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Compare and Contrast 3 Philosophical Works Term Paper

… Social Contract

Jean Jacques Rousseau's work 'Social Contract' occupies a very significant place in the political discourse of 19th century France. It did not present something very new or different than previously held beliefs but definitely encompassed some original concepts including the idea of general will and the elusive lawgiver. Rousseau's rejection of social contract was grounded in the premise that by contracting with a man or assembly of men, individuals are forced to part with some of their natural liberty. In other words while he knew that freedom was compromised to an extent with social contracts were entered into, but he maintained that the relinquished freedom should be social freedom and not natural freedom. Those who argue that Rousseau was against social contract theory…. [read more]

3 Nursing Theories: Compare and Contrast Essay

… Nurses could provide additional resources to help with the situation. Communication and trust is of great relevance for the patient and the nurse. This is more so the case when it comes to goal setting. Nurses can set the relevant goals using King’s theory. The goal of smoking cessation should be based on capabilities, the situation, and limitations. The patient should be involved in the decision making process, with the nurse seeking to empower the patient so as to enhance sense of self and ability to cope. The goal of attainment should be ongoing, with the patient accepting to attend weekly support engagements. According to King, goals can be attained if carried out effectively. Setting smoking cessation goals lead to the improvement of health and…. [read more]

Criminological Theories Philosophical Approaches Essay

… Specifically, social control theory postulates that the reason people do not commit crimes are because of their investments in social institutions and the benefits they receive from being a member of various social and vocational organizations. There is a calculation of benefits and rewards, when deciding whether to lead a law-abiding life or a life of crime. Someone who decides to obey the law has decided that the benefits he or she receives from a legitimate job and social approbation are greater than those derived from criminal activity. In contrast, someone who decides to become a criminal is not receiving any benefits from being a member of legitimate society, and thus instead chooses a criminal path.

The differing views of these philosophies also affect the…. [read more]

Comparative Book Review Stephanie Mckenzie the Black Book Review

… Comparative Book Review
Stephanie Mckenzie
The Black Experience
November 22,2009

The Black Experience
The issue of race in the United States is a deeply complex morass of
political, economic, psychological and cultural impressions all tangled
together by a history of deep hatred and oppression. Thus, the fact that
an African American man was elected to the presidency in 2008 is a
critically important moment in American history and one that appears as a
sudden departure from centuries of inequality. However it is more accurate
to contend that this moment came about neither suddenly nor with the
totality of impact suggested. Instead, the texts of Gwen Ifill (2009) and
Alex Haley (1964) both proceed from the perspective that the struggle for
racial equality in the…. [read more]

Religious Ethics in Comparison Dissertation

… For the second Precept ("…would you sell an employer's secret to a competing company?") men and women both indicated they would take the money and sell out their employer. Men and women both said they would violate the third Precept ("…would you leave your girl/boyfriend or separate from your spouse?") and they would also take the money by going against the 4th Precept ("…would you falsify a report saying a client was a good risk when he wasn't?"). But men were more likely to agree with the 5th Precept ("…would you drink a bottle of whiskey every day for a year?"). If there was a similar study of Christians or Muslims one could fairly compare those two denominations with this Buddhist investigation, but those studies…. [read more]

Psychological Work of John Essay

… Each sentence is just part of "…a behavior chain, each element of which provides a conditional stimulus for the production of the succeeding element," Skinner explained (quoted in Northern Illinois University's website- In fact the probability of a verbal response (using Skinner's stimulus-response theory) was based on four components: "reinforcement, stimulus control, deprivation, and aversive stimulation" (

Contrasting Approaches

Skinner discovered that "…a certain model behavior could be caused by repeatedly rewarding spontaneous behavior that is close to the model or punishing behavior that is unlike the model," Christian Kuhn explains (Kuhn, 2007, p. 5). The concept that worked best for Skinner -- reinforcement, whether it is positive or negative -- is quite different from the "classical approach" of Watson, Kuhn explains. In fact…. [read more]

I Ching Classical Understand Research Paper

… The lines themselves are based on the principal of yin and yang, as has already been mentioned.

