communist restrictions in countries such as China and Korea; it is also changing as a result of the worldwide, vast communication network provided by the Internet (Yuxin, Sik-Ying Ho, & Man Lun, 2007). As a result of this new explosion of communication and research, major changes are taking place among women in Eastern Asia, as compared to the United States, with regard to self-image and sexuality. As it is impossible…. [read more]


Updike's Aandp Sammy's Muses Essay

… While Sammy ultimately appreciates their boldness of character and their apparent refusal to conform to social convention, he bases his initial perceptions based on their appearance. By fixating on the girls' physical appearance, Sammy objectifies the girls Sammy explains, "The one that caught my eye first was the one in the plaid green two-piece. She was a chunky kid, with a good tan and a sweet broad soft-looking can with those two crescents of white just under it, where the sun never seems to hit, at the top of the backs of her legs" (Updike). After correcting a mistake incurred by being distracted by the first girl, Sammy proceeds to objectify the other two girls and states,

There was this chunky one, with the two-piece…. [read more]


Pornography: Women Are No Longer the Oppressed Victims Research Paper

… An article in the Australian publication Mamamia.com, depicts some model dummies in American Apparel boutiques that are exploitative and actually nasty, or as Patty Huntington writes, one "squatting store mannequin who was flashing rather a lot of va-jay-jay" (Freedman, 2010). A person walking past this boutique in Australia would see a mannequin's legs spread far enough apart to view the panties. Another photo presented in the Freedman article shows a fashion model with legs spread far apart with the words, "Now Open"; this is clearly evidence that pornography has hit the mainstream, and advertisers are taking risks by using women in very controversial scenes.

However, not all readers of mamamia.com were offended by the pictures of female mannequins with legs spread wide open. "Jeremy Harding"…. [read more]


Price Beauty? Term Paper

… These ideas provide an excellent overview of that Age's understanding of the subject. In the second edition of his Enquiry (1759),

Burke addressed the idea of Beauty, by which he meant "that quality or those qualities in bodies by which they cause love, or some passion similar to it." Burke's goal of identifying the physiological relationship between external objects and their emotional apprehension is most apparent in Part Four [of the Enquiry], where he hoped to "discover what affections of the mind produce certain emotions of the body; and what distinct feelings and qualities of body shall produce certain determinate passions in the mind."

Physical beauty, therefore, was seen as inspiring an emotional response; specifically a feeling of love and affection on the part of…. [read more]


Waste Land French Lieutenant Essay

… Waste Land French Lieutenant

The Waste Land and the French Lieutenant as Exemplary Modernist Texts

Modernism and Post-Modernism are considered the dominant literary movements of the twentieth century, with Post-Modernism continuing into our own century. Each was an artistic movement representing a clear break with the past. Their literary components were especially unique, revealing the myriad unexplored forms that literature could take.

Although famous, these movements are difficult to define because their canons are composed of highly unconventional works, escaping easy categorization. Both movements are impossible to define through common features alone. Therefore, classifying a text, such as the Wasteland or the French Lieutenant's Woman, as Modernist or Post-Modernist, involves much more than identifying features off of a checklist.

The terms Modernist and Post-Modernist cannot…. [read more]


Gender, Race, and Sexual Orientation? Essay

… " Because we live in a culture where violence against women is condoned and normalized, there is widespread silence about the nature of this crime. Women are seen as natural victims; males as perpetrators. When women are victimized, it is seen as a condition intrinsic to the female gender and when men are violent it is ignored and tacitly tolerated. Katz argues that men must act to challenge sexist language rather than ignore it.

Q5. Who does Katz say we need to be holding accountable as leaders on the issues of violence against women and why?

