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Comparison of Models Essay

… However, this is not always the case. Rogers view on abnormal behavior reflects his overall view of the human condition. When parents or other significant others provide positive regard that is conditional (no strings) as opposed to being unconditional, the person will introject these standards and make them their own. Rogers termed these standards "conditions of worth" such as "I must be perfect" or "everyone must like me" etc. (Rogers, 1959). The person's ideal self-concept becomes based on these standards, which disrupt what Rogers termed "organismic valuing process," which is a constant flowing process where personal experience is correctly symbolized and assigned value in a manner that provides for the most advantageous enhancement of the self (Rogers, 1959). Our need for positive self-regard leads us…. [read more]

Psychotherapy Theories and Practice Essay

… One of the more common uses of counseling is to address depression in both children and adults. According to the National Institute of Mental Health (NIH), mental disorders are common in the United States and internationally at an estimated rate of 26.2% of Americans ages 18 and older -- about one in four adults -- suffer from a diagnosable mental disorder in a given year (NIH, N.d.). There are a multitude of different methods and techniques that are used to treat depression. The most common methods in most advanced countries include psychotherapy, counseling and medication or some combination of the three. The rates of depression among the population have expanded quite rapidly in the last couple of decades; especially in industrialized countries. The lifetime risk…. [read more]

Comparison of Three Models of Psychotherapy Thesis

… Psychotherapy

Social Work According to Three Models of Psychotherapy:

Cognitive Therapy, Dialectical Behavior Therapy and Behavior Therapy

Clinical psychology is a field constructed on the intent to treat disorders and dysfunctions and to promote mental health and stability in its subject. Therefore, it is centered on the processes of diagnosis and therapy, with the various disorders to which individuals are subject falling under a set of classifications discussed in greater detail in the following account. However, this is a process which cannot be pursued without the achievement of a sound and balanced patient/counselor relationship. Indeed, this relationship is at the center of the treatment process for the patient and in many ways, the success or stasis of treatment will depend on this relationship. The relationship…. [read more]

Psychotherapy Is a Treatment Term Paper

… Psychotherapy is a treatment in which a client expresses his thoughts, feelings, actions and relationships to a skilled professional called Psychotherapist. The Psychotherapist assesses the expressions of the client to identify problem areas and recommends changes that are needed to enhance psychological adjustment that leads to happiness in life. In Psychotherapy, the client understands the need for change and the method to change that will result in better life adjustment and happiness. Psychotherapy can take place in following stages: to identify life adjustment problems by the client with the help of Psychotherapist through self-appraisal; to identify the root causes for these problems; to construct a plan for change to settle the problems; to assist in ensuring the planned changes takes place by way of education,…. [read more]

Compare and Contrast Psychoanalytic, Behavior, and Existential Theories Research Paper

… Psychology Models

Since Sigmund Freud first introduced his psychoanalytic theory, numerous other theoretical models of psychopathology have been suggested with certain similarities and differences. They all share the same fundamental beliefs that each person is born with certain innate tendencies and psychological functions; that everyone's environment contributes to the type of person one becomes; that as a result of some interaction of these tendencies and environmental factors and other issues people develop with some modes of functioning that are more preferable than others; that once developed, a person can develop further and change direction to a more preferable way of functioning and an interpersonal process called counseling can facilitate that change (Fall, Holden, & Marquis, 2004). However, beyond these basics, each of these theories, or…. [read more]

Group Psychotherapy Term Paper

… Psychotherapy

Group psychotherapy also referred to as "group therapy" is when one or more psychotherapists treat a small number of patients together as a group. The term "group psychotherapy" can refer to any kind of group environment, whether it is an interpersonal type of therapy or cognitive behavioral therapy -- among other types of therapy not mentioned. The whole point of group therapy is that the group context is a group process, employed as a way to change or develop, explore and examine, the interpersonal relationships within that specific group. There are broad concepts of group therapy that can include any therapeutic process in a group -- such as support discussions and training groups, as well as skill training groups -- among others. Group therapy…. [read more]

Psychodynamic Model, the Model's Developmental Essay

… The behaviors result in the formation of the personality, and the personality takes years to form.