I Ching from the point-of-view of Aleister Crowley:

In the West there has been a limited interest towards the Oriental philosophy, and "there remain entrenched Eurocentric attitudes which tend to marginalize the influence of Eastern thought on the West." However, the exception has been Aleister Crowley, who created his own religion under the banner of A*A* or Argentum Astrum. The religion and the very figure of Aleister Crowley have been surrounded by undeserved controversy, which is often the result of a lack of understanding of this work. From an analytical point-of-view, it can be claimed the teachings and the religion which he preached was very human centric approach.…. [read more]

Socrates and Virtue Comparing Essay

… Socrates also equates virtue with love. For the pagan Greeks, there was eros (erotic or sexual love), agape (spiritual love), and phileos (a kind of platonic, friendly love). Plato set down in writing the wisdom of his teacher Socrates. Socrates posed many questions to the Athenians of his day, not the least of which concerned the question of how to live the best possible life. Of all Plato's writings, the Symposium addresses this question in the most unique (and humorous) way. One may gauge the seriousness of Plato's Symposium from the title itself, which means literally "drinking party." Of course, like all drinking parties there is bound to be absurdity mixed with philosophy -- but the overall mood is light and the atmosphere celebratory. For…. [read more]

Pop Culture- Compare and Contrast Essay

… Plato takes a much more direct approach at addressing this issue, as he appears to be interested in condemning society as a whole for allowing such things to happen in the first place. His portrayal of individuals who are bound primarily by their ignorance is meant to emphasize the degree to which social values can actually influence people to fight any kind of change because of their tendency to stay in their comfort zones.

Second comparison and contrast point -- The masses are addicted to fiction

Del Toro and Hogan relate to vampires as being proof that people are created in a way that encourages them to believe or to appreciate fictional stories. Society keeps stories (especially intriguing stories) alive and even long after they…. [read more]

Positivism vs. Interpretivism Debate Epistemology Essay

… The first section of their paper is a discussion of how an interdisciplinary approach and perspective is more viable as a strategy. The graphic representation of their framework is contingent on the use and application of multiple theories, ideas, concepts, etc. from a variety of thinkers. Their approach is more integrative and holistic.

Ashforth and Humphrey argue for the use of labeling theory which they explain as the following:

An emerging theme in organizational behavior is that organizations are interpretive structures or frameworks…To act, an organizational member must come to some under-standing of what various social objects-actions, individuals, events, groups, decisions, structures-mean within the organizational context. However, given the inherent ambiguity and multiple causes and forces acting on many social objects, meaning is elusive. Accordingly,…. [read more]

Tom Shulich ("Coltishhum") a Comparative Chapter

… 40).

Thus, from the perspective of the bottom rung of Indian society, it is Lapierre's contention that the self/other dichotomy if not fully eradicated, at least becomes practically irrelevant. Lapierre's slum dwellers refuse to entertain invidious distinctions between self and other. The familiar as well as the stranger, the healthy and the diseased, the old and the young -- all are taken in and cared for in one big, harmonious community of the urban poor. In a society of unfortunates who all must struggle simply to survive against great odds, no one is rejected "marginal." The denizens of Calcutta's slums, Lapierre tells us, "had reconstructed the life of their villages in urban exile" (p. 41).

Stephan Kovalski, an expatriate Polish priest, is the main European…. [read more]

Comparison Between Mohism and Neo-Confucianism Zhu XI or Wang Yangming Research Paper

… Mohism and Neo-Confucianism

The interest in culture and psychological doctrines the paper analysis is aimed at comparisons and contrast of the Mohism and Neo- Confucius. The aspects ranging from both ancient and the current human nature are addressed, in the form of discussion. The current conditions that human beings experience is the other factor that has been emphasized on, using details. The human current situations and positions, and what lead to the situations, is also discussed. Where necessary, a Socratic myth will be spotted, and its effect on problem solving will be determined. The essay is about the history of China, and the best philosophers it has ever had, and how some of these philosophies are used up to the present day. The doctrines, which…. [read more]

Self-Reflection the Field of Social Creative Writing

… At times the story is very inspirational, and provides practical guidance as well, to accomplish a useful and entertaining piece of literature that can be helped in a social workers' environment.