Adult men: while adolescent boys should certainly speak out it is incumbent upon men in positions of power to set the tone in the military, business, sports, and other…. [read more]


Analyzing Advertising Term Paper

… ¶ … Advertising

The Honeycomb Case

Advertising contributes to the devolution of human civilization by contributing to the devolution of humans themselves, from homo sapiens to consumo sapiens. The ad in question, one for Honeycomb, does this by objectifying a female, relegating her to the status of a consumable item, and demonstrating that what happiness she enjoys she owes to her consumption of the product and its merchandising in as many ways as possible. So, when Pozner (p. 52) observes regarding Josie and the *****cats, "Josie updates its perky, cartoon rockers as jiggly, giggly girl-band members who...become unsuspecting pawns in a plot to transform America's youth into mindless, shopaholic drones," as ridiculous as this sounds, it is not so very far from what advertisers are…. [read more]


Phenomenological Sociology Term Paper

… ¶ … sociology [...] specific readings and their concepts, linkages, and a summary of the text. Phenomenological sociology literally looks at how we are in the world - how we interact with the world and how we view it. The study also expects students to question their views and ideas, "suspend" their preconceived notions, and look at the world from a fresh point-of-view, like that of a child or a newcomer to that particular society.

A summary of the section on "Feminist Theory" by the textbook author and the writings by Dorothy Smith follows. Because phenomenological sociology questions established patterns and behaviors, it is a natural study for oppressed groups, such as women, and Smith delves into this in her discussion of "Feminist Theory." The…. [read more]


Anime/Manga Readings Sh-Nen and Shojo Essay

… In this manner, the aspect of "cuteness" came about, perhaps starting within the language and writing of the Japanese youth, and moving to various aspects of the consumer industry. Cuteness infiltrated the language barrier, where words became simplified and rounded off to portray the Japanese youth of talking. From here on out, businesses began to market cute goods: from Sanrio's stationery and brand designs such as Hello Kitty to child-like clothes filled with frills, puffed sleeves, and ribbons to cakes and sweets and other confectionery often connected to children. Pretty soon even people such as actors, pop idols, and writers have grown to accept the cute culture. This apparent embrasure of self-gratification has troubled the conservative Japanese faction mostly out of the lack of maturity…. [read more]


Social Contracts: Media Articulation Annotated Bibliography

… 174). Moreover, shifts in the popular perception of same-sex marriages will likely be reflected in the content of mainstream media coverage. For instance, Holz-Ivory et al. add that, "When these groups finally do attain visibility, their representation will reflect the biases and interests of those elites who define the public agenda" (2008, p. 174). Just as the gay and lesbian community has used high-profile events such as parades to heighten community awareness, there is a growing recognition among proponents of same-sex marriage that the mainstream media is a key strategic device to gaining support from the "straight" American public. For instance, according to Landau, "Countless communication scholars argue that visibility in mass media is an important goal of the gay and lesbian movement because some…. [read more]


Sexism in Video Games Essay

… Even more alarming than the fact that the male character can kill the prostitute for points is the manner in which he can do so. The player can choose from beating the prostitute to death with a golf club, shooting her, and even kicking her in the crotch until she bleeds to death (Dill, "Media Violence" p.4). There have been some arguments suggesting that GTA is not sexist, it is depicting a criminal lifestyle and those actions are criminal. However, there is no chance for a player to be the female prostitute, who, instead of being murdered at the end of the transaction, rolls the John and takes all of his money.

The above discussion makes it clear that a gamer can find women in…. [read more]


Psychological the Most Creative Person Term Paper

… Psychological

The most creative person I know is my friend, Clinton. He is a graphic artist but also does some prop design and animation. His work style is very different than that of my less creative friends. He is very deliberate in his actions. When he gets an idea about some project, he will research and prepare before he starts anything. He loves to brainstorm about projects and write down different ideas - he calls it "blue skying." He will He has the ability to look at a problem and see it from many different angles and with many different solutions. He has the ability to move forward in whatever project he is working on with a lot of confidence and very little concern regarding…. [read more]


Politics of Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes Lysistrata Term Paper