Blaikie (2009) states that the cognitive behavioral model facilitates the understanding of the personality. It classifies situations based on the degrees of control. Through this, an individual is aware of the quantity of control over their circumstances. The model recommends an analysis of other real life situations in depression cases. The depressed make a comparison of their situation to that of others in similar situations. The ideas in the model recommend a changing on one's perspectives in order to change the situation. Before making any choices, an individual should pause for the levels of anxiety to lower. This clears the mind and offers a positive perception of the situation.…. [read more]

Psycho-Educational Models of Family Therapy Research Paper

… Hence, the individual must differentiate between the intellectual self and the emotional self; he focuses on how the recognition of the self must occur first before differentiation can take place. This also engages other separations like from parents, women, friends, etc. (taken from chapter 8).

Triangles (Brief summary)

Bowen asserts that the triangles are used as a 3-person relationship structure that embodies the expansive emotional structures and is usually structured whereby two persons emotionally involved or in a problematic emotional state are put in a controlled environment using a third person as the interventionist. The third person then serves as the source of reason and one who finds common ground and serves as the link that helps separate the intellect and the emotions (taken from…. [read more]

Group Addiction TX Theory Selection Term Paper

… For strict behaviorists addiction or compulsion are simply a terms for an operantly conditioned behavior. Other compulsive behaviors follow the same line of reasoning. The inability to refrain from using a drug or engaging in a compulsion merely indicates that a sufficient history of reinforcement has been acquired to drive a high rate of the behavior. Therefore, physical dependence, as in the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic criteria, is neither sufficient nor necessary to result in a diagnosis of an addiction (American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2000). Physical dependence is just a result of the overuse of certain drugs according to this view (McAuliffe & Gordon, 1980).

Behaviorists offer many different techniques that can applied to group counseling. Typically contingency management (CM) techniques are applicable behavioral for group counseling…. [read more]

Therapeutic Models Psychodynamic and Person-Centered Essay

… Hence, the client-centered therapist is expected to maintain a positive tone and general attitude towards the client despite the personal disliking about client's various actions.

Because the person-centered counselor puts so much focus on genuine and on being led by the client, they therapist tend to ignore the boundaries of time and technique as would a psychodynamic therapist. If they judged it appropriate, a person-centered counselor might diverge considerably from orthodox counseling techniques. Another important concept attached to this therapy is Empathy which means understanding what the client means and what he or she is going through. This entails therapist's ability to understanding what the client means and has gone through or going through (by having an accurate estimation) by being sensitive to client's feelings…. [read more]

Non-Drug or Supplement Treatments for Depression Compared With Prozac for Effectiveness Research Paper

… Prozac

Non-drug or supplement treatments for depression compared with Prozac for effectiveness

There are a number of experts who believe that an imbalance in an individual's neurotransmitters is the root cause of depression and clinical depression. Prozac is described as being affective in addressing this mental health condition by preventing the reuptake of serotonin, a neurotransmitter, by nerve cells after the substance has been naturally released in an individual's system. Uptake is considered an important mechanism in removing released neurotransmitters and ending their actions on connected or adjacent nerves. As such, the diminished uptake caused by the introduction of Prozac or flouxetine increases available serotonin that then stimulates nerve cells in the brain. Prozac has been approved by the Federal Drug Administration as a medication…. [read more]

Human Nature Allows a Person Essay

… The psychodynamic therapy can also be applied to investigate intellectual disabilities in addition to personality and behavioral issues by exploring the role of social stigmatization and social rejection on the reinforcement of such disabilities (Whitehouse et al. 2006).

The psychodynamic therapy supports my description of functional human behavior as being demonstrated through an independent individual while dysfunctional behavior being reflected in low self-esteem and dependence on others. It also supports the idea that human nature and personality are shaped by early childhood experiences and that dysfunctional behavior can be overcome by strengthening the sense of self-awareness and self-control.