Comparison of the Two Works

Both of these two books have useful potential and provide interesting insight towards the many troubling issues associated with poverty and social work's attempts at alleviating these strains. Social work is distinguished from other helping professions and social science disciplines by its primary concern with poverty and these firsthand accounts contribute greatly to the voices that need to be heard on the subject.

Shipler's work is useful in identifying problems but does not present many solutions to help his cause. As a result, his work becomes over-emotional and too…. [read more]

Music Since 1900 Essay

… My work, because of these influences, has taken a much greater interest in the past than it has previously. Whereas before, I felt compelled to break with the past, assert new definitions, new techniques, much like a Kandinsky or Schoenberg, after listening to Barber's Adagio for Strings or, especially, Ives' Unanswered Question (in conjunction with Malick's beautifully constructed Thin Red Line), I've striven to develop a taste for the classics -- for Bach, Brahms, Mozart and Beethoven. I've striven to reflect their discipline in my own work. I cannot be the fractured poet that Eliot represents or the fractured musician that Ives represents -- but I can use them both to understand the world around me and how it has shaped me without my knowing…. [read more]

Utilitarianism and Plato Philosophy Essay

… Those who violate the rules of that society must only do so within certain parameters, as proven exceptions of the established rules. In an ideal version of society, all people would be satisfied with the legislation put in place by those in authority. As that is wholly unlikely, the ideal utilitarian world is unlikely to be achieved.

The ideal form of governance of a people, according to Plato, would be based on the human body because the principles of government would be based on the needs of the human soul (Plato, 2009). Individuality would give way to majority need and there would not be infighting or concern for personal political power. He wished that people would think uniquely and would question ultimate and unchallenged authority.…. [read more]

Philosophy Nietzsche Often Identified Life Term Paper

… In exploring the extent and limits of human understanding, David Hume arrives at the conclusion that justification for many common beliefs about the "natural world" is impossible. In An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding, he writes,." is not reasoning which engages us to suppose the past resembling the future, and to expect similar effects from causes which are, to appearance, similar." Here Hume states his primary thesis about the so-called "law of cause and effect" -- it does not have a justification through deductive reasoning or a demonstrative argument. Therefore, skepticism regarding natural phenomena, accompanied by a practical understanding of the apparent causal chain in the universe, is the closest thing to justification that humans can have (Huwig 2001).

Concluding this exposition of perceptions, Hume advocates…. [read more]

Who Am I? Essay

… ¶ … philosophical questions and each of these three ways effect the conclusions of the philosopher's considerations in different ways. In short, a Platonic approach detaches the philosopher from physical existence, focusing solely on the realm of ideas, a Cartesian approach detaches the philosopher from the senses as a means of excluding all sources of doubt or confusion, and an analytical approach seeks to examine the very language which structures all human thought and culture. While each approach has its relative strengths and weaknesses and different answers to the same questions, examining each approach in detail reveals that the analytical approach to philosophical questions offers the most robust and relevant means of answering these questions, because it concerns itself with understanding the constituent parts of…. [read more]

Comparison and Contrast of the Philosophies of 3 Greek Philosophers and Alexander the Great Research Paper

… Their collective philosophies align with that of Alexander in his later years, especially when he met with the Brahmans. When he told them to ask them anything and they asked for immortality, Alexander admitted to the lack of power to grant it. He also acknowledged that the greatest achievements in this world mean nothing in the end because everything in this world is temporary. Being a student of Aristotle, Alexander was necessarily influenced by the Greek philosopher's teaching on the moral life and the emptiness of all worldly victory.