… Gender and Sexuality

New Criticism: Gender and Sexuality in Aristophanes' Lysistrata

Aristophanes' Lysistrata is one of the eleven plays penned by the playwright that has survived over time. The original performance of this production occurred in classical Athens reportedly in 411 BC

Lysistrata is considered a comedy; an account of one woman's unique goal and desire to end the Peloponnesian War. During the course of the play, Lysistrata is able to persuade the women of Greece to withhold any form of sexual satisfaction from their lovers and husbands as a tool designed to force the men to negotiate peace

This suggested strategy, however, incites the battle between the men and women. Because of the use of sex, issues raised with regard to gender, and addressing…. [read more]


Pornography There Are a Number of Issues Research Paper

… ¶ … Pornography

There are a number of issues surrounding the issue of pornography. First and foremost, though, is the definition of obscenity and/or pornography and how it has evolved over the years. Legally, obscene is a term that describes the expression of actions, words or images that tend to offend the prevalent sexual morality of the standards within the respective community and time period. This complexity is multidimensional in scope -- what is pornography in one community may be art in another (e.g. Robert Mapplethorpe, etc.). Too, technological improvements have changed the manner in which pornography is viewed and delivered, making it a more private and accessible issue via laptops, smartphones, and tablets. Too, there is no such thing as "typical pornography." Materials may…. [read more]


Lifespan Developmental Psychology Term Paper

… Sexual Addiction results from an abuse of the natural sex drive that each person is born with. The abuse can start at any time in life and then progresses until it becomes a compulsion that the sexually addicted person cannot cope with. The sexual addiction eventually affects every part of the person's life, including self-respect, relationships with family and friends, and finances and career. It is a fix that the sexually addicted person will do just about anything to get, and usually hurt themselves in the process. Sexual addiction is a disease and nothing fun or romantic depicted in the movies is true.

For approximately 3-6% of the population (Gold, 1998, p. 367) the concept of sex brings forward feelings of dread, neglect, guilt, and…. [read more]


Dream Content as Therapy: Ego vs. Repression Dissertation

… For example: a parent has repeating nightmares, and the child "dreams his dreams " because the child is in a psychic resonance with the parent. The child's dreams end when the parent's does. Four, it might be a repetition of a past traumatic event in current lifetime. For example: a person might dream of a recent rape, a childhood assault or a wartime battle. This type of nightmare is so deeply etched in the psyche that it can require heavy use of behavioral dream-work techniques to modify the content and emotional intensity.



A fifth factor could be that the dream is a depiction of a past or probable life. For example: a client might dream the last events prior to a violent…. [read more]


Gender and the Fashion Industry: Blaming Gay Term Paper

… Gender and the Fashion Industry: Blaming Gay Men for the Emaciation of Women

One of the most recent controversies particular to the fashion industry that has spilled over into the larger media conversation about female beauty is the shrinking BMI (Body Mass Index) of fashion models. Some major fashion shows, most notably the 2006 show in Spain, have attempted to instate a cut-off BMI of 18.5 for the fashion models exhibiting designer's clothing. However, the way that this issue has been phrased in the media has proved troubling. Many media sources, such as one blog called 'Feminine Beauty' have targeted, not commercial or cultural pressures that encourage women to tailor their bodies to fit the image of the moment -- whether that be fat or…. [read more]


Sexual Freedom and Adolescent Rebellion Essay

… They likely believe that their son should do and say whatever it takes to hold a job, no matter how bad. "Sammy, you don't want to do this to your Mom and Dad," says Lengel. The fact that his act is one of personal rebellion is rooted in Sammy's language when he bridles at Lengel's statement that the girls need to follow store 'policy. "Policy is what the kingpins want." Sammy is frustrated with the regimentation of a life based upon rules and wants 'out' -- the girls are likely more of an excuse and a motivator, rather than the 'cause' of his actions, in contrast to what his parents seem to think.

However, as liberated as Sammy may regard himself, he is still a…. [read more]

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