Evaluation of Redecision Therapy

Redecision therapy is based on the assumption that problems of dysfunctional human personalities are rooted in decisions taken by the unconscious part of…. [read more]

Comparison: Counseling vs. Life Coaching Research Proposal

… This could be in form of getting new jobs or switching career paths. Continuous learning and personal renewal could be essential in adjusting to the changes, and each person is responsible for devising their curriculum. These challenges face individuals, teams, and organizations.

This is where the life coach comes in. The coach is a teacher, and whether it is an individual, a client or a company, the relationship is usually deeper than that. Their function is to relate particular goals to the whole plan created in close consideration with the client's core values. The coach helps the client see more options and resources that might be at their disposal, while guiding them through a learning process of managing change rather than fearing…. [read more]

Counselor Supervision PhD Model Answer

… Counselor Supervision

Counseling supervision represents the interaction between supervisor and supervisee in relation to the cultural issues. Counseling supervision seeks to evaluate the impact of cultural issues to the development of supervisor and supervisee in execution of their roles as qualified personnel. Contemporary world calls for the adoption of multicultural supervision competencies that would improve the quality of service delivery to clients (Ancis, 20101). Multicultural supervision competencies reflect the model through which counselors (supervisees) undergo extensive process of supervision from ideal qualified personnel in order to boost their competent in execution of their roles. The model focuses substantially on the influence of ethnicity or race thus diversity of culture among different members of the society. Counselors obtain effective and efficient support on how to address…. [read more]

Family Dynamics Essay

… Family Dynamics

Comparative Discussion on Family Therapy Models

Family therapy is a complex process. The strategy that is suited for one family may be wholly inappropriate for another. This is why a wide variance of therapeutic model remain in circulation today. The discussion here offers a concise introduction to three popular theoretical models. An evaluation of the Cognitive Behavioral Model, Attachment-Focused Family Therapy and Individual Therapy should be useful in demonstrating the practical distinctions driving different therapeutic approaches.


The Cognitive Behavioral model is designed to bring members of the family unit into direct contact with one another. This model relies heavily on the idea that our emotional predispositions are significantly attached to our relationships with other members of the family. However, the difference is…. [read more]

Family Therapy Models, Diagnosis Research Paper

… These patterns of interaction are necessary for the regular functioning of the family, even though the members do not realize they are part of this structure. Another key component in the Minuchin's model is the notion of subsystems. Families can be differentiated into subsystems based on generation, gender, and function, which are demarcated by interpersonal boundaries. When a therapist observes a family, they may realize that the structure that flows from those patterns of interactions is contained within a sub-substructure and these sub-structures interact within the whole system according to certain rules or boundaries (ibid, 240-247).

Systems or subsystems are created when two partners join with the intention of forming a family, this is the formal beginning of a new family unit. Nevertheless, the new…. [read more]

Tom Shulich ("Coltish Hum Research Paper

… The Therapist's Role

Behavior therapy assumes a learning model of psychopathology. The central idea of this type of therapy is that psychological distress results from maladaptive behaviors that one has learned and that these behaviors can be unlearned or replaced with new adaptive behaviors. In BT, the therapist plays the role first of diagnostician, determining what behaviors are the source of the problem, then as a teacher or coach who suggests exercises the patient is asked to practice in order to modify the behavior.

Cognitive therapy assumes a rational model of psychopathology. The patient has incorporated irrational or self-defeating beliefs that are in fact at odds with objective reality. They make their situation out worse than it actually is, if only they could think about…. [read more]

Psychoanalytic Theory and Behavioral Term Paper

… Classical conditioning is definitely a viable means for altering behavior and a range of methods exist that can foster such a change. "Originally known as behavior modification, this type of therapy is often referred to today as applied behavior analysis" (Cherry, 2013). One effective strategy within classical conditioning is a technique known as flooding. "This process involves exposing people to fear-invoking objects or situations intensely and rapidly. It is often used to treat phobias, anxiety, and other stress-related disorders. During the process, the individual is prevented from escaping or avoiding the situation" (Cherry, 2013). For instance, if a client is afraid of water/swimming gradual exposure to water in small steps can help minimize the fear. For example, the client can be forced to wade into…. [read more]

Behavior and Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Developing My Personal Style Term Paper

… Personal Counseling Theory

Traditional counseling theories have varied in their background, purpose, application, and treatment methods. Over this past semester, I have been exposed to a number of different counseling theories, psychotherapy systems, strategies and related skills. A synthesis of these different theories has enabled me to develop by own personal counseling style. Historically, both psychoanalytical and cognitive behavioral approaches have been among the most commonly used methods of treating various disorders, in areas as of great diversity. This paper will provide a synopsis of my own personal counseling style, the development of my own personal mission statement and its' effects, a comparative analysis of the established theory that most closely resembles my style, and a reflection of contemporary research involving this theory.