Asirvathan, Sulochana R.2014. "Alexander the Philosopher in the Greco-Roman, Persian

and Arabic Traditions." Academia. 311-326. Retrieved on June 29, 2014 from

Crisp, Roger 2002. "Aristotle's ethics: how being good can make you happy." Richmond…. [read more]

Ethics Epistemology Religion Term Paper

… Religion

This work looks at the concept of religion by first explaining its definition. It argues about whether God really exists and takes the standpoint that He does exist. The argument of this paper is based on this thesis and addresses some of the issues associated with God. It describes two theories that express religion and picks the strongest theory for the rest of the work. It also looks at the controversial issues of God and science. It follows to discuss the nature of God and the conflicts that arise with His interaction with man. The work ends with a conclusion that summarizes the main points captured in the work.

There as many definitions of religion as there are people who try to define it.…. [read more]

Religion Comparison Religions in Ancient History: Similarities Essay

… Religion Comparison

Religions in Ancient History: Similarities and Differences

According to Smitha, biologists have dated the earth, as well as the sun, as 4.55 billion years old, a planet that was formed by the gravitational pull of different elements. Scientists claim that life began with two important acids -- DNA and RNA. After millions of years, what started as microorganisms evolved into humans. Smitha writes that homo sapiens first emerged 60 thousand years ago in Africa. Yet before scientists isolated what they credited with the beginning of the earth and humanity, religions provided the answer for them. In fact, as long as humans have been around, there has been religion. In the ancient world, religion played a major role from society to society, and many…. [read more]

Work Life Balance and Benefits Thesis

… Work vs. Life Balance

The research endeavor presented here concerns the relationship between the changing needs of the current generation of workers and the persistent need for effective work/life balance strategies and employing firms. The primary problem discussed in the research is the twofold issue: of employing companies failing to establish work/life balance strategies; or the failure of employing companies to evolve in these strategies according to the changing needs of Generation Y personnel. The literature review will center on the connections between changes in culture, technology and the global labor pool and the different needs of today's workers, particularly as these needs contrast traditional work/life balance strategies. The Literature Review section examines that which is meant by work/life balance; how this is successfully or…. [read more]

Nature in American Literature Term Paper

… The most poignant feature of transcendentalism is reflected in the belief that God is personally accessible outside the religious congregations, present in each individual and most notably in nature. This particular conviction led to the portrayal of an enthusiastic support for self-reliance and forsaking of traditional authority, Emerson's writings being clearly dominated by the image of man striving to attain personal communion with divinity, a rather bold approach compared to Jonathan Edwards' previous piety. By contrast, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow has a less abstract approach to nature, depicting it as a more tangible, visible phenomenon which has the quality of shaping character, thought and feeling patterns.

Defiance of religious control and social order was endemic among the artists of nineteenth century. Ralph Waldo Emerson, Edgar Allan…. [read more]

Personality Theories in Psychology Essay

… For Freud's patients, the goal of psychoanalysis was to help mitigate some of these feelings and reconcile some of the differences between the id and the superego. Of course, human beings were able to reconcile these competing differences before the advent of psychoanalysis. They did so in a number of ways, which Freud referred to as defense mechanisms. Defense mechanisms are subconscious ways that a person deals with the tension between the id and the superego. These defense mechanisms include: compensation, denial, displacement, fantasy, intellectualization, projection, rationalization, reaction formation, regression, repression, and sublimation (See generally Freud, 1989).

There are certainly numerous flaws in Freud's theory. First, he was working in a repressive time which did not allow him to focus more effort on uncovering the…. [read more]

Count Dracula and Hanibal Lector Thesis

… His physical strength was that of twenty men, and being immortal, he had become immune to conservative methods of attack. The only way to have the Count killed was by means of cutting his head off and then impaling his heart with a cross that was wooden. He really required no other type of sustenance but blood that was fresh, which had a revitalizing result on him. To recuperate his strengths he also requisite Transylvanian soil that was somewhere around him or close nearby.

Count Dracula had a way of defying gravity, being able to climb upside down surfaces that were vertical. He had power that was really hypnotic and clairvoyant capabilities; he could give a command to nighttime animals for instance wolves and rats.…. [read more]

Modernism, and How the Literature Term Paper

… Both writers are products of minority race and their race and experiences influenced their writing. Morrison was African-American. Her books, famously The Bluest Eye, Sula, Song of Solomon and Beloved, deal with the struggles of growing up debased and disadvantaged in a humiliated sector of America. The novels detail the characters' travails as victims of child molestation; outcasts of society due to differences in race and gender; ravages of slavery (e.g. "Beloved"); and the difficulty of being different ("Sula"). Roth, on the other hand, filled his books (that include Goodbye, Columbus, Portnoy's Complaint, and Everyman) with his Jewish experience; Portnoy's Complaint deals with Jewish identity in America whilst Everyman describes the hardships of growing old in America.

Morrison deals with feminism and the experiences of…. [read more]

Statues Ancient Greece Essay

… There remains a line along the neck showing where the two pieces were put together.

Unlike the straight and stoic position of the kourus the "Kritian Boy" statue is not posed in a straight line. According to art historians, "The muscular and skeletal structure are depicted with unforced life-like accuracy, with the rib cage naturally expanded as if in the act of breathing, with a relaxed attitude and hips which are distinctly narrower" (Kritios). Instead, the figure is molded so that the weight is predominantly on the left leg of the statue. Modulating the weight creates the impression that the boy is tilting his hips and swaying his spine slightly. The right leg of the "Kritian Boy" is highly detailed, showing the figure to be…. [read more]

Medieval Nominalism From Abelard to Ockham Term Paper

… Nominalism: Abelard and Ockham

Philosophical nominalism can be traced back as far as Aristotle. In contrast to Platonism, which is founded upon the belief in the existence of universal abstractions such as Truth and Beauty, philosophical nominalism reflects the idea that "only individual objects have real existence" (Rausch 2010). Platonism, and its medieval incarnation, Neo-Platonism, emphasizes deductive reasoning, while the nominalist Aristotle has been called the founder of the scientific method and empirical observation. For a nominalist, "the name 'circle' is applied to things that are round and is thus a general designation; but no concrete identity with a separate essence of roundness exists corresponding to the name. Realism suggests that there are universals with a real and independent existence "prior to and apart from…. [read more]

Classical Symphony Music Essay

… Most musical scholars believe that the Italian Overture, popular because of the new rage for opera, used a structure of three contrasting movements -- fast, slow, fast, and was the forerunner of the symphony. Instead of being part of an opera or other piece, the classical symphony was meant to stand alone as a concert performance, with themes and variations that were not necessarily tied to a specific story. The first symphonies were sometimes used as an entr'acte and followed the three movement style. Haydn and Mozart, in fact, composed their earlier symphonies in this style, but allowed them to evolve to a four movement work: 1) opening sonata or allegro; 2) slow movement or adagio; 3) minuet or trio, the scherzo; and 4) an…. [read more]

Plato and Kant Plato's Life Term Paper

… It is not incidental that both Plato and Kant accorded the discernible world as the good and the moral. They as per their thought portrayed the same ultimate existence as life's oneness in the own accord. At the constraint of human thinking, both of these intrude past the central features of the Ultimate reality as moral. Anyhow, both Plato and Kant did not draw out the ontological constitution of the Good. They did not solidly pinpoint what the virtue is in accordance of primitive movement of life. Just like the Plato's the Good has not solid content, so Kant's definite significance is just an official definition of morality. They did not pinpoint the radical structure of the good and the evil in accordance of life's…. [read more]

Ancient History Comparison and Contrast Term Paper

… It was only published because a friend of his thought that is was an important piece of work despite Virgil's unhappiness with it.

While Virgil did borrow quite a bit of literary style from Homer, he didn't plagiarize him. Among other things, he changed the value system in his poem. In The Iliad, Homer paints a picture of individual heroism when he talks about Achilles. This was perfectly fine for the Greeks, but would have been unheard of for the Romans, who thought their leaders should live according to a more civilized social ideal.

The Romans would have thought that Achilles was conceited and stubborn for not using a whole group of people who would have then all been heroes. He would have been accused…. [read more]

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