Review of…. [read more]

BP Disorder Bipolar Research Paper

… In the acute treatment phase the focus is on suppressing current symptoms and continues until the patient is considered to be in remission, which occurs when their symptoms have been significantly are reduced and controlled for a significant time period.

2. Continuation treatment is designed to prevent a reoccurrence of the symptoms from the current or from the same depressive or manic episode.

3. Maintenance treatment is designed to prevent a recurrence of symptoms after the last episode has been controlled.

There have been numerous studies that have demonstrated that when treated with medications the relapse rates for bipolar disorder are substantially reduced and the overall improvement of symptoms is quite substantial (e.g., Goldberg, 2004). For these reasons medications will continue to be the first-line…. [read more]

Mindful vs. Traditional Martial Arts Thesis

… , 2001). As the existing research is largely limited to teenagers who are beyond the prime window of opportunity for prevention or early intervention efforts, this study will focus on children age 8-12, where early connections may inoculate at-risk students and set them on a more favorable trajectory. Terrence Webster-Doyle (personal communication, July 1, 2011) illuminates that by effectively challenging the self-imposed limits of each child, students will quickly realize that they can accomplish much more than they ever thought possible. Essentially, this parallels the old adage that we are each our own worst enemy -- the biggest fight for each of us, regardless of age, is within.

Theoretical and Conceptual Framework

Mindfulness psychotherapies are considered the third wave of behavior therapy, preceded by cognitive…. [read more]

Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia Term Paper

… Treatment of Women Diagnosed With Dysthymia

This proposal for a clinical case study of the treatment of a woman diagnosed with dysthymia employs a cognitive behavioral approach to identifying effective treatment modalities for patients with depressive disorders. In cognitive behavioral sessions, psychotherapists seek to help a patient identify his or her harmful thinking patterns in order to develop better coping strategies and social skills. The focus of the research in this study is on how people in general think, behave, and communicate in the present rather than on their early childhood experiences.

Proposal for a Clinical Case Study Dissertation - Doctor of Psychology in Clinical Psychology

Chapter One. Introduction

Statement of the Problem



Chapter Two: Review of the Relevant Literature

Background and Overview…. [read more]

Nursing Theory Framework Attachment Term Paper

… The First Phase of Therapy

If the addictions turn out to be attempts of affect regulation by anxiously attached teenagers, as argued above, then attachment theory's therapeutic aim as a nurse to aid clients form safe attachments would need to be able to prove effective when it comes to the treatment of addictions. On the other hand, the first task of the nurse in working with an addict is to generate the volume for secure attachments (Malerstein, 2011). Before a significant association with a therapist can arise, the patient must end the relationship with the substance or behavior to which she or he is addicted. Mere logic and argument will seldom succeed in bringing an addict to a point of abstinence. As an alternative, addicts…. [read more]

Marriage and Family Therapy Supervision Models Term Paper

… ¶ … 21st century, the term marriage and family therapy (MFT) seems as if it was long available as a principle means of treatment. In the timeline of psychotherapy, however, it is relatively young. During its brief tenure, the field has undergone a number of changes that continue to this day. In fact, several experiential family therapy modalities are resulting in significant results in outcome studies. One of these newer couples therapies, developed by Susan Johnson and Leslie Greenberg, is called emotionally focused therapy (EFT). It is based on an attachment model of adult intimacy and addresses essential emotional responses and interactions to enhance relationships. In contrast to the traditional "emotion contrast therapy," EFT regards many unpleasant emotions as sources of useful information. Furthermore, EFT…. [read more]

Buddhist Psychology Term Paper

… Buddhist Psychology

Compared to Western Psychology, what are the characteristic features Buddhist approaches to the mind? To what extent can these fruitfully interact?

Psychologist Daniel Goleman sums up one of the central disparities in the different views of mind between Buddhism and Western thought. He states:

It seems that one of the biggest gaps that must be crossed between the Eastern and Western approaches to the mind is that the scientific method requires an objective third-person approach, whereas Buddhist practice is clearly a subjective first-person phenomenon.

Increasing use of Buddhist Practices in Psychotherapy)

Goleman makes a clear distinction between scientific thought and the idea of objectivity and Buddhist practice. This in effect means that the Western model of mind and reality is based on the…. [read more]

Childhood Abuse Effects Research Paper

… ¶ … Childhood Abuse

Effects of Childhood Abuse

What are the effects of childhood abuse on early adulthood forming relationships?

Summer- Assignment three- Intervention

Intervention description

Theory of change

Analysis of empirical literature

Child abuse has significant implications on adolescents forming relationships. Child abuse takes place in three known forms i.e. physical abuse, sexual abuse, and emotional abuse of children. The juvenile maltreatment results in several lifelong implications for the abused child. This paper is part of an extended study that included sections I and II. Section I entailed literature search and review of pertinent literature on the said topic. Section II involved 'problem formulation' whereby literature was accessed to put the issue of child abuse in context. This section III will present an empirical…. [read more]

Human Development in the Environment Term Paper

… ¶ … Asher Lev

Just as one can develop a sociological analysis of the development of a person in the environment in which he or she was raised and make certain judgments about what influenced that development and how, so can one do the same thing with a fictional character, assuming the author has provide sufficient data that can be used for this purpose. A novel that is detailed enough to make such an analysis and that also involves an interesting milieu in which the central character is raised is My Name Is Asher Lev by Potok (2003).

Lev is a fully developed character living in a community that is largely unfamiliar to most Americans, the Ladover Hassidic community in Brooklyn. This is a highly…. [read more]

Carl Rogers' Theory of Personality Essay

… For example, in his book, The Psychology of Intelligence, Piaget writes:

Every structure is to be thought of as a particular form of equilibrium, more or less stable within its restricted field and losing its stability on reaching the limits of the field. But these structures, forming different levels, are to be regarded as succeeding one another according to a law of development, such that each one brings about a more inclusive and stable equilibrium for the processes that emerge from the preceding level. (2001, p. 7)

Like Erikson and Rogers, though, Piaget has been criticized for his views, primarily for the stage-development aspects. In this regard, Harlow and his colleagues add that, "Though Piaget's theory has been subject to a number of criticisms, those…. [read more]

Components of Adlerian Therapy Term Paper

… ¶ … components of Adlerian Therapy, Psychoanalytic Therapy (including the modern theorists)

Adlerian Therapy

Key points of each theory

Humans are motivated through various factors which include social interests, struggle to achieve the goals and facing different challenges and dealing with different phases of life. Emphasis is made on the individual's capacity and positive traits to live in a society with cooperation. Every person has the ability to understand, influence and create events. Every person tends to develop a specific life style at a very early age which stays the same throughout the life.

Ideas unique to the theory

Radically and logically, Adlerian psychotherapy is the procedure of encouragement and motivation, which is centered in the sense of collective humanity and a conviction that there…. [read more]

Developmental Processes Term Paper

… " (nd, p.6)

Also importantly stated by Lam is the following: "Effective citizenship and productive work now require that we interact effectively using multiple languages, multiple Englishes, and communication patterns that more frequently cross cultural, community, and national boundaries. For literacy pedagogy to work productively with multiplicity and difference, there needs to be a re-direction or expansion of pedagogical focus from a heavy emphasis on the teaching of the standard version of the national language in the form of print literacy to the growing importance of cultivating the skills and orientation necessary for understanding and engaging with linguistic and cultural diversity in multiple representational media." (nd, p.7)

The work of Castel, et al. (2011) reports that the ability of the person to conduct selective encoding…. [read more]